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Find out more**Chapter 7: Mechanical Properties
**

Structure

Processing Properties Performance

Mechanical Properties Generally Pertain to How a Material

Responds to Forces. This Subject is Extremely Important to

Almost Every Engineer who is Using Materials or Designing

Structures.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 2

Stress

To Understand and Calculate the Effects of Forces, We Define a Parameter

Referred to as Stress (o).

In One Dimension, Stress is Defined as the Applied Force (F) (Which May

be Tensile or Compressive) Divided by the Area (A) Upon Which it Acts.

F

F

A

A

F

σ =

F

F

A

Eq. 7.1

Compressive Tensile

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 3

Units of Stress

The Units of Stress are the Same as Those of Pressure

English System:

• lbs/in

2

, Usually Abbreviated psi

• kilo-lbs/in

2

, Usually Abbreviated ksi (1 ksi = 1,000 lbs/in

2

)

Metric System:

• N/m

2

, Called a Pascal (Pa)

• Typical Stresses are in MegaPascals (MPa, 10

6

Pa) or GigaPascals

(GPa, 10

9

Pa)

Useful Conversion: 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 4

Engineering Stress vs. True Stress

During Deformation, the Area of a Material Subjected to a Force

Changes Constantly.

Engineering Stress is Stress Calculated Using the Original Area of a

Material. True Stress (o

T

) is Stress Calculated Using the “Real Time”

Area of a Material. At Small Deformations, These Stresses are Similar.

A

o

A

i

A

i

Denotes Instantaneous Area

During Deformation

T

i

F

σ

A

= Eq. 7.15

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 5

Strain

A

o

A

i

l

o

l

f

f o

o o

l l Δl

l l

÷

c = =

In One Dimension (Tension or Compression),

We Define Engineering Strain (Eq. 7.2) as:

To Quantify Deformation, or the Change in Shape of a Material Under

Stress, we Define a Dimensionless Parameter Called Strain (c)

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 6

Engineering Strain vs. True Strain

A

o

A

i

l

o

l

i

T

i i

o o

l A

ε ln ln

l A

( (

= =

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

In One Dimension (Tension or Compression):

i Denotes Instantaneous Dimensions.

Again, at Small Strains the

Engineering Strain and True Strain are

About the Same.

True Strain (c

T

) Takes into Consideration the Constantly Changing Shape

of a Deforming Material.

Eq. 7.16

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 7

Force-Length Relationships for One-Dimensional Elastic Loading

F

o

r

c

e

Change in

Length

F = kx

Load

Unload

F

F

Al

Al

At Low Levels of Force, Most Materials Act Like

Springs, Deforming Elastically.

Elastic Loading: Loading that Causes a Temporary

(Recoverable) Shape Change

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 8

Stress-Strain Relationships for One-Dimensional Elastic Loading

We Plot o vs. c Instead of F vs. Al

(Note that in a Given Circumstance,

o α F, and c α Al)

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Load

Unload

o

o

c

c

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 9

Elastic Modulus

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

The Slope of the Stress Strain Curve (It is a

Straight Line for Most Materials) is Called

the Elastic Modulus, or Young’s Modulus,

and is Given the Symbol E. It is a Measure

of the Stiffness of a Material (Like the

Spring Constant, k).

In Metals, Ceramics and Composites, the Elastic Modulus is Controlled

by Atomic Bond Strength (the Bonds Act like Springs). Therefore, it

Cannot be Changed Much by Heat Treating or Other Means. It is a

Materials Property That is only a Function of Chemical Composition.

E = o/c Eq. 7.5

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 10

Elastic Moduli of Metals

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 11

Elastic Moduli of Ceramics

E

GPa

Million psi

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 12

Elastic Moduli of Polymers and Biomaterials

Polymers and Biological Tissues Can Have Varying Stiffness,

Depending Upon Structure.

• Polymers: Arrangement of Long Chain Molecules, and

Degree of Polymerization/Crystallization will Change the

Modulus.

• Biological Tissues: Density, Water Content, and

Arrangement of the Ligaments (or Tubules, Cell Walls, etc.)

will Affect Modulus.

Therefore, for These Materials, E is not a Constant. It Can Have a

Range of Values, and May be Varied via Processing.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 13

Elastic Moduli of Polymers

E

GPa Million psi

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 14

Importance of Elastic Modulus in Mechanical Design

The Elastic Modulus is the Only Materials Property Contributing

to the Stiffness of an Engineering Component. (Other Factors

Relate to Design, Such as Component Shape, Assembly, Loading,

etc.) Therefore, E Controls How Much a Component will

Deflect, Bend, or Extend, When it is Loaded Elastically.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 15

Example: Stiffness and Deflection of a Beam

F

L

o

EI

FL

3

3

= o

Where I is the “Moment of Inertia”, Related to the Shape of the

Cross Section. For a Rectangular Beam, I = bh

3

/12.

Notice that E is the only Materials Parameter.

h

b

You will find in Your Mechanics of Materials Course that the Deflection

(o) of an End-Loaded Beam can be Calculated as Follows:

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 16

In Class Practice Problem 1

Calculate the Deflection That Will Occur when

a Weight of 150 lbs is Placed at the End of the

Beam Shown Below if the Beam is Made of:

• steel (E = 30,000,000 psi)

• low density polyethylene (E = 30,000 psi)

10 feet

5 inches

3 inches

EI

FL

3

3

= o

3

12

bh

I =

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 17

Poisson’s Ratio

l

o

d

o

l

f

d

f

z

y

z

x

c

c

c

c

v

÷

=

÷

=

For Most Metals and Ceramics, v ~ 1/3.

x

y

z

Eq. 7.8

When a Material Undergoes Uniaxial Elastic Deformation, its

Dimensions Also Change in Directions Normal to the Direction of

Applied Stress. Poisson’s Ratio (v) is the Ratio of the Lateral Strain to

the Axial Strain.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 18

Other Types of Stresses

o = F/A is Only Valid for One Dimensional Loading of Rods or

Bars Along their Axes. In General, Stresses are in 3-D, and the

Stress at a Point in a Material is Described by 6 Numbers

Rather Than 1.

There are Two Basic Types of Stresses.

• Normal Stresses (c) act Perpendicular to a Plane Defined

Within a Material. We Have Only Considered Normal

Stresses Thus Far.

• Shear Stresses (t) act Parallel to a Plane Defined Within a

Material.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 19

Normal Stress vs. Shear Stress

F

F

A

A

F

σ =

F

F

A

Normal Stress

A

F

τ =

Shear Stress

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 20

Normal Strain vs. Shear Strain

Normal Strain (c) Shear Strain (¸)

F

F

F

F

u

¸ = tanu for Small Shear Strains.

If the Loading is Elastic,

t = G¸, (Eq. 7.7) where G is the

Shear Modulus.

For a Material with Isotropic

Elastic Properties,

E = 2G(1 + v) Eq. 7.9

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 21

Shear Stresses Are Always Present

F

F

It is Important to Note that Even

if Normal Loads are Applied to a

Material, Shear Stresses are

Present on Some Planes within

the Material. In Simple

Compression or Tension, the

Maximum Shear Stress Occurs on

Planes Inclined 45

o

from the

Loading Axis.

t

max

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 22

Mechanical Behavior of Metals-Elastic Deformation

At Low Stresses, Metals Exhibit Elastic

(Recoverable) Deformation

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

o = Ec

Load

Unload

o

o

c

c

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 23

Mechanical Behavior of Metals - Plastic Deformation

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Load

Unload

o

o

c

c

c

p

l

At Sufficiently High Stresses, Metals

Undergo Plastic (Permanent) Deformation

in Addition to Elastic Deformation.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 24

Yield Strength

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

The Stress at Which a Material Starts to Deform Permanently is

Called its Yield Strength (o

y

). (Sometimes it is Called the

“Proportional Limit”, Since Below o

y

, o is Proportional to c.)

For Engineering Design, Yield Strength is the Most Important

Strength Parameter. If the Stress is Kept Below o

y

, the

Deformation is Elastic.

o

y

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 25

Quantification of Yield Strength for Metals

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Many Metals Begin to Yield Gradually, and it is not Possible to

Define a “Yield Strength” or “Proportional Limit” Objectively.

Because of this, and the Desire to have Reproducible Test

Procedures that do not Depend on Subjective Operator Input

from a Curve, the Yield Strength is Almost Always Defined as a

Yield Strength at 0.2% Offset.

Idealized o-c Plot Real o-c Plot

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 26

Determination of Offset Yield Strength

A Line is Drawn Parallel

to the Elastic Portion of

the o-c Plot, But

“Offset” from the Origin

by 0.2% (at c = 0.002).

The Intersection of That

Line with the o÷c Curve

is Taken as the Yield

Strength of the Material.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 27

Other Yielding Phenomena in Metals

Some Moderate Strength Steels Yield and then Experience a Load Drop (Stress

Decrease) Followed by Localized Deformation at Constant Stress Prior to Continued

Increase in Stress vs. Strain. Such Materials are Said to Have Two Yield Points, and o

y

is Taken as the Lower Yield Point.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 28

Strain Hardening of Metals

Metals Strain

Harden; That is,

They Get Stronger

Upon Plastic

Deformation.

Compare o

yo

(Initial

Yield Strength) with

o

yi

(Yield Strength

Upon Unloading and

Reloading of the

Material).

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 29

Strain Hardening

Here, o

T

is True Stress, c

T

is True Plastic Strain, and K and n are

Material Parameters. n is called the Strain Hardening Exponent.

Typical n values for Metals are Between 0.1 and 0.5.

T T

n

σ Kε =

Strain Hardening Can be Easily Quantified for Most Metals at

Low Temperatures. In the Plastic Region, Most Metals at Low

Temperatures Obey a “Power Law” Relating Stress to Strain:

Eq. 7.19

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 30

The Tensile Test

E

n

g

i

n

e

e

r

i

n

g

S

t

r

e

s

s

Engineering Strain

Yield Strength (o

y

)

Tensile Strength (TS)

Tensile Strength is the

Highest Engineering Stress

That May Be Supported by a

Material.

x

Point of

Fracture

Tensile Test: Application of Uniaxial Stress to a Material Until the Point of

Breakage (Fracture)

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 31

Note to Current or Future Designers

Be Very Careful When You Ask Someone for, or Look Up, a

Material’s “Strength”. As We Have Seen, There are Two

“Strengths” that are Determined by a Tensile Test - the Yield

Strength and the Tensile Strength. You Have to Specify Which

Strength You Care About, and Too Often People will Give You the

Tensile Strength.

The Yield Strength is the Stress above which a Part Loses its Shape,

and is Therefore the Strength that Should be Used in Design.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 32

Necking of Materials

At the Tensile Strength, Metals Begin to Fail by Necking (Localized Deformation). A Plot

of True Stress vs. True Strain Would Show Increasing Stress All the Way to Fracture.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 33

Ductility

Ductility: A Measure of a Material’s Ability to Deform Permanently Without

Fracture. It is Measured by Measuring the Specimen After a Tensile Test.

When a Specimen Thins Down and Fractures, it gets Longer and its Cross-

Sectional Area Decreases. The Permanent Changes in Length (%EL) or Area

(%RA) Indicate Ductility.

Percent Elongation (%EL):

Percent Reduction in Area

(%RA):

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 34

Metal Mechanical Properties and Engineering Design

The Mechanical Properties Typically Needed for Engineering Design

Are:

1. Elastic modulus (E)

2. Yield strength (o

y

)

3. Percent Elongation (%EL)

These Properties are Reported in Handbooks, But All May Be Obtained

From Tensile Testing.

Yield Strength and Percent Elongation May Be Altered via Processing,

Whereas Elastic Modulus Depends Only on the Chemical Makeup of a

Material (Metals and Ceramics).

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 35

Tensile Test

E

n

g

i

n

e

e

r

i

n

g

S

t

r

e

s

s

Engineering Strain

Yield Strength (o

y

)

Tensile Strength (TS)

E (Slope of

Elastic Curve)

c

plastic

Percent Elongation

(%EL) is c

plastic

x 100

fracture

The Tensile Test Data

May be Curve-Fitted

to o

T

= Kc

T

n

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 36

In Class Practice Problem 2

f o

o o

l l Δl

l l

÷

c = =

A

F

σ =

o = Ec

in GPa

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 37

In Class Practice Problem 3

A Steel Rod, 1 Inch in Diameter, Yields at a Force of 200,000 lbs

a) Determine its Yield Strength

b) Determine the Load-Carrying Capacity of a Wire with a

0.125 Inch Diameter, Which is Made From the Same Steel.

A

F

σ =

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 38

Hardness Testing

Tensile Tests are Expensive (Require Machining of Material and

Specialized Equipment) and Destructive (The Sample is Deformed Until

it Fractures).

A Simple Method for Estimating a Metal’s Strength is to Measure its So-

Called Hardness.

Hardness: A Measure of a Material’s Resistance to Permanent

Deformation via Surface Indentation

Hardness Testers Force Small, Specially Shaped Indenters into a Material

Using a Specified Force. The Depth or Size of the Resulting Indentation

is Converted into a Hardness Number.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 39

Hardness Testers and Corresponding Indenter Geometries

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 40

Hardness and Strength

Hardness Measures a Material’s Resistance to Penetration by an

Indenter (Permanent Deformation). This Resistance to Penetration is

Controlled by the Material’s Yield Strength and Early Stages of Strain

Hardening.

Therefore, Hardness Testing is a Quick, Non-Destructive Method for

Qualitative Evaluation of a Material’s Strength. Hardness Tests are

Very Useful for Quality Control and Non-Destructive Inspection.

For a Given Metallic Material, It is Sometimes Possible to Determine

with a Direct Relationship Between Hardness and Strength.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 41

Hardness - Strength Correlations for Brass, Cast Iron and Steel

Each Metal Has Its Own

Curve Relating Hardness

to Strength

Fig. 7.31

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 42

Plastic Deformation and Dislocations

l

i

How Can we Change the Length of a Crystal Permanently, Without Disrupting

its Crystal Structure?

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 43

Dislocations (Chapter 5)

All Crystalline Materials Contain Dislocations

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 44

Dislocation Motion and Plastic Deformation (Atomic Scale)

Movement of the Dislocation From Left to Right, In Response to at

Shear Stress, Has Sheared the Crystal Along a Plane of Atoms

Called the Slip Plane. This Results in a Permanent Shape Change

(Plastic Deformation).

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 45

Dislocation Motion and Plastic Deformation (Macroscopic Scale)

Dislocation Motion

on Large Numbers of

Slip Planes in

Different Grains

Leads to Measurable

Shape Changes in

Metals.

Most metals are

Very Ductile (May

Undergo Substantial

Plastic Deformation).

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 46

Why are Dislocations Responsible for Plasticity?

To Shear an Entire Slip Plane Simultaneously, All Atomic Bonds Across the

Plane Would Have to be Broken at the Same Time. This Would Require a Very

High Shear Stress. To Move a Dislocation, Only the Bonds in One Row of

Atoms Must Be Broken. This is an Easier Process, But it Leads to the Same

Permanent Shape Change as Would Simultaneous Shear of the Slip Plane.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 47

Caterpillar-Dislocation Analogy

A Dislocation Causes Deformation Using the Same Strategy a Caterpillar

Employs to Crawl. To Travel Forward, the Caterpillar Moves Only Moves a

Few Legs at a Time. This Takes Less Energy and Coordination than Moving All

Legs in Concert with Each Other, and Accomplishes the Same Goal.

Figure 8.3

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 48

Mechanical Properties of Ceramics

Ceramics are Usually Compounds of Metals and Non-Metals (e.g.,

Al

2

O

3

, MgO, SiO

2

, Si

3

N

4

, SiC).

As Discussed in Chapter 3, Ceramics Have Complicated Crystal

Structures, and Ionic Bonding. Together, These Make Dislocation

Motion Difficult at Room Temperature, and Therefore Ceramics are

Brittle Materials (Do Not Undergo Plastic Deformation).

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 49

Comparison of Stress-Strain Relationships Between Metals and Ceramics

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Metals: At the Yield Stress,

Dislocations Start to Move.

This Causes Plastic Deformation

and Makes Metals Tough.

Elastic Plastic

Ceramics: Dislocations Cannot

Move at Low Temperatures,

so We get no Plasticity; Ceramics

are Elastic Until Fracture.

S

t

r

e

s

s

Strain

Elastic

Fracture

Fracture

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 50

Typical Stress-Strain Behavior For Ceramics

Note the Magnitude of the Strain

at Fracture for These Materials

(c << 0.01)

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 51

Fracture Strength of Ceramics

As Will Be Shown in Chapter 9, the Fracture Strength (Stress

Required for Crack Extension) of Ceramics is Usually Determined

by Tiny Defects on their Surfaces.

Ceramic Fracture Strengths Typically Exhibit a Large Degree of

Variability, Because of the Probabilities of Defects with Different

Sizes Being in Different Locations. Fracture Strengths of Ceramics

are Therefore Usually Presented as Probability Distributions Using

Weibull Statistics.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 52

Mechanical Behavior of Polymers

Brittle Polymers (Like Polystyrene - Cheap Drink Cups) Behave

Just Like Ceramics.

Non-Brittle Polymers (Like Polyethylene (Milk Jugs) or

Rubber) Behave in a Way that is Completely Different from

Metals or Ceramics.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 53

Typical Stress-Strain Curves

Polystyrene

Polyethylene

Rubber

Note That the Rubber Curve is Elastic but Nonlinear.

Again, Note the

Magnitude of the Strain.

For Rubber, c >> 1.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 54

Mechanical Properties of Ductile Polymers

(Slope of Elastic Portion

of the Curve is E.)

Plastic

Elastic

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 55

Deformation Behavior of Ductile Amorphous Polymers

Unlike Metals, the

Necked Region

Propagates Along the

Gauge Length of the

Polymer

Linear Polymers which are Semi-Crystalline and Not Heavily

Crosslinked Exhibit Extensive Necking During Plastic Deformation.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 56

Necking Mechanisms in Polymers

Fig 8.28

The Necking Which Occurs in These Materials is Not the Same as the Necking

Associated with Failure in Metals. In the Polymer Necks, the Macromolecules

Align Along the Loading Axis During Necking. This Alignment Strengthens the

Polymer.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 57

Influence of Temperature on Polymer Strength

Stress-Strain Plot for PMMA at

Various Temperatures

The Strength, Stiffness and Ductility of All

Materials Change with Temperature. For

Polymers, These Changes are Often

Substantial within Relatively Modest

Temperature Ranges.

Compare the Temperature Range Here (40 ºF to

140 ºF) with Seasonal Temperature Changes in

the United States.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 58

In Class Practice Problem 4

Using the Data on the Graph,

Estimate the Elastic Modulus of

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

at 4 °C, 30 °C and 60 °C.

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 59

Homework for Chapter 7

C & R 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.9, 7.10, 7.12, 7.15(a-e), 7.24

Solutions will be Posted in WebCT

Use Solutions ONLY for Checking Your Answer. If You Have

Trouble Arriving at a Correct Answer, Please Come See Me for

Help.

Stress

To Understand and Calculate the Effects of Forces, We Define a Parameter Referred to as Stress (s). In One Dimension, Stress is Defined as the Applied Force (F) (Which May be Tensile or Compressive) Divided by the Area (A) Upon Which it Acts.

Compressive

Tensile

F

F

A A

F σ A

Eq. 7.1

F

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 2

F

Units of Stress

The Units of Stress are the Same as Those of Pressure

English System: • lbs/in2, Usually Abbreviated psi • kilo-lbs/in2, Usually Abbreviated ksi (1 ksi = 1,000 lbs/in2) Metric System: • N/m2, Called a Pascal (Pa) • Typical Stresses are in MegaPascals (MPa, 106 Pa) or GigaPascals (GPa, 109 Pa)

Useful Conversion: 1 ksi = 6.895 MPa

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 3

**Engineering Stress vs. True Stress
**

During Deformation, the Area of a Material Subjected to a Force Changes Constantly. Engineering Stress is Stress Calculated Using the Original Area of a Material. True Stress (sT) is Stress Calculated Using the “Real Time” Area of a Material. At Small Deformations, These Stresses are Similar.

Ao

Ai

Ai Denotes Instantaneous Area During Deformation

σT

F

Eq. 7.15

Ai

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 4

Strain

To Quantify Deformation, or the Change in Shape of a Material Under Stress, we Define a Dimensionless Parameter Called Strain ()

Ao

Ai lf

lo

In One Dimension (Tension or Compression), We Define Engineering Strain (Eq. 7.2) as:

lf lo Δl lo lo

MY2100 – Ch 7, Slide 5

16 i Denotes Instantaneous Dimensions. at Small Strains the Engineering Strain and True Strain are About the Same.Engineering Strain vs. . 7. Slide 6 Eq. True Strain True Strain (T) Takes into Consideration the Constantly Changing Shape of a Deforming Material. Ao Ai li lo In One Dimension (Tension or Compression): li Ai εT ln ln lo Ao MY2100 – Ch 7. Again.

Force-Length Relationships for One-Dimensional Elastic Loading At Low Levels of Force. Slide 7 Unload Dl . Most Materials Act Like Springs. Deforming Elastically. Elastic Loading: Loading that Causes a Temporary (Recoverable) Shape Change F Load Dl Force F = kx F Change in Length MY2100 – Ch 7.

and α Dl) s Load Stress s Unload Strain MY2100 – Ch 7. s α F. Slide 8 . Dl (Note that in a Given Circumstance. Instead of F vs.Stress-Strain Relationships for One-Dimensional Elastic Loading We Plot s vs.

Therefore. it Cannot be Changed Much by Heat Treating or Other Means. It is a Measure of the Stiffness of a Material (Like the Spring Constant. MY2100 – Ch 7. E = s/ Eq. k). Slide 9 . It is a Materials Property That is only a Function of Chemical Composition.5 Stress Strain In Metals. Ceramics and Composites.Elastic Modulus The Slope of the Stress Strain Curve (It is a Straight Line for Most Materials) is Called the Elastic Modulus. or Young’s Modulus. and is Given the Symbol E. the Elastic Modulus is Controlled by Atomic Bond Strength (the Bonds Act like Springs). 7.

Elastic Moduli of Metals MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 10 .

Slide 11 .Elastic Moduli of Ceramics E GPa Million psi MY2100 – Ch 7.

Therefore. • Polymers: Arrangement of Long Chain Molecules. MY2100 – Ch 7. Depending Upon Structure. • Biological Tissues: Density. and Degree of Polymerization/Crystallization will Change the Modulus. etc.) will Affect Modulus. and Arrangement of the Ligaments (or Tubules. Cell Walls. and May be Varied via Processing. Slide 12 . for These Materials. It Can Have a Range of Values.Elastic Moduli of Polymers and Biomaterials Polymers and Biological Tissues Can Have Varying Stiffness. E is not a Constant. Water Content.

Slide 13 .Elastic Moduli of Polymers GPa Million psi E MY2100 – Ch 7.

When it is Loaded Elastically. Assembly. MY2100 – Ch 7. (Other Factors Relate to Design. Slide 14 . etc. E Controls How Much a Component will Deflect. Bend. Such as Component Shape.) Therefore.Importance of Elastic Modulus in Mechanical Design The Elastic Modulus is the Only Materials Property Contributing to the Stiffness of an Engineering Component. Loading. or Extend.

For a Rectangular Beam.Example: Stiffness and Deflection of a Beam You will find in Your Mechanics of Materials Course that the Deflection (d) of an End-Loaded Beam can be Calculated as Follows: d L F FL3 d 3EI Where I is the “Moment of Inertia”. I = bh3/12. b MY2100 – Ch 7. Related to the Shape of the Cross Section. h Notice that E is the only Materials Parameter. Slide 15 .

In Class Practice Problem 1 Calculate the Deflection That Will Occur when a Weight of 150 lbs is Placed at the End of the Beam Shown Below if the Beam is Made of: • steel (E = 30. Slide 16 .000.000 psi) • low density polyethylene (E = 30.000 psi) FL3 d 3EI bh3 I 12 5 inches 10 feet 3 inches MY2100 – Ch 7.

z lo lf x y do x z y z Eq. its Dimensions Also Change in Directions Normal to the Direction of Applied Stress.Poisson’s Ratio When a Material Undergoes Uniaxial Elastic Deformation. Slide 17 .8 df For Most Metals and Ceramics. 7. ~ 1/3. Poisson’s Ratio () is the Ratio of the Lateral Strain to the Axial Strain. MY2100 – Ch 7.

There are Two Basic Types of Stresses. • Normal Stresses () act Perpendicular to a Plane Defined Within a Material. In General. We Have Only Considered Normal Stresses Thus Far.Other Types of Stresses s = F/A is Only Valid for One Dimensional Loading of Rods or Bars Along their Axes. Stresses are in 3-D. • Shear Stresses (t) act Parallel to a Plane Defined Within a Material. and the Stress at a Point in a Material is Described by 6 Numbers Rather Than 1. Slide 18 . MY2100 – Ch 7.

Shear Stress Normal Stress Shear Stress A F F A F F F σ A MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 19 F τ A .Normal Stress vs.

MY2100 – Ch 7. E = 2G(1 + ) Eq.7) where G is the Shear Modulus. Shear Strain Normal Strain () F Shear Strain (g) F q F F For a Material with Isotropic Elastic Properties. Slide 20 . 7.9 g = tanq for Small Shear Strains. t = Gg.Normal Strain vs. (Eq. If the Loading is Elastic. 7.

Slide 21 . F tmax MY2100 – Ch 7. the Maximum Shear Stress Occurs on Planes Inclined 45o from the Loading Axis.Shear Stresses Are Always Present F It is Important to Note that Even if Normal Loads are Applied to a Material. In Simple Compression or Tension. Shear Stresses are Present on Some Planes within the Material.

Mechanical Behavior of Metals-Elastic Deformation At Low Stresses. Slide 22 . Metals Exhibit Elastic (Recoverable) Deformation s Load Stress s = E s Unload Strain MY2100 – Ch 7.

Mechanical Behavior of Metals .Plastic Deformation At Sufficiently High Stresses. s Load Stress s Unload Strain p l MY2100 – Ch 7. Metals Undergo Plastic (Permanent) Deformation in Addition to Elastic Deformation. Slide 23 .

Since Below sy. the Deformation is Elastic.) For Engineering Design. (Sometimes it is Called the “Proportional Limit”. s is Proportional to . Yield Strength is the Most Important Strength Parameter. If the Stress is Kept Below sy. Slide 24 . MY2100 – Ch 7.Yield Strength sy Stress Strain The Stress at Which a Material Starts to Deform Permanently is Called its Yield Strength (sy).

2% Offset. Slide 25 Strain . the Yield Strength is Almost Always Defined as a Yield Strength at 0. and the Desire to have Reproducible Test Procedures that do not Depend on Subjective Operator Input from a Curve. Because of this. and it is not Possible to Define a “Yield Strength” or “Proportional Limit” Objectively. Idealized s- Plot Real s- Plot Stress Stress Strain MY2100 – Ch 7.Quantification of Yield Strength for Metals Many Metals Begin to Yield Gradually.

2% (at = 0.Determination of Offset Yield Strength A Line is Drawn Parallel to the Elastic Portion of the s- Plot. The Intersection of That Line with the s Curve is Taken as the Yield Strength of the Material. MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 26 . But “Offset” from the Origin by 0.002).

MY2100 – Ch 7. Strain.Other Yielding Phenomena in Metals Some Moderate Strength Steels Yield and then Experience a Load Drop (Stress Decrease) Followed by Localized Deformation at Constant Stress Prior to Continued Increase in Stress vs. Slide 27 . Such Materials are Said to Have Two Yield Points. and sy is Taken as the Lower Yield Point.

MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 28 . That is.Strain Hardening of Metals Metals Strain Harden. Compare syo (Initial Yield Strength) with syi (Yield Strength Upon Unloading and Reloading of the Material). They Get Stronger Upon Plastic Deformation.

MY2100 – Ch 7. sT is True Stress. Most Metals at Low Temperatures Obey a “Power Law” Relating Stress to Strain: σT KεT n Eq. Typical n values for Metals are Between 0. and K and n are Material Parameters. 7.1 and 0.19 Here. Slide 29 . In the Plastic Region.5. n is called the Strain Hardening Exponent.Strain Hardening Strain Hardening Can be Easily Quantified for Most Metals at Low Temperatures. T is True Plastic Strain.

The Tensile Test Tensile Test: Application of Uniaxial Stress to a Material Until the Point of Breakage (Fracture) Tensile Strength (TS) Engineering Stress x Yield Strength (sy) Point of Fracture Tensile Strength is the Highest Engineering Stress That May Be Supported by a Material. Slide 30 . Engineering Strain MY2100 – Ch 7.

and is Therefore the Strength that Should be Used in Design. The Yield Strength is the Stress above which a Part Loses its Shape. and Too Often People will Give You the Tensile Strength.Note to Current or Future Designers Be Very Careful When You Ask Someone for. or Look Up. MY2100 – Ch 7. a Material’s “Strength”. As We Have Seen. There are Two “Strengths” that are Determined by a Tensile Test .the Yield Strength and the Tensile Strength. Slide 31 . You Have to Specify Which Strength You Care About.

Metals Begin to Fail by Necking (Localized Deformation).Necking of Materials At the Tensile Strength. A Plot of True Stress vs. Slide 32 . True Strain Would Show Increasing Stress All the Way to Fracture. MY2100 – Ch 7.

it gets Longer and its CrossSectional Area Decreases. It is Measured by Measuring the Specimen After a Tensile Test.Ductility Ductility: A Measure of a Material’s Ability to Deform Permanently Without Fracture. When a Specimen Thins Down and Fractures. The Permanent Changes in Length (%EL) or Area (%RA) Indicate Ductility. Slide 33 . Percent Elongation (%EL): Percent Reduction in Area (%RA): MY2100 – Ch 7.

Metal Mechanical Properties and Engineering Design The Mechanical Properties Typically Needed for Engineering Design Are: 1. Slide 34 . Whereas Elastic Modulus Depends Only on the Chemical Makeup of a Material (Metals and Ceramics). Elastic modulus (E) 2. But All May Be Obtained From Tensile Testing. Yield Strength and Percent Elongation May Be Altered via Processing. Percent Elongation (%EL) These Properties are Reported in Handbooks. MY2100 – Ch 7. Yield strength (sy) 3.

Tensile Test Tensile Strength (TS) Engineering Stress Yield Strength (sy) Percent Elongation (%EL) is plastic x 100 fracture E (Slope of Elastic Curve) plastic The Tensile Test Data May be Curve-Fitted to sT = KTn MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 35 Engineering Strain .

In Class Practice Problem 2 in GPa F σ A lf lo Δl lo lo s = E MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 36 .

Which is Made From the Same Steel. Yields at a Force of 200. F σ A MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 37 .In Class Practice Problem 3 A Steel Rod.125 Inch Diameter.000 lbs a) Determine its Yield Strength b) Determine the Load-Carrying Capacity of a Wire with a 0. 1 Inch in Diameter.

Slide 38 . The Depth or Size of the Resulting Indentation is Converted into a Hardness Number.Hardness Testing Tensile Tests are Expensive (Require Machining of Material and Specialized Equipment) and Destructive (The Sample is Deformed Until it Fractures). Specially Shaped Indenters into a Material Using a Specified Force. MY2100 – Ch 7. Hardness: A Measure of a Material’s Resistance to Permanent Deformation via Surface Indentation Hardness Testers Force Small. A Simple Method for Estimating a Metal’s Strength is to Measure its SoCalled Hardness.

Slide 39 .Hardness Testers and Corresponding Indenter Geometries MY2100 – Ch 7.

Non-Destructive Method for Qualitative Evaluation of a Material’s Strength. MY2100 – Ch 7. Therefore. Hardness Testing is a Quick. Slide 40 . This Resistance to Penetration is Controlled by the Material’s Yield Strength and Early Stages of Strain Hardening. It is Sometimes Possible to Determine with a Direct Relationship Between Hardness and Strength. For a Given Metallic Material.Hardness and Strength Hardness Measures a Material’s Resistance to Penetration by an Indenter (Permanent Deformation). Hardness Tests are Very Useful for Quality Control and Non-Destructive Inspection.

31 Each Metal Has Its Own Curve Relating Hardness to Strength MY2100 – Ch 7. Cast Iron and Steel Fig.Hardness . Slide 41 . 7.Strength Correlations for Brass.

Plastic Deformation and Dislocations How Can we Change the Length of a Crystal Permanently. Without Disrupting its Crystal Structure? li MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 42 .

Slide 43 .Dislocations (Chapter 5) All Crystalline Materials Contain Dislocations MY2100 – Ch 7.

Slide 44 . MY2100 – Ch 7. In Response to at Shear Stress. This Results in a Permanent Shape Change (Plastic Deformation). Has Sheared the Crystal Along a Plane of Atoms Called the Slip Plane.Dislocation Motion and Plastic Deformation (Atomic Scale) Movement of the Dislocation From Left to Right.

MY2100 – Ch 7.Dislocation Motion and Plastic Deformation (Macroscopic Scale) Dislocation Motion on Large Numbers of Slip Planes in Different Grains Leads to Measurable Shape Changes in Metals. Slide 45 . Most metals are Very Ductile (May Undergo Substantial Plastic Deformation).

This is an Easier Process. Slide 46 . But it Leads to the Same Permanent Shape Change as Would Simultaneous Shear of the Slip Plane.Why are Dislocations Responsible for Plasticity? To Shear an Entire Slip Plane Simultaneously. All Atomic Bonds Across the Plane Would Have to be Broken at the Same Time. To Move a Dislocation. MY2100 – Ch 7. Only the Bonds in One Row of Atoms Must Be Broken. This Would Require a Very High Shear Stress.

To Travel Forward. and Accomplishes the Same Goal.Caterpillar-Dislocation Analogy A Dislocation Causes Deformation Using the Same Strategy a Caterpillar Employs to Crawl. Slide 47 .3 MY2100 – Ch 7. Figure 8. the Caterpillar Moves Only Moves a Few Legs at a Time. This Takes Less Energy and Coordination than Moving All Legs in Concert with Each Other.

MgO. MY2100 – Ch 7. SiC). Slide 48 . Si3N4. and Ionic Bonding. As Discussed in Chapter 3. Ceramics Have Complicated Crystal Structures.g. Together. These Make Dislocation Motion Difficult at Room Temperature..Mechanical Properties of Ceramics Ceramics are Usually Compounds of Metals and Non-Metals (e. and Therefore Ceramics are Brittle Materials (Do Not Undergo Plastic Deformation). SiO2. Al2O3.

Slide 49 Strain . This Causes Plastic Deformation and Makes Metals Tough. Elastic Fracture Stress Fracture Strain MY2100 – Ch 7. Dislocations Start to Move.Comparison of Stress-Strain Relationships Between Metals and Ceramics Metals: At the Yield Stress. Elastic Stress Plastic Ceramics: Dislocations Cannot Move at Low Temperatures. Ceramics are Elastic Until Fracture. so We get no Plasticity.

Typical Stress-Strain Behavior For Ceramics Note the Magnitude of the Strain at Fracture for These Materials ( << 0. Slide 50 .01) MY2100 – Ch 7.

MY2100 – Ch 7. the Fracture Strength (Stress Required for Crack Extension) of Ceramics is Usually Determined by Tiny Defects on their Surfaces. Slide 51 . Because of the Probabilities of Defects with Different Sizes Being in Different Locations. Fracture Strengths of Ceramics are Therefore Usually Presented as Probability Distributions Using Weibull Statistics.Fracture Strength of Ceramics As Will Be Shown in Chapter 9. Ceramic Fracture Strengths Typically Exhibit a Large Degree of Variability.

Cheap Drink Cups) Behave Just Like Ceramics. Slide 52 . MY2100 – Ch 7. Non-Brittle Polymers (Like Polyethylene (Milk Jugs) or Rubber) Behave in a Way that is Completely Different from Metals or Ceramics.Mechanical Behavior of Polymers Brittle Polymers (Like Polystyrene .

Note the Magnitude of the Strain. For Rubber. >> 1.Typical Stress-Strain Curves Polystyrene Polyethylene Again. Rubber Note That the Rubber Curve is Elastic but Nonlinear. MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 53 .

) MY2100 – Ch 7. Slide 54 .Mechanical Properties of Ductile Polymers Elastic Plastic (Slope of Elastic Portion of the Curve is E.

Deformation Behavior of Ductile Amorphous Polymers Linear Polymers which are Semi-Crystalline and Not Heavily Crosslinked Exhibit Extensive Necking During Plastic Deformation. Unlike Metals. Slide 55 . the Necked Region Propagates Along the Gauge Length of the Polymer MY2100 – Ch 7.

the Macromolecules Align Along the Loading Axis During Necking.Necking Mechanisms in Polymers The Necking Which Occurs in These Materials is Not the Same as the Necking Associated with Failure in Metals.28 MY2100 – Ch 7. Fig 8. Slide 56 . In the Polymer Necks. This Alignment Strengthens the Polymer.

These Changes are Often Substantial within Relatively Modest Temperature Ranges. For Polymers. Compare the Temperature Range Here (40 ºF to 140 ºF) with Seasonal Temperature Changes in the United States.Influence of Temperature on Polymer Strength Stress-Strain Plot for PMMA at Various Temperatures The Strength. Slide 57 . MY2100 – Ch 7. Stiffness and Ductility of All Materials Change with Temperature.

Slide 58 . Estimate the Elastic Modulus of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at 4 °C. 30 °C and 60 °C. MY2100 – Ch 7.In Class Practice Problem 4 Using the Data on the Graph.

10. MY2100 – Ch 7.12.24 Solutions will be Posted in WebCT Use Solutions ONLY for Checking Your Answer. 7. 7. 7. 7.Homework for Chapter 7 C & R 7.2. 7. Slide 59 . 7.15(a-e).4. If You Have Trouble Arriving at a Correct Answer.9.3.5. 7. 7. Please Come See Me for Help.

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