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30/06/2010

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electrolyte Vs Non-electrolyte Conductor Vs electrolyte Electrolysis Electrolytic cell

Learning outcomes
At the end of the lesson, you should able to: 1. state the meaning of electrolyte. 2. Differentiate between the conductor and electrolyte. 3. classify substances into electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. 4. relate the presence of freely moving ions to electrical conductivity.

Electrolyte in daily life


Why the athletes drink 100-plus drinks or other electrolyte drinks after their vigorous training? What is the function of electrolyte to the body?
Sweating is the way in which the body maintains its core temperature at 37C. This results in the loss of body fluid and electrolytes (minerals such as chloride, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium) and if unchecked will lead to dehydration and eventually circulatory collapse and heat stroke. Electrolytes, especially sodium and potassium, in a drink will reduce urine output, enable the fluid to empty quickly from the stomach, promote absorption from the intestine and encourage fluid retention.

Experiment
C. To Investigate the Electrical Conductivity of Compounds Title: To compare the properties of ionic and covalent compounds Problem statement: Do electrical conductivity of ionic compounds and covalent compounds differ in solid state and molten state?

Carbon electrodes

Molten NaCl conducts electricity

NaCl solution

NaCl solution conducts electricity

Electrical conductivity
Molten NaCl, NaCl solution

are electrolytes

They can conduct electricity - due to the presence of free moving / mobile ions in the electrolytes

Eg.: NaCl solution

electrolyte _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Electrolytes can conduct electricity due to the presence of free moving ions in the electrolytes

_ _

_ _ _ _

_ _

+ _

_ _ _ _+ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

+ _

+_ _
_

_ _ _

- _+ _ _

Electrolyte Vs Non-electrolyte
Electrolyte A substance that can conduct electricity in molten state or aqueous solution, and can undergoes chemical changes Non-electrolyte A substance that CANNOT conduct electricity in either molten state or aqueous solution,

Molten
Melted in high temperature. A metal in its liquid state.

Think
Electricity can passes through a Cu wire but there is NO chemical reaction taking place. Do you classify Cu wire as an electrolyte?

Answer: No. Copper wire is not an electrolyte. It is a conductor. Because copper wire is in solid state and it does not undergo chemical reaction.

Conductor Vs Electrolyte
Conductor A substance that can conduct electricity in solid or molten state, but not undergoes chemical change.
Conductor

Electrolyte A substance that can conduct electricity in molten state or aqueous solution, and can undergoes chemical changes
Electrolyte

Electrolyte ? Non-electrolyte ?
HCl solution NH3 solution Glucose solution Molten lead, Pb AgCl solution Tetrachloromethane, CCl4 Zinc wire Copper penny
Electrolyte

Non-electrolyte Non-electrolyte
Non-electrolyte Electrolyte Non-electrolyte

Conductor
Conductor

Explanation
Substance HCl solution Answer Electrolyte Reason
HCl solution is an ionic compound that consists of free moving H+ ions and Cl- ions, and can conduct electricity in aqueous state. NH3 solution is a covalent compound that exist as molecules in organic solvent. Hence, it cannot conduct electricity.

NH3 solution in organic solvent

Non-electrolyte

(* NH3 solution in WATER can conduct electricity, because it exists as free mobile ions
in water.)

Glucose solution

Non-electrolyte

Glucose solution is a covalent compound that exist as. Hence, it cannot conduct electricity. Molten lead consists only lead, Pb atoms. No free moving ions in the substance. Hence, it cannot conduct electricity. AgCl solution is an ionic compound that consists of free moving Ag+ ions and Cl- ions, and can conduct electricity in aqueous state. Tetrachloromethane, CCl4 is a covalent compound that exist as molecules. Hence, it cannot conduct electricity.

Molten lead, Pb AgCl solution

Non-electrolyte Electrolyte

Tetrachlorometha ne, CCl4 Zinc wire Copper penny

Non-electrolyte

Conductor Conductor

Zinc wire is in solid state and it does not undergo chemical reaction.
Copper penny is in solid state and it does not undergo chemical reaction.

Conductor
conduct electricity solid state Molten state X chemical change.

Electrolyte

Non-electrolyte

conduct electricity X conduct electricity molten state (molten state Aqueous solution Aqueous solution) chemical change. Ionic compounds Free moving ions Covalent compounds Molecules X - in organic solvent -in water

Electrolysis
A process whereby a compound in molten or aqueous state are broken down into its constituent elements by passing electricity through an electrolyte.

Electrolytic cell
Battery Ammeter (A device used to measure current) / Light bulb Wire Switch Electrodes (Carbon / metal) - a conductor in the form of wire, rod or plate which carries electric current in and out of the electrolyte during electrolysis. Electrolyte

Cations & Anions


Cations are pawsitive.
= positive or

Cations are + ve.

Anionis a Negative ion

Anode
An electrode that donate electrons.

Cathode
An electrode that receive electrons.

An electrode that undergoes oxidation.

A+

An electrode that undergoes reduction.

C-

Cations
(+ ve ions)

Cathode

Anions
(- ve ions)

Anode

An OX chases a Red CAT


(Anode-Oxidation) (Reduction-Cathode)

or

(both start with vowels)


(both start with consonants).

Oxidation Vs Reduction:
L E O goes G E R
(lose electron-oxidation, gain electron-reduction)

O I L R I G ELMO

(Oxidation is Losing e-, Reduction is Gaining e- )

(Electron Loss Means Oxidation )

LEO the lion. GER! or LEO says GER


(Losing Electrons Oxidation, Gaining Electrons Reduction)

Why can only conduct electricity in molten state? But not in solid state?

Solid Lead (II) bromide

Molten Lead (II) bromide

* Please watch the video clip that I have posted in FB...

Why can only conduct electricity in molten state? But not in solid state?
Lead (II) bromide, PbBr2 is an ionic compound. It consists of +ve Pb2+ ions and ve Br- ions. In solid PbBr2, these ions do not move freely but are held in fixed positions in lattice. When PbBr2 melts (When in molten state), the ions are free to move. Hence, it can conduct electricity in molten state .

Conductor Electrolyte Non-electrolyte Electrolysis Cations Anions Cathode Anode

Have you understood these?

Summary