Wideband CDMA

Radio Network Planning
Radio Network Planning
A radio network planning consists of three phases:

1. Network Dimensioning (using link budgets)

2. Detailed capacity and coverage planning (using planning tools)

3. Network optimisation (using optimisation tool)


Phase 1 :Network Dimensioning

Dimensioning the WCDMA radio network includes :
• radio link budget and coverage analysis,
• capacity estimation and
• estimation of the amount of network equipment (such
as number of BSs and RNCs)

These estimations will be based on the operator’s
requirements on coverage, capacity and quality of
service.

WCDMA-specific parameters in the link budget
compared to those parameters used in a TDMA-based
radio systems are:

1. Interference margin
The value of the interference margin used in the link
budget depends on the loading of the cell.
Higher is the value of the interference margin in the
uplink, the smaller is the coverage area. Typical values
are 1.0-3.0 dB in the coverage-limited cases,
corresponding to 20-50% loading.


2.Fast fading margin
For slow-moving mobiles, to take care of fast fading
effect, a fast fading margin in the range of 2.0-5.0 dB
should be included in the link budget.

3.Soft handover gain
Due to uncorrelated channels from the MS to the BSs,
handover gives a gain against slow fading. Also, soft
handover gives an additional macro diversity gain
against fast fading. The total handover gain can be
assumed to be in the range of 2.0-3.0 dB.

Link budget approach
Coverage requirement for a specific data rate with uniform load
Derive Link Budget
Coverage satisfied?
Input existing 2G sites that can be
Upgraded to 3G
Refine design, put new sites using
Planner’s individual judgment
End
No
Yes
Uplink Link Budget Example

3.84 Mchip/s Chip rate
H
-169 dBm/Hz Receiver noise density (E+F)
G
5 dB Base station receiver noise figure
F
-174 dBm/Hz Thermal noise density
E
18 dBm Mobile EIRP (A+B-C)
D
3 dB Body loss
C
0 dBi Mobile antenna gain
B
21 dBm Mobile transmit power (125 mW)
A
14 dBi Base station antenna gain
P
-120.2 dBm Base station receiver sensitivity (K-M+N)
O
5 dB Required E
b
/N
o

N
25 dB Processing gain (10 log (H/L) )
M
12.2 Kb/s Data rate
L
-100.2 dBm Total effective noise & interference (I+J)
K
3 dB Interference Margin (noise rise)
J
-103.2 dBm Receiver noise power (G + 10log H)
I
137.2 dB Maximum path loss for cell range
(D-O+P-Q-R-S+T)
U
4 dB Soft handover gain
T
8 dB In-car loss
S
9 dB Lognormal shadowing margin
R
2 dB Cable losses in the base station
Q
Cell range
From the link budget, the cell range R can be easily calculated
using a known propagation model, for example the Okumura-Hata
model. The Okumura-Hata propagation model for an urban
macro-cell with base station antenna height of 30m, mobile antenna
Height of 1.5m and carrier frequency of 1950 MHz is given by:

L = 137.4 + 35.2
where L is the path loss in dB and R is the cell range in Km.

For suburban areas we assume an additional area correction factor
of 8 dB and therefore the path loss is:

L = 129.4 + 35.2


) ( log
10
R
) ( log
10
R
Some Definitions
Ratio of other cell to own cell interference



In the uplink, it is calculated for the BS, therefore i is similar for all
connections within one cell.
However in the downlink, it is calculated for each MS and therefore
depends on the MS location.

i ranges from 0.15 (very well isolated microcells) to 1.2 ( poor radio
network planning.)


own
other
I
I
i =

For the downlink, i is defined as:

i =

where is the power received from other BSs and p
j
is the power
received from the serving BS.


• Noise rise

noise rise =

j
other
P
I
N
N other own j
N
total
P
P I I P
P
I
+ + +
=
other
I
Capacity estimation

The second part of dimensining is to estimate the capacity per cell i.e.,
supported traffic per BS. The capacity per cell depends on the amount
of interference per cell, hence it can be calculated from the load equations.
- Uplink load factor equation

(1)


where W is the chiprate, p
r,j
is the received signal power for mobile user

j,
is the activity factor of user j, R
j
is the bit rate of user j and

the
total received wideband power including thermal noise power in the BS.
total
I
j r total
j r
j j
P I
P
R
W
j
o
b
N
E
,
,
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

u
j
u
Equation (1) can be rewritten as:

(2)


we define

where is the load factor of one connection.

Using this equation and equation (2), one can obtain as:

(3)


total
I
j j
R
j
o
N
b
E
w
j r
P
u · ·
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
,
total j j r
I L P =
,
j
L
j
L
j j
R
j
o
N
b
E
w
j
L
u · ·
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
The total received interference, excluding the thermal noise ,can
be written as:

(4)



The noise rise is defined as:

Noise rise (5)

and using (4), we can obtain



N
P
N
P
total
I
=
¿
=
=
¿
=
= ÷
N
j
total
I
j
L
N
j
j r
P
N
P
total
I
1 1
,

Noise rise (6)


where is defined as the uplink load factor and equals to:

(7)

when becomes close to 1, the corresponding noise rise approaches
to infinity and system has reached its pole capacity.

If the interference from the other cells is taken into account, then one
can write


¿
=
=
N
j
j
L
UL
1
q
UL
q
UL
N
j
j
N
total
L
P
I
q ÷
÷
= = =
¿
=
1
1
1
1
1
UL
q

(9)


where i is the ratio of other cells to own cell interference.
The interference margin used in the link budget must be equal to the
maximum planned noise rise i.e., -10 log(1- ).

For an all – voice service network, where all N users in the cell have
a low bit rate of R, we can write





1 ))
· ·
|
.
|

\
|
u R
N
E
W
o
b
UL
q
¿
=
· ·
+
¿
=
+ = + =
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
N
j
j j
R
o
N
b
E
W
N
j
i L i
j
j UL
1
1
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
u
q


and hence equation (9) is simplified to






) 1 ( i N
R
W
o
N
b
E
UL
+ · ·
|
|
.
|

\
|
= u q


- Downlink load factor

In the absence of intra- and inter- cell interferences, one can write






In the absence of interferences, we defined
and hence,


N
P
j r
P
j
R
j
W
j
o
N
b
E
,
u
= |
.
|

\
|
N
P
j
L
j r
P =
,





when we take into account both intra- and inter- cell interferences,
we have




where is the orthogonality of the channel of mobile user j.
Its value depends on the channel multipath fading ; where = 1
means no multipath fading. is the ratio of other cell to own
cell base station power, received by the mobile user j.

|
|
.
|

\
|
· |
.
|

\
|
· ·
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
j
R
W
j
o
N
b
E
j j
i
j j
L
1
1 u o
j
o
j
o
j
i
|
|
.
|

\
|
· · |
.
|

\
|
= =
j
R
W
j
j
o
N
b
E
P
j r
P
j
L
N
1 ,
u
The downlink load factor is defined as:










since, in the uplink, i and depends on the location of the mobile
user and they should ; therefore, be approximated by their average
values across the cell, and .


j
o
j
i
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
÷
¿
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
j
i
j
j
R
W
j
o
N
b
E
N
j
j
o u 1
1
¿
=
=
N
j
j
L
DL
1
q
j
o
The average value of the downlink load can then be approximated as:






the noise rise is given by:

noise rise Interference margin

when 1 noise rise

the system approaches its pole capacity.

( ) ( ) i
j
R
W
j
o
N
b
E
N
j
j
DL
+ ÷
¿
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
o u q 1
1
( )= ÷ ÷ =
DL
q 1 log 10
DL
q
÷
÷
·
Total BS transmission power

The total BS transmission power can be written as:




where is the average attennation between the BS and mobile
receiver (6 dB less than the maximum path loss)
since

DL
N
j
j r
P L
total
P
q ÷
¿
=
=
1
1
,
L
N j r
P
j
R
W
j
o
N
b
E
j
P
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=u
,
and

then






where is the power spectral density of the mobile receiver and is
given by:

where F is the noise figure of the mobile receiver with typical values
of 5-9 dB.
W N P
o N
=
DL
N
j
j
R
W
j
o
N
b
E
j
L W
o
N
total
P
q
u
÷
¿
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
o
N
F KT N
o o
=
Throughput per cell



where N is the number of users per cell, R is the bit rate and
is the block error rate.


( ) BLER R N Throughout ÷ · · = 1
BLER

Link budget approach

• Pros
- Enables fast planning of coverage for a pre-specified uniform load
- Skilled 3G staff not a requirement

• Cons
- Too simplistic for WCDMA where coverage/capacity/QoS are
closely related
- The final performance of the network cannot be derived based on
this method
- Mix of traffic cannot be taken into account
Phase2 :Detailed capacity and coverge planning

• In this phase, real propagation data from the planned area and the
estimated user density and user traffic are used.

• The output of this phase are the base station locations, configuration and
network parameters.

Static simulation approach
Coverage/traffic/QoS requirements
Input existing 2G sites which can be
upgraded to 3G
Refine design, put new sites using
Planner’s individual judgment
WCDMA static simulator
Coverage/capacity/QoS
Satisfied?
End.
No
Yes
Static simulation approach
•Pros
- Average QoS, capacity and coverage may be assessed for a mix
of traffic

•Cons
- Can only be run on a limited area, typical figures for running time
for a 3 Km x 3 Km area is ~5-8 hours on a Unix work station
- Manual judgment must be exercised in interpreting the results and
making decisions to improve the plan.
- Plans may need to be iterated several times (on average 5 times)
before the desired capacity/QoS/ coverage is achieved. This takes
total planning time for a 3 Km x 3 Km to ~1 to 2 working days at best!
- Skilled 3G a prerequisite


Phase 3 : Optimisation Phase

Network optimiser

•Optimises WCDMA FDD network plan minimising the number of sites
required to achieved the coverage/traffic/QoS targets set by the user.

•An Optimiser also automatically selects the most appropriate antenna
tilt, direction and sectorisation in order to achieve the required
coverage/traffic/QoS.
Network optimiser


Feed in your site portfolio
Set optimisation criteria
Run Optimiser algorithms
End
Optimisation phase
Coverage information
WCDMA FDD
parameters
Traffic information
Site locations
Optimisation criteria
Optimiser
Optimised site
locations
Coverage,
Capacity/QOS
statistics
Reference

“WCDMA for UMTS”, Edited by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala,
Second edition, John Wiley & Son Ltd, ISBN 0-470-84467-1.




Radio Network Planning
A radio network planning consists of three phases: 1. Network Dimensioning (using link budgets) 2. Detailed capacity and coverage planning (using planning tools) 3. Network optimisation (using optimisation tool)

Phase 1 :Network Dimensioning
Dimensioning the WCDMA radio network includes : • radio link budget and coverage analysis, • capacity estimation and • estimation of the amount of network equipment (such as number of BSs and RNCs) These estimations will be based on the operator’s requirements on coverage, capacity and quality of service.

0 dB in the coverage-limited cases.WCDMA-specific parameters in the link budget compared to those parameters used in a TDMA-based radio systems are: 1. Interference margin The value of the interference margin used in the link budget depends on the loading of the cell. Typical values are 1. the smaller is the coverage area. Higher is the value of the interference margin in the uplink. corresponding to 20-50% loading.0-3. .

.Fast fading margin For slow-moving mobiles.2.0 dB should be included in the link budget. a fast fading margin in the range of 2.0 dB.Soft handover gain Due to uncorrelated channels from the MS to the BSs. handover gives a gain against slow fading. The total handover gain can be assumed to be in the range of 2. 3.0-3. Also.0-5. to take care of fast fading effect. soft handover gives an additional macro diversity gain against fast fading.

Link budget approach Coverage requirement for a specific data rate with uniform load Derive Link Budget Input existing 2G sites that can be Upgraded to 3G Refine design. put new sites using Planner’s individual judgment Coverage satisfied? Yes End No .

Uplink Link Budget Example A B C D E F G H Mobile transmit power (125 mW) Mobile antenna gain Body loss Mobile EIRP (A+B-C) Thermal noise density Base station receiver noise figure Receiver noise density (E+F) 21 dBm 0 dBi 3 dB 18 dBm -174 dBm/Hz 5 dB -169 dBm/Hz Chip rate 3.84 Mchip/s .

2 Kb/s Processing gain (10 log (H/L) ) Required Eb/No Base station antenna gain 25 dB 5 dB 14 dBi Base station receiver sensitivity (K-M+N) -120.2 dBm .2 dBm 3 dB -100.2 dBm 12.I J K L M N O P Receiver noise power (G + 10log H) Interference Margin (noise rise) Total effective noise & interference (I+J) Data rate -103.

2 dB .Q R S T U Cable losses in the base station Lognormal shadowing margin In-car loss Soft handover gain Maximum path loss for cell range (D-O+P-Q-R-S+T) 2 dB 9 dB 8 dB 4 dB 137.

4 + 35.Cell range From the link budget. for example the Okumura-Hata model.2 log 10 ( R ) .2 log 10 ( R ) where L is the path loss in dB and R is the cell range in Km.5m and carrier frequency of 1950 MHz is given by: L = 137. mobile antenna Height of 1. For suburban areas we assume an additional area correction factor of 8 dB and therefore the path loss is: L = 129. the cell range R can be easily calculated using a known propagation model.4 + 35. The Okumura-Hata propagation model for an urban macro-cell with base station antenna height of 30m.

i ranges from 0.Some Definitions Ratio of other cell to own cell interference i I other I own In the uplink.) .2 ( poor radio network planning.15 (very well isolated microcells) to 1. it is calculated for the BS. it is calculated for each MS and therefore depends on the MS location. therefore i is similar for all connections within one cell. However in the downlink.

i is defined as: i= I othe r Pj where I other is the power received from other BSs and pj is the power received from the serving BS. • Noise rise I total noise rise = PN  Pj  I own  I other  PN PN .For the downlink.

The capacity per cell depends on the amount of interference per cell. Rj is the bit rate of user j and I totalthe total received wideband power including thermal noise power in the BS. supported traffic per BS. j (1) where W is the chiprate. j I total Pr . .Uplink load factor equation  Eb   W  No  j  j R j   Pr .Capacity estimation The second part of dimensining is to estimate the capacity per cell i. hence it can be calculated from the load equations. . pr.  j is the activity factor of user j..e.j is the received signal power for mobile user j.

one can obtain L j as: Lj  1 1     Eb N o  R j  j j     w (3) .Equation (1) can be rewritten as: Pr. j  we define 1 1     P . j  L j I total r Eb N o   R j  j   j  w I total (2) where L j is the load factor of one connection. Using this equation and equation (2).

excluding the thermal noise PN .can be written as: N N I total  PN   Pr. we can obtain . j   L j I total j 1 j 1 The noise rise is defined as: (4) Noise rise  I total PN (5) and using (4).The total received interference.

then one can write .Noise rise  I total PN  1 1  L j j 1 N 1  1 (6) UL where UL is defined as the uplink load factor and equals to: UL N   Lj j 1 (7) when UL becomes close to 1. the corresponding noise rise approaches to infinity and system has reached its pole capacity. If the interference from the other cells is taken into account.

we can write  Eb  R  No    W 1 . -10 log(1-UL ).e.. For an all – voice service network. The interference margin used in the link budget must be equal to the maximum planned noise rise i.UL N N  (1  i )  L j  (1  i )  j 1 j  11        1 W Eb No       (9)  R j  j j where i is the ratio of other cells to own cell interference. where all N users in the cell have a low bit rate of R.

and hence equation (9) is simplified to E  b       UL  No R W N    (1  i ) .

. j  L j PN and hence. j  Eb     W No   j R j PN  j In the absence of interferences. we defined Pr. one can write Pr .cell interferences.and inter. .Downlink load factor In the absence of intra.

we have  1  1     i     Eb L j    j j j  No         j W   Rj   where  j is the orthogonality of the channel of mobile user j. Its value depends on the channel multipath fading . i j is the ratio of other cell to own cell base station power.and inter. received by the mobile user j.P. j  Eb  1 r Lj     j  No  PN    j W   Rj    when we take into account both intra.cell interferences. . where  j = 1 means no multipath fading.

The downlink load factor is defined as:  DL N   Lj j 1 N   j j 1 E  b      No    W Rj j  1   j   i j        since. be approximated by their average values across the cell. i and  j depends on the location of the mobile user and they should . therefore. j . in the uplink. i and  j .

The average value of the downlink load can then be approximated as:  DL N   j j 1 E  b    No Rj      j W 1     i  the noise rise is given by: noise rise when  10 log 1  DL  Interference margin   DL  1  noise rise  the system approaches its pole capacity. .

Total BS transmission power The total BS transmission power can be written as: L N P total  1DL j 1  Pr . j where L is the average attennation between the BS and mobile receiver (6 dB less than the maximum path loss) E  since   Pr . j   j    b No    Rj j W PN .

and then PN  N oW N N oW L  j 1 P total   E  b j   W    No          j 1DL Rj where N o is the power spectral density of the mobile receiver and is given by: N o  KTo F where F is the noise figure of the mobile receiver with typical values of 5-9 dB. .

. R is the bit rate and BLER is the block error rate.Throughput per cell Throughout  N  R  1  BLER  where N is the number of users per cell.

The final performance of the network cannot be derived based on this method .Enables fast planning of coverage for a pre-specified uniform load .Link budget approach • Pros .Too simplistic for WCDMA where coverage/capacity/QoS are closely related .Mix of traffic cannot be taken into account .Skilled 3G staff not a requirement • Cons .

Phase2 :Detailed capacity and coverge planning • In this phase. configuration and network parameters. . • The output of this phase are the base station locations. real propagation data from the planned area and the estimated user density and user traffic are used.

Static simulation approach Coverage/traffic/QoS requirements Input existing 2G sites which can be upgraded to 3G Refine design. put new sites using Planner’s individual judgment WCDMA static simulator Coverage/capacity/QoS Satisfied? No End. Yes .

capacity and coverage may be assessed for a mix of traffic •Cons .Plans may need to be iterated several times (on average 5 times) before the desired capacity/QoS/ coverage is achieved. typical figures for running time for a 3 Km x 3 Km area is ~5-8 hours on a Unix work station . . This takes total planning time for a 3 Km x 3 Km to ~1 to 2 working days at best! .Manual judgment must be exercised in interpreting the results and making decisions to improve the plan.Skilled 3G a prerequisite .Average QoS.Can only be run on a limited area.Static simulation approach •Pros .

Phase 3 : Optimisation Phase Network optimiser •Optimises WCDMA FDD network plan minimising the number of sites required to achieved the coverage/traffic/QoS targets set by the user. . •An Optimiser also automatically selects the most appropriate antenna tilt. direction and sectorisation in order to achieve the required coverage/traffic/QoS.

Network optimiser Feed in your site portfolio Set optimisation criteria Run Optimiser algorithms End .

Capacity/QOS statistics Site locations Optimisation criteria .Optimisation phase Coverage information WCDMA FDD parameters Traffic information Optimised site locations Optimiser Coverage.

Edited by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala.Reference “WCDMA for UMTS”. ISBN 0-470-84467-1. John Wiley & Son Ltd. Second edition. .

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