Jeuz Koz Geluz Joy Empig

Nicolas Leblanc invented a method of making alkali soda from salt that became one of the most important chemical processes of the nineteenth century.


The preparation of soap through a chemical reaction is known as saponification.  Historically, soaps were made by boiling the fat of an animal in a solution containing potash. Today this process is known to be the reaction of fatty acids with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. The hydrolysis of the fat or oil results in the formation of glycerol and soap.


Heat the mixture in water bath Stir to prevent spattering.5 g of Sodium Hydroxide and 20 ml. of hydrogenated shortening. cold water Water bath and stir the remaining soap and cool .METHODOLOGY Heat a water bath about two thirds with water t o boiling Dissolve 2. of Ethyl Alcohol in 5 ml distilled water Add the solution to 5g. Dilute soap Add to brine solution Stir the mixture Collect the precipitate Wash the soap twice Dissolve 2g soap in 10 ml.

TEST FOR THE SOAP • Determination of the melting point • Color. appearance and odor Physical Properties • Test the ph of the soap solution Chemical test To 10 ml proportion of the soap • Add 1 ml 0.1 % calcium chloride • Shake vigorously • Repeat procedures for dilute magnesium chloride and ferric chloride solution . texture.

Collect precipitate Wash with 20 ml. cold water • Add 2ml of Methylene Chloride Test Solubility Test with mineral oil • Add 4 drops in soap solution • Add 4 drops 10 ml. water .TEST FOR THE SOAP • • To 50 ml of the • soap solution • Add dilute hydrochloric acids to Congo Red Cool mixture in Ice.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Sodium hydroxide is a highly corrosive base. Prolonged exposure to vapors can cause headaches. The filtrate from this experiment should be disposed in appropriate labeled waste container in hood after use. Ethanol is flammable and also toxic. . Place excess in appropriate labeled waste container in hood after use. Contact with skin will cause irritation and burning. Place excess in appropriate labeled waste container in hood after use.


DATA Theoretical Yield Actual Yield Percent Yield Calculations: C51H9806 + 3NaOH  C3H8O3 + Na3C48H93O6 Fat: 5 grams NaOH: 2. .019molsoap 806 g fat 1molfat 5.28 g.5 grams MW of fat: 806g/mol MW of NaOH: 40g/mol MW of Glycerol: 92g/mol MW of soap: 278g/mol Fat: 5gfat x 1molfat x 3molsoap = 0.

062molsoap Theoretical Yield 0.28g .28gsoap 1molsoap Percent Yield %yield = Xg x 100 = X 5.NaOH: 2.5gNaOH x 1molNaOH x 3molsoap = 40gNaOH 3molNaOH 0.019molsoap x 278gsoap = 5.

RESULTS Physical Properties Appearance Color Odor Solid mass White Odorless Chemical Properties Ph (litmus paper) Calcium Chloride Magnesium Chloride Ferric Chloride Solubility Mineral Oil Mineral oil and water Basic Cloudy solution White solution Yellow solution Soluble Miscible Immiscible Texture Melting Point Powdery 78C-88C .


 The carboxylate end is called hydrophilic (waterloving). it dissolves in water because of the carboxylate group.  It dissolves in water.  . Na[C17H35CO2]. forming the sodium and stearate ions. and the hydrocarbon tail is called hydrophobic (water-fearing).SOAP Most soaps are soluble sodium or potassium salts of carboxylic acids. Even though most of the stearate ion is a hydrocarbon chain.  The most common commercial soap is sodium stearate.

SOAP  The salt of the fatty acid .

 They are integral for cell membranes to separate compartments within the cell.LIPIDS Lipids are one of the four major classes of biomolecules (along with carbohydrates. and can act as chemical messengers in the endocrine system and throughout the body.proteins and nucleic ands).  They store energy in the body for use when food is not readily available.  .

FATTY ACIDS Fatty acids are straight-chain monocarboxylic acids. while unsaturated fatty acids have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds in their chains.  The most common fatty acids range in size from 10-20 carbons and most often have an even number of carbon atoms including the carboxyl group carbon.  .  The carbon-carbon bonds in saturated fatty acids are all single bonds.

 The bond between the fatty acid and the glycerol backbone is referred to as an ester linkage. the ester linkage is broken to form glycerol and soap.  Triglycerides consist of a three-membered carbon chain (glycerol backbone) with a fatty acid bonded to each of the three carbon atoms in the glycerol backbone.FATTY ACIDS Fatty acids are seldom found as free molecules in nature but are most often a part of a larger molecule called a triglyceride.  .  In the saponification process.

Triacylglycerols are the form of lipid energy storage in the body. In the body. they are broken down by the addition of a water molecule.TRIACYLGLCEROLS Triacylglycerols in fats and oils have no ionic charges. and they also provide thermal insulation and protective padding.  TAGs can be hydrolyzed into their component fatty acids and alcohols – that is. and are nonpolar and hydrophobic. enzymes known as hydrolases carry out this hydrolysis.  . This reaction can also be carried out in the laboratory by a process called saponification – where the hydrolysis is carried out in the presence of a strong base (such as NaOH or KOH).

soap.Soap is made by treating fats with a strong solution of lye (NaOH). These are nearly insoluble in water. The ester functional groups are hydrolyzed releasing its alcohol portion as glycerol and the acid portions as the a mixture of the sodium salts of the fatty acid. SAPONIFICATION MECHANISM . and are washed and compressed into a cake -. The glycerol is water soluble and is separated from the fatty acid salts.

It follows the normal pattern for a carboxylic acid derivative and the first step is analogous to basecatalyzed hydration of aldehydes -. the OR'.attack of the nucleophile hydroxide ion at the carbonyl carbon atom.of the ester). SAPONIFICATION MECHANISM . Since the OR'is more basic than RCOO-. This is followed by the usual departure of the leaving group (in this case. the last step is a neutralization reaction. which is called saponification) can be illustrated more easily on a simple ester than a fat.The mechanism of this reaction.

Soaps are "bridge" molecules. Since much of the dirt we hope to get rid of is held in place by oily films.To finish up. Their long hydrocarbon chains are very much like oils. removing the oils removes the dirt. If we imagine a small globule of oily material which has dissolved a bunch of soap molecules. MICELLE . so that the oily glob is coated with water molecules that are held there by the ions. we need to look at how soaps work and how that relates to their structures. we can see that the polar ionic heads will stick out (insoluble in oil) at the surface. At the same time. These polar bumps on the surface attract water molecules. In fact. their ionic heads are polar enough to dissolve in water. so they mix well with oils. The glob is now ready to be washed away in water. we can say that the chains of soap dissolve in oils.

The structural requirements for a soap (or more generally. SYNTHETIC DETERGENT . for a detergent) are a long hydrocarbon tail (12 or more carbons) and a polar (often ionic) head. the hydrocarbon tail is usually formed by linking several ethylene molecules together and attaching this to a benzene ring. In synthetic detergents. The polar part is derived by covalently bonding the sulfur of a sulfate ion to the benzene ring.

GUIDE QUESTIONS What is the reaction involved in the synthesis of soap?  Saponification  Salting Out  .

.GUIDE QUESTIONS  Write the reaction pathway and mechanism for the synthesis of soap.

. So. glycerol and unreacted NaOH. The addition of sodium chloride or some other electrolyte to a solution of a monelectrolyte reduces the solubility of the latter. The soap is forced out of solution or precipitated by the addition of a NaCl solution. soap is removed from the water.GUIDE QUESTIONS   Why was the dilute solution poured in a solution of sodium chloride in water? The process of pouring a diluted solution in a solution of sodium chloride in water is known as “salting-out”. The salt increases the density of the solution. the final product will be the sodium salt of the fatty acid. The NaCl solution provides Na+ and Cl. thus. and help separate the water from the soap.ions that bind to the polar water molecules.

 Soap is normally made from sodium or potassium salts which are soluble in water. When the carboxylate anions from these salts combine with certain ions such as calcium.  .GUIDE QUESTIONS Explain the result obtained when the dilute soap solution is treated with calcium chloride. magnesium chloride and ferric chloride solutions. soap molecules will form an insoluble precipitate known as a soap scum. magnesium. and iron ions that are found in hard water.

the soap molecules work as a bridge between polar water molecules and non-polar oil molecules. An emulsifier is capable of dispersing one liquid into another immiscible liquid. with non-polar hydrocarbons. Since soap molecules have both properties of non-polar and polar molecules the soap can act as an emulsifier. . The soap will form micelles and trap the fats within the micelle. This means that while oil. are mixed with a soap. it can easily be washed away. When grease or oil. which attracts dirt. soap can suspend oil/dirt in such a way that it can be removed. doesn't naturally mix with water.GUIDE QUESTIONS   How does the soap function as an emulsifying agent for oil In water? Draw a picture of an oil droplet and several soap molecules to illustrate your answer.water solution. Since the micelle is soluble in water.


draw the structure of an organic molecule that might be more suitable. . Would soap be a reasonable choice for the emulsifying agent if the water were slightly acidic? Why? If it would not be a good choice.APPLICATION  Suppose that you wanted to emulsify a waterinsoluble compound in water.

If you put a soap into an acidic solution (pH < 4. the carboxylate group will be protonated: .Soap is sensitive to acidic solutions.5).

5. which is not surface-active. leads to the formation of a scum. which. This forms an uncharged.The protonation of oleate ion to form oleic acid can occur at pH below 4. like hard water. so it is no longer soluble in water. Soaps are not suitable for use in acidic conditions. The soap molecules precipitate out forming a cloudy mixture. The protonated soap molecule does not have a charged head. insoluble molecule. .

Because of this. . they do have disadvantages. they are converted by mineral acids into free fatty acids which do not have any cleaning ability: CH3(CH2)16CO2-Na+ + HCl ----> CH3(CH2)16CO2H + Na+ + ClThese fatty acids are less soluble than the sodium or potassium salts and form a precipitate or soap scum. As salts of weak acids.Although soaps are excellent cleansers. soaps are ineffective in acidic water.


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful