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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Heat Recovery Steam Generators

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

What is HRSG / WHRB ?

HRSG : Heat Recovery Steam Generator Recovers heat energy available in GT Exhaust and Generates Steam WHRB : Waste Heat Recovery Boiler Recovers heat energy available in the Waste Gases from various Processes
Steam out

Flue Gas in

HRSG or WHRB

Flue Gas out

Feed water in

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Heat Recovery Steam Generators behind Gas Turbines

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Why HRSG ?
Conventional Boiler & STG 35-40 Simple Cycle 23-42 Gas turbine based Combined Cogen Cycle 38 60 75 - 90 Combined Cycle Cogen 50 - 70

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSG Applications
HRSGs are used in:

Combined Cycle Power Plants to provide steam to a steam turbine

Cogeneration Plants to provide steam for industrial processes

Combined Cycle Cogeneration Plants to provide steam to a steam turbine and the extraction from steam turbine is used for industrial processes

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Efficiency Levels

Conventional Boiler & STG 35-40

Simple Cycle 23-42

Gas turbine based Combined Cogen Cycle 38 60 75 - 90

Combined Cycle Cogen 50 - 70

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Combined Cycle Application

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Combined Cycle Plant

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Popular Gas Turbines


Model Power MW (ISO)

GE G3142(J) PG5371(PA) PG6561(B) PG6101(FA) PG9171(E) PG9351 (FA) Siemens V94.2 V94.2A V94.3A

Fr 3 Fr 5 Fr 6 Fr 6FA Fr 9E Fr 9FA

10.45 26.3 42.1 70.14 123.4 255.6

V94.2 V94.2A V94.3A

157 190 265

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

No of HRSGs supplied to Combined cycle plants by BHEL


Gas Turbines GE Fr5 2 GE Fr6 14 GE Fr6FA 5 Total GE Fr 9E 7 V94.2 7# Others 14 * 49

WH/W191(3 Nos); MES/SB30(1 No) ; MHI Fr 6 (4 Nos); ALST PG6541B(6 Nos)


#4

HRSGs of Wagner Biro Design

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Plant Configuration Options


HRSG Output (Approx.) TPH 20 40 58+14 110+8+8 185+35 230+45 270+45+30 ST Power (Approx.) MW 5 10 22 35 60 80 110 CCP Power (Approx.) MW 14 30 55 100 165 220 330

MODEL

GT Power (MW) ISO 10.45 26.3 42.1 70.14 123.4 157 255.6 Site (~) 9 20 33 65 105 140 220

G3142(J) PG5371(PA) PG6561(B) PG6101(FA) PG9171(E) V94.2 PG9351(FA)

Fr3 Fr5 Fr6 Fr6FA Fr9E V94.2 Fr9FA

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

100 MW Plant Configuration Options

Fr6 GT

2P HRSG
STG

Fr6 GT

2P HRSG

Fr6FA GT

3P HRSG

STG

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350 MW Plant Configuration Options

Fr9E GT

2P HRSG
STG

Fr9E GT

2P HRSG

Fr9FA GT

3PR HRSG

STG

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1300 MW Plant Configuration

Fr9FA GT

3PR HRSG
STG

Fr9FA GT

3PR HRSG

Fr9FA GT

3PR HRSG STG

Fr9FA GT

3PR HRSG

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Heat Recovery Steam Generators


for Gas Turbines upto 60 MWe

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 5 GT

Customer

Power Output

No of units

Pressure Level

Parameters t/h kg/cm


2

In operation from

PPCL, Karaikal

32.5 MW 1GT+1HRSG+1ST

HP

48.3

45.5

390

1999

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 6 GT
Customer Power Output No of units Pressure Level HP LP HP LP HP LP HP LP HP HP LP Parameters t/h 59.3 10.8 58.4 12.4 59.5 11 57.5 11.5 59.7 60.1 15.4 kg/cm2 62 5 62 5 62 5 62 5 41 80 6 C 483 SAT 483 SAT 483 SAT 483 SAT 473 520 200 In operation from

AECO, Vatwa GIPCL, Baroda APSEB, Vijjeswaram GEB, Utran NEEPCO, Kathalguri RVUNL, Ramgarh

98 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST 146 MW 3GTs+3HRSGs+3ST 97 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST 146 MW 3GTs+3HRSGs+3ST 103 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST 109 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST

2 3 2 3 2 2

1990 1990 1990 1991 1994 2003

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Heat Recovery Steam Generators for

Higher Capacity Gas Turbines


(60 160 MWe)

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Triple Pressure HRSGs behind Fr 6FA GTs


Customer Power Output No of units Pressure Level HP 1 IP LP HP 1 IP LP HP 1 IP LP HP 1 IP LP HP 1 IP LP Parameters t/h 110.6 9.6 8.1 105.4 8.6 7 113.1 8.7 7.5 110.7 8.2 8.2 118.2 8.3 6.6 kg/cm 107 30 6 107 30 6 107 30 6 107 27.5 4.87 107 30 6
2

C 537 260 200 537 260 200 537 260 200 542 317 227 542 260 200

In operation from

107.88 MW TNEB, Kovilkalappal 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 105 MW TNEB, Perungulam 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 100 MW GSECL, Dhuvaran 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 100 MW TNEB, Kuttalam 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 107 MW 1GT+1HRSG+1ST

2001

2003

2003

2004

GSECL, Dhuvaran Phase-II

Under Execution

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 6FA GTs (70.14 MW ISO)


Customer
Tamilnadu Tamil Nadu Electricity Board Electricity Board HP
Parameters Steam flow t/h Pressure kg/cm2(a) Temperature C

IP

LP 8.1 6.0 200

110.6
107 537 NG

9.6
30 260

GT Fuels Commissioning Salient Features

February 2001 Top supported

Module ht 12.1m
Two width 94 Modules

1 No HRSG for 107 MW CCPP at TNEB,Kovilkalappal,India.

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 9E GT
Customer Power Output Pressure No of units Level HP LP HP LP HP LP HP LP Parameters t/h 176 45.6 188.4 39.8 180.2 37.1 187.1 39.8 kg/cm2 80 6 80 6 76.6 5.8 79.2 6 C 520 200 520 200 520 200 514 200 In operation from

GIPCL, Baroda NTPC, Kayamkulam DVB, Pragati RVUNL-Dholpur

165 MW 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 350 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST 330 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST 330 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST

1 2 2 2

1998 1999 2003 Under Execution

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 9E GTs (123.4 MW ISO)


Customer National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd
Parameters Steam flow t/h Pressure kg/cm2(a) Temperature C

HP 188.4 80 520

LP 39.5 6.0 200

GT Fuels
Commissioning Salient Features

Naptha/NG/HSD October 1999 Top supported Module ht 18.8m CPH re-circulation Two width 102 Modules

2 Nos HRSGs for 350MW CCPP at NTPC,Kayamkulam,India.

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind V94.2 GT


No of Pressure units Level HP LP HP LP HP LP Parameters t/h 225.9 46.7 226.7 46.1 231 46.3 kg/cm2 65.3 4.8 79 6 80 5 C 530 200 525 200 530 200 In operation from

Customer

Power Output

NTPC, Dadri TEC, Trombay NTPC, Faridabad

817 MW 4GTs+4HRSGs+2ST 200 MW 1GT+1HRSG+1ST 400 MW 2GTs+2HRSGs+1ST

4 1 2

1992 1994 2000

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Dual Pressure HRSG behind V94.2 GT (157 MW ISO)


Customer Tata Electric Company, Trombay HP 226.7 80 525 LP 46.1 7.0 200

Parameters Steam flow t/h Pressure kg/cm2(a) Temperature C

GT Fuels Commissioning Salient Feaures

NG/HSD/Naphtha October 1994 Bottom supported Module ht 16.3m

Three width

HRSG for 200 MW CCPP at TEC,Trombay,India.

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Heat Recovery Steam Generators


for Advanced Class Gas Turbines

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Triple Pressure Reheat HRSG


For maximum heat recovery from GT exhaust & better Combined Cycle Heat Rate HP Steam to ST IP Steam to CRH or GT Injection ; HRH Steam to ST LP Steam to Deaerator / ST

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Arrangement of Reheat System

HP

Hot Reheat Cold Reheat

IP

LP

HP Main Steam
HP Drum

IP Main Steam

LP Main Steam

IP Drum

LP Drum

H P S H II

R H II

H P S H IB

R H I

H P S H IA

H P E V

H P E C II

I P S H

I P E V

I P E C

H P E C I

L P S H

L P E V

C P H

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheat System
Ideally Suited for Advanced Class GTs due to the high level of GT exhaust flow and temperature

Features
Identical steam temperature for both HP Superheater / Reheater Sandwiching of Superheater and Reheater sections

Optimum steam side pressure drop


Cascaded Bypass system for Reheater for Normal Start up / Shut down Upset conditions like rapid load rejection and unit trip
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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Reheater Arrangement
Hot RH Steam HP Stea m Cold RH Steam
IP Steam

HP Drum

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Steam Parameters
For Combined Cycle System, Optimum Steam Pressure and
temperature levels for Triple Pressure Reheat System are HP : 120-130 bar and 535-565C RH : 28-30 bar and 535-565C LP : 4-7 bar and 200-230 C Steam Flow rates for three Pressure levels are decided based on optimum pinch and approach temperatures

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Co-generation Application

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Fired Cogeneration Plant


With FD Fan Mode Option
Fuel

Air
FD Fan
Fresh Air Exhaust

HRSG

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Supplementary Fired HRSG

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Fuels For Supplementary Firing

Natural gas

Naphtha
HSD

Kerosene
Light Diesel Oil Intermediate Fuel Oil (Residual Oil) Other distillate fuel oils ( LSHS etc )

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Duct Burner(Gas) Arrangement

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Duct Burner(Oil) Arrangement

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

No of HRSGs supplied to Industrial customers by BHEL


GE Fr3 Unfired Fired 6 GE Fr5 Unfired 6 Fired 21 GE Fr6 Unfired Fired 24 Other GTs Unfired 1* Fired 5#

HRSGs behind Gas Turbines


HRSGs for other applications

63
9@

ALST/MS 5001; Upto HPCL-Visakh

JBE/Fr5(2Nos); MES/SB60(3Nos)

sponge iron plant

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs behind Fr 5 GTs (26.3 MW ISO)


Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Barauni

Customer Plant Parameters Steam flow, t/h Pressure , kg/cm2(a) Temperature, C GT Fuel HRSG Fuel Commissioned in Salient Features

48.2 40 440 Naptha/Gas/HSD Unfired 2001 Module ht 10.4m Single width 21 Modules

2 Nos HRSGs for IOCL, Barauni

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HRSG behind Fr5 GT with FD Mode Option


Customer Plant Parameters Steam flow, t/h Pressure , kg/cm2(a) Temperature, C GT Fuel HRSG Fuel Commissioned in Salient Features Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd Gandhar GT+SF Mode 62 46 443 FD Mode 64.8 46 443

NG Fuel Gas 1997 Module ht 8.3m Single width 27 Modules

HRSG With FD Fan Mode

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Duct Fired HRSG behind Fr 6 GT (38.34 MW ISO)


Customer Plant Parameters Steam flow, t/h Pressure , kg/cm2(a) Temperature, C GT Fuel HRSG Fuel Commissioned in Salient Features Reliance Industries Ltd PG Hazira Jamnagar

Steam Drum

125 125 125 105 118 116 500 512 510 NG/Naptha/HSD NG/Naptha / HSD / Kerosene 1995 1996-99 1999

GT Exhaust

S H

D B

S H

E V A P

E C O

13 Nos HRSG for RIL-Patalganga/ Hazira / Jamnagar, India.

Module ht 8.3m Two width 66 Modules 125 tph even at 20MW GT load (~3 times unfired output)

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Duct Fired HRSG behind Fr 6 GT (38.34 MW ISO)


Customer Plant Parameters Steam flow, t/h Pressure , kg/cm2(a) Temperature, C GT Fuel HRSG Fuel Commissioned in Salient Features Indian Petrochemicals Ltd Gandhar GT+SF Mode FD Mode
DB SH EVAP ECO Steam Drum

100 100 108 108 513 513 Naptha/HSD Naptha / HSD / LDO 1997 Module ht 8.3m Two width 56 Modules MCR Steam Output Even in FD Mode Duct burner for 90Mkcal/h

GT Exhaust FD Fan

1 No HRSG behind Fr 6 GT for IPCL-Gandhar

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Furnace Fired HRSGs behind Fr 6 GTs (39.62 MW ISO)


Indian Oil Corporation Ltd Panipat
Membrane Wall Water Cooled Furnace SH Steam Drum

Customer Plant Parameters Steam flow, t/h Pressure , kg/cm2(a) Temperature, C GT Fuel HRSG Fuel Commissioned in Salient Features

110 48 405 Naptha/HSD IFO / HSD 2001

EVAP

ECO

MUH

GT Exhaust

Module ht 12.1m Single width 40 Modules Furnace Fired HRSG

4 Nos HRSGs for IOCL-Panipat Integrated Power Plant, India.

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs Vs Conventional Boilers

HRSG Gas/Steam Ratio 3.5-7.0

Conventional Boilers 1.0-1.2

Gas Inlet Temp. C

< 650

>1200

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs Vs Conventional Boilers


In HRSGs

GT exhaust is the main heat source - no need for a firing system(unless supplementary fired).

Positive pressure of GT exhaust provides draft no need for fans (except FD Mode)
Steam generation at multiple pressure levels Heat transfer is predominantly through convection

HRSGs do not generally use membrane wall construction


Finned tubes used for compactness and maximum heat transfer

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs-Classification
Gas flow direction Circulation Firing Pressure Levels Reheater
Horizontal Natural Unfired Single Reheat Modular Vertical Assisted / Forced Duct Fired Multiple Non-Reheat Coil Design Once -Through Furnace Fired

Construction
Width

Single

Double

Triple

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

BHEL HRSGs - Road Map


1977 : First HRSG for Namrup, Assam - Based on In house Design 1982 : First Supplementary Fired HRSG for ONGC, Uran - In house design 1986 : First Furnace Fired, Dual Pressure HRSG with FD mode for ONGC-Hazira (Fr5 GT) 1988* : Technical Collaboration with

1989 : Auto Trip Transfer established within 1 minute at ONGC-Hazira


1991 : First Dual Pressure Triple width HRSG behind V94.2 GT for TEC-Trombay 1999 : First Triple Pressure HRSG behind Fr 6FA GT for TNEB-Kovilkalappal 2003 : First Furnace fired HRSG for firing Heavy Fuel Oil for IOCL-Panipat * Extended upto 2010

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

BHEL Experience - HRSGs & WHRBs


Fired
Sponge Iron Kiln Siemens-V 94.2 GE/BHEL Fr 9E GE/BHEL-Fr 6FA GE/BHEL-Fr 6 GE/BHEL-Fr 5 GE/BHEL-Fr 3 ALST-Fr 6 ALST-MS5001 JBE-Fr 5 MHI-Fr6 MES-SB60 MES-SB30 Westinghouse-W191

Unfired
9

7 7 5 8 6 6 1 2 1 3 3 4 14 24 21

WHRB (Sponge Iron) Combined Cycle Cogeneration Unfired Supplementary Fired Total

9 49 7 56

- 121
14 16 18 20 22 24 26

10

12

ALST-Alsthome Atlantique, France JBE-John Brown Engg, UK

MHI-Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan MES-Mitsui Engg & Shipbuilding, Japan

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Features of BHEL HRSGs


Triple Pressure Reheat Natural circulation

Horizontal configuration
Modular construction Fully drainable sections

Top Supported
Complete internal insulation Composite Angle Inlet Transition duct

Despatched as Loose Modules


Insulation at Site
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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Modular Construction
Single Row Module

Two Row Module

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Arrangement of Modules

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Arrangement of HRSG

SH

Evaporator

Economiser

DESH

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Natural Circulation HRSG


Horizontal Gas Flow Vertical Tubes

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Internal Insulation
Outer Duct Casing Internal Insulation Liner Plates

Flue Gas Path

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Manufacturing Facilities for HRSG

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Shop facilities

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Shop facilities

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Special facilities

Facility created for larger size HRSG Module Fabrication

Module Height Upto 26 m


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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Waste Heat Recovery Boiler For Process Plants

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Applications of WHRB

Recovering Heat in Industrial Exhausts from

Iron & Steel Plants


Copper / Zink Smelter Plants Diesel Engines Cement Plants Chemical / Fertiliser Plants

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

BHELs WHRBs

Sl No

Customer

Contract Year

Units

Steam Parameters Flow (t/h) Pressur e (ata) 53 53 Temp (C) 410 410

Fuel

Heat Source

Status

1 2

Prakash Industries Ltd, Chamba., MP Prakash Industries Ltd, Chamba., MP Sunflag Iron & Steel Co., Bhandra, Nagpur Maharastra.

1991 1994

1 1

46.8 46.8

Unfired Unfired

Sponge Iron Kiln Exhaust Sponge Iron Kiln Exhaust Sponge Iron Kiln Exhaust

In Operation since 1993 In Operation since 1996 In Operation since 1998

1994

45.0

65

485

Unfired

Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd, Meramandali, Orissa Jindal Stainless Ltd, Dubri Orissa

2004

55.4

105

540

Unfired

Sponge Iron Kiln Exhaust Ferro Chrome Kiln Exhaust

Under Execution Under Execution

2004

28.5

42

405

Unfired

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Typical General Arrangement of WHRB System for Sponge Iron Plant

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Arrangement of WHRB

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Salient Features of BHEL WHRBs


Single Drum, Natural circulation & Top Supported design

Fully drainable heat transfer sections with Horizontal / Inclined


tubes Two stage Superheater with interstage spray type attemperator

Non steaming Economiser


Economiser recirculation system Induced Draft fan

Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP)

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Salient Features of BHEL WHRBs


Features for handling sticky dust laden (~ 65 g/Nm3) kiln exhaust gas
at high temperature (~1000C) Fusion / Fin welded membrane wall construction Radiation chamber at inlet for reducing the gas temperature Plain tube heat transfer sections Inline Tube Arrangement Inter-Bank Soot blowers for on-load cleaning

Cassette baffles to protect economiser coil bends from erosion


No convective sections in First pass & superheater, Evaporator and economiser located in second/third passes Single / Multipass vertical (Downward and Upward) gas flow passes to enable positive dust settlement through hoppers
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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Design &

Operational Aspects

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSG Temperature Profile

Flue Gas Superheater Pinch Point Approach Point Evaporator Economiser

HRSG Inlet

HRSG Outlet

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Optimum Pinch & Approach Temperatures

Higher Pinch Point Lower Steam Qty - Less Material - Cheaper HRSG Lower Pinch Point Higher Steam Qty - More Material - Costlier HRSG Optimum Pinch Point (5 To 10 Deg.C) Higher Approach Point Lower Steam Qty - Less Material - Cheaper HRSG Steaming At Part Loads - Less likely Lower Approach Point Higher Steam Qty - More Material - Costlier HRSG Steaming At Part Loads - More likely Optimum Approach Point (5 to 10 Deg.C)

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Pinch Point
Pinch Point Steam Quantity Material HRSG Cost

Pinch Point Values Adopted Optimum : 5 - 10 .C Normal : 8 - 10 .C Low : < 8 .C

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Approach Point
Approach Temp Steam Quantity Material HRSG Cost Eco Steaming Possibility

Approach Temperature Values Adopted Optimum : 5 - 10C Normal : 8 - 10C Low : < 8 C

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Optimisation of Heat Transfer Sections Arrangement

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Unique aspects in HRSG Design


HRSG is a slave system No direct control over inputs More than one HRSG feeding a Single Steam Turbine (2-2-1) Multiple Pressure levels Sliding pressure operation

Condensate / makeup water heating


Protection against water / acid condensation Balancing the requirements at unfired / GT+SF / FD modes

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

GT Characteristics
GT output / exhaust parameters depend on

Ambient Temperature RH Site Elevation Back Pressure Inlet Air cooling System Injection Combustor Type IGV position

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Multiple Pressure Levels & Reheat System

Single Pressure Non Reheat % Efficiency : ~38-42

Dual Pressure Non Reheat % Efficiency : ~42-50 Widely Used

Triple Pressure Non Reheat % Efficiency : ~50-52

Triple Pressure Reheat % Efficiency : 55-58 (Single RH) / 60 (Double RH) For Advanced Class Gas Turbines

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

CPH / Deaerator System


LP Steam

ST

HRSG

CPH

Condenser

To HP Eco To IP Eco To LP Eco

HP BFP IP BFP LP BFP

GSC CEP

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CPH with Recirculation System


for Protection of CPH against Dew Point Corrosion

To Deaerator

From Condenser

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HRSG Start-up Considerations

Temperature difference across thick walled components Thermal stresses

Pressure stresses
Thermal stress plus pressure stress < Max. allowable stress

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HRSGs for CCPP - Present Trend


Dual / triple pressure levels Very high pressure High superheat temperature Low pinch Point Close approach Temperature

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs for Co-gen Plants - Present Trend

Increased steam demand / High supplementary firing Higher steam pressure and temperature Duct burner located between heat transfer surfaces SH steam temperature over a wide operating range

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

HRSGs for Co-gen Plants - Present Trend

MCR steam output even at GT Part load

Introduction of SF at low GT loads


MCR steam output even in forced draft fan mode Auto Trip Transfer Non steaming economiser for a wide operating range CPH to meet plant condensate requirements Heavy Fuel Oil / Blended Fuel Oil Firing

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Future Trends

Advanced Class GTs - 200 MW and above Reheat Cycle

Stringent Environmental Regulations Nox : < 25 ppm with gas firing < 65 ppm with Liquid fuels Design for Two-shift operation / Cycling
Auto Plant Startup / Auto Plant Regulation State - of - art C & I Two stage supplementary firing Supplementary firing in HRSGs behind large GTs

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Improvements

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Continuous Design Improvements


In-house Developments & Analyses Joint Work with Educational Institutions (IIT) Seminars and International Conference Operational feedback from more than 100 HRSGs Feed back from manufacturing & Erection groups

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

In-house Developments & Analyses


Scaled down model Study done In-house for Gas flow distribution in HRSGs Steam flow distribution in Superheater Modules CFD Modeling

Design of Flow Distribution Grid


Composite Angle Inlet Transition Ducting Steam Flow Distribution Increased No. of nozzles for better steam distribution in Superheater modules
Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Scale Down Model for Analysis of Gas Flow Distribution in HRSG Duct

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Optimisation of HRSG Inlet transition duct


Preferential Flow Pattern in Straight Transition Duct Uniform Flow Pattern in Straight Transition Duct with Distribution Grid

Streamlined Flow pattern in Composite Angle Duct

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Grid Plate Constructed with Flat Strips


Horizontal Strips

Outer Duct Casing


Internal Insulation

SS Liner

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Cold Flow Study of Steam Flow Distribution in Modules

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI


1.3

Results of Scaled down 3D Water flow model studies


Four pass -Bottom row

1.2

Four pass -Top row

1.1

VARIATION

0.9

0.8

Single pass - Bottom row Single pass - Top row

0.7 0 5 10 TUBE No. 15 20 25

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Effect of number / location of nozzles on Steam Flow Distribution

Uniform velocity

Low velocity region

High velocity region

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Further Improvements implemented in current HRSGs


Adoption of Single row module Adoption of smaller header for reduced thermal stress and fatigue damage Adoption of composite angle inlet transition duct and gas

distribution grid constructed of flat strips


Insulation of HRSG Casing done at site for reducing Erection Time

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Adoption of single row module


Modules with single row tube will eliminate additional bending stresses due to offset tube to header welds

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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Site Feedback

Strategy adopted at has considerably compressed the erection time Insulation of casings done in site

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Operational Flexibility of BHEL HRSGs


Single row modules

Better welding access & Ease of Manufacture Reduced header diameter & thickness, Reduced stress levels Uniform flow distribution/metal temperatures, reduced differential expansion between tubes in a module

Smaller headers

Increased number & proper location of inlet nozzles

Flexible connecting piping

Adequate flexibility in interconnecting piping to ensure unrestricted expansion of heat transfer modules

Adequately sized drains & vents


For quick draining/venting of all modules To minimise thermal shock in superheater

Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited TIRUCHIRAPALLI

Thank You
Boiler Performance & Proposals FBC & HRSG