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INTRODUCTION

Malaysians are easily identified due to the fact that they change their speaking styles in accordance with the person being spoken to. They may adopt a completely different slang and accent when speaking to someone of a different race, or of a similar race. This is not, however, a form of discrimination it is considered casual and endearing.

Source: http://blog.aizatto.com/2007/03/24/manglish-a-rojak-language/

DEFINITION OF MULTICULTURAL SOCIETY

Definition
Oxford 13th Edition : Multiracial made up of or relating to people of many races e.g.: Peranakan, Chindian, Chitty

Definition
Merriam-Webster Ethnic of or relating to large groups of people classed according to common racial, national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or background e.g.: Malay, Chinese, Indian, etc.

Definition
Merriam-Webster Dialect a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language e.g.: Kelantanese dialect, Penang dialect

Multiracial
Multiracial Groups in Malaysia Malaysia's multi-racial society contains many ethnic groups. Malays - majority of just over 50%. Chinese 25%, historically played an important role in trade and business. Indian 7% Non-Malay indigenous groups combine to make up approximately 11%.

Source : Department Of Statistic and Economic Planning Unit (2010).

2005
Total population Citizens Bumiputera Chinese Indian Others Non-citizens

2010 28.96 26.79 17.95 6.52 1.97 0.35 2.17

26.75 24.36 16.06 6.15 1.83 0.32 2.39

Source: http://www.malaxi.com/population_size_age_structure2001_2010.html

HISTORY AND MASTERY OF ENGLISH LEVEL IN MALAYSIA


During British Colonial Era ( 1786 1957 )

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


English in the colonial and postcolonial era was a necessity for Malaysians of various races to rise up the socioeconomic ladder. Hence, the objective of learning it was instrumental in nature. However, although this objective was later complemented by one that was integrative in nature, this role as was only to a select few, viz, as lingua franca among the people of various races who were English school educated. (pg. 63, The Linguistic Scenery in Malaysia, Asmah Haji Omar (1992), Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka)

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


In 19th century, British Empire expanded its mission of searching for gold, glory and propagating of gospel to Southeast Asia. First landed in Penang, headed by Sir Francis Light. In the beginning, communicated using sign language and English.

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


Expansion of trading, especially in town areas influenced the level of use of English among the people. Although Malay was the lingua franca during the 16th century, presence of British power in Malacca changed it to English.

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


Increase in educational facilities during British colonization period in Malaysia helped the spread of English. By 1950s, many types of schools opened for local people comprising of Malay, Chinese and Indian communities.

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


Divide and rule policy British empire formed vernacular schools to improve educational aspect of the people. British introduced English medium schools (high schools and convents), with English as language medium, and reference books imported from United Kingdom.

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


Only those who reached a certain level of education or graduated from the English medium schools were highly regarded in the society and were also given the chance to hold important civil service posts in government. However, the number of Malays students enrolling in English schools was very small, where most of them were children of royal families, businessmen and aristocrats.

Historical Background of English in Malaysia


The government has, since a long time ago, declared English as the second most important language in Malaysia after Malay language.
Source : English Language and the Language of Development : A Malaysian Perspective by Mohd. Faisal B. Hanapiah (http://www.fppsm.utm.my/download/doc_downl oad/103-english-language-and-the-languageof-development-a-malaysian-perspective.html)

HISTORY AND MASTERY OF ENGLISH LEVEL IN MALAYSIA


After British Colonial Rule (1957 Now)

After British Colonial Rule


Malay became Malaysia's sole national language in 1967 and has been institutionalized with success in many areas. The Austronesia language has an illustrious history as a lingua franca throughout the region, though English is also widely spoken because it was the administrative language of the British colonizers. Rapid industrialization has sustained the importance of English and solidified it as the language of business.

After British Colonial Rule


In the first half of the 20th century, Malaysian English was exactly similar to British English. However in the post-colonial era the influx of American TV programmes has influenced the usage of Malaysian English. There is no official language board, council or organisation to ensure the correct and standard usage of Malaysian English, because after independence, Malay replaced English as the official language.

After British Colonial Rule


The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate continues, however, to set and mark the GCE OLevel English Language "1119" paper which is a compulsory subject for the Malaysian Certificate of Education. Unofficially, however, NST English (named after the New Straits Times, the oldest English language daily in Malaysia) is often used as the reference point for Malaysian English.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaysian_English

After British Colonial Rule


English is widely use in business, along with Manglish. Manglish is a language form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese dialect and Tamil influences. Sometimes known as Rojak or Bahasa Rojak.
Tempat makan ni best sangat! - This food court is really cool!

After British Colonial Rule


Since 1968, Malay language (Bahasa Melayu) has been the country's sole official language while English is widely used, many Malay words have become part of common usage in informal English or Manglish. An example is suffixing sentences with lah, as in, It is alright-lah. The vocabulary of Manglish consists of words originating from English, Malay, Hokkien, Mandarin, Cantonese, Tamil, and other European languages.

COMMON MISTAKES IN MALAYSIAN ENGLISH


MULTICUTURAL SOCIETY AFFECTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE

DIRECT TRANSLATION

Direct Translation
Based on Gabriela Bosco in her article, Translation Techniques (on the website Interpro Translation Solutions), direct translation techniques are used when structural and conceptual elements of the source language can be transposed into the target language. Direct translation techniques include: Borrowing Literal Translation

Direct Translation
Borrowing Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation According to Husni Abu Bakar (2009), in Manglish, there is a growing compendium of words imported from various sources, namely English, Cantonese, Hokkien, Tamil, Telugu and a few other languages, which have yet to be included in the official dictionary. For example, durian, nasi lemak

Direct Translation
Literal translation A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure For example:

Direct Translation
Translation to English

Mike.... I WANT TO CUT CONNECTION US. I have think about this very cook-cook. I know I clap one hand only. Correctly, I have seen you and she walk-walk together at town with eyes myself. You grab hand she. You always ask for apology backback. I don't trust you again! You are really crocodile land. My friend speak you play wood three. First-first I think my friend lie me. But now I know you correctcorrect play wood three. So, I break connection to pull my body from this love triangle. I know this result I pick is very correct, because you love she very high from me. So, I cut this connection to go far from here. I don't want you to play-play with my liver. I have been crying until no more eye water thinking about you. I don't want banana to fruit two times. Safe walk..
Source: http://lawaksempoi.blogspot.com/2009/02/i-want-to-cut-connection-us.html

Direct Translation
Original Malay Version Mike..... SAYA NAK PUTUSKAN HUBUNGAN KITA. Saya dah fikir tentang benda ni dengan masak-masak. Saya tahu saya bertepuk sebelah tangan sahaja. Sebenarnya, saya ternampak awak dengan dia jalan bersama-sama di bandar dengan mata saya sendiri. Awak pegang tangan dia. Awak balik-balik asyik minta maaf. Saya tak percayakan awak lagi! Awak memang buaya darat. Kawan saya cakap kamu main kayu tiga. Mula-mula saya fikir kawan saya tipu saya. Tapi sekarang saya tahu kamu betul-betul main kayu tiga. Jadi, saya putuskan hubungan untuk tarik diri daripada cinta tiga segi ini. Saya tahu keputusan yang saya pilih ini sangat tepat, sebab awak sayangkan dia lebih dari saya. Jadi, saya putuskan hubungan untuk pergi jauh dari sini. Saya tak mahu awak main-main dengan hati saya. Saya sudah menangis sampai tak ada lagi air mata teringatkan kamu. Saya tak nak pisang berbuah dua kali. Selamat jalan...

(Self-translation)

USAGE OF INAPPROPRIATE PARTICLE/SUFFIXES


Basically inherited from mother tongue. An example is suffixing sentences with lah, as in, "Don't be so worried-lah"

WORD lah

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Used to affirm a statement Dont be an idiot lah! (similar to of course). Frequently used at the end of sentences and usually ends with an exclamation mark (!). Used to affirm a sentence i got RM5 nia , he is (similar to only). It is similar to very stupid mia mah and lah but used in a casual context. Used to affirm a sentence but Shes like that mah.. not as strongly as lah. Used at the end of sentences.

nia/mia

mah

WORD nah

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Derived from the Malay Nah, take this! expression of Nah!. Used when giving something to another person.

meh

Used when asking questions, especially when a person is skeptical of something.

Really meh?Cannot meh?

liao

Means already

No more stock liao.

WORD ah

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Derived from the Chinese Why is he like that ah?Is expression a. Used at the end that true ah?My of sentences, unlikemeh the brother ah, always disturb question is rhetorical. Also used me! when asking a genuine question. Besides that, some people use it when referring to a subject before making a (usually negative) comment. Used when explaining something. Like that lor!

lor

dy

Derived from the word already. I eat dy loh Often used in online chatroom by the youth in Malaysia.

WORD leh

MEANING Used to soften an order, thus making it less harsh

EXAMPLE Give me that leh.

one

Used as an emphasis at the end Why is he so of a sentence. naughty one (ah)?

what

Unlike British/American English, What! How could you do the word what is often used as that?I didnt take it, what. an exclamation mark, not just to ask a question.

WORD got

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Used as a literal translation from You got anything to do? the Malay word ada. The (Kamu ada apa-apa untuk arrangement of words is often buat?)I got already/got/will also literally translated. This got my car from the particular particle is widely garage. Got or not? abused in Manglish, mainly (Really?) Where got? (To because of the difficulty for the deny something, as in Manglish speaker of Malay Mana ada? ) comprehending the various correct uses of the English verb to have. Therefore, got is substituted for every tense of the verb.

CODE MIXING AND CODE SWITCHING

In linguistics, code-switching is the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation. Multilingualspeople who speak more than one language sometimes use elements of multiple languages in conversing with each other. Code-switching is contact phenomena, translation. distinct from other language such as borrowing and literal

On the other hand, speakers practice code-switching when they are each fluent in both languages.

Code mixing is a thematically related term, but the usage of the terms code-switching and code-mixing varies. Some scholars use either term to denote the same practice, while others apply code-mixing to denote the formal linguistic properties of said language-contact phenomena, and code-switching to denote the actual, spoken usages by multilingual persons.

CODE SWITCHING
In interactive social situations, code switching will be the use of more than one language. For example, the interaction during various social events involving interlocutors who know more than one language. SOURCE:
Communicative functions and reasons for code switching : A Malaysian perspective. PARAMASIVAM MUTHUSAMY PhD Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, MALAYSIA. param@fbmk.upm.edu.my

CODE SWITCHING
Code-switching is the phenomenon which reflects the change from one code to another code in the speech of a particular speaker in a particular situation. Code here may mean language, dialect or style.
Uriel Weinrich, Language in Contact: Findings and Problems, Mouton & Co., 1964, p.48.

CODE SWITCHING
Example 1: Err all of you would have problems put your problems down because later, we want to solve it for you. Dont forget because when hes talking, youre having ideas, and, and, and, its good. Write it down, and after, in the correct forum, you bring the problem out, OK? Please hold it, so our Encik K ( Mr K) wont be delayed. Example 2: Her question is under baki. For perubahan, there are certain syarat for perubahan.

CODE MIXING

CODE MIXING
Code-mixing is the change of one language to another within the same utterance or in the same oral/written text. It is a common phenomenon in societies in which two or more languages are used.

One of the example of code-mixing in Malaysia is Manglish which means Malaysian-English. (Also refers to as a second language by Linguists)

Process of code-mixing
Based on the article by Pieter Muysken:The study of codemixing,Blilingual Speech: A Topology of Code Mixing.
There are three process involved in code-mixing that are: insertion of material Alternation between structures from languages Congruent lexicalization of material from different lexical inventories into a shared grammatical structures.

CODE MIXING
Code-mixing is similar to the use or creation of pidgins; but while a pidgin is created across groups that do not share a common language, code-mixing may occur within a multilingual setting where speakers share more than one language.

Example: Manglish (Malay-English) For our understanding, the writer takes example of the use of code mixing in TIPU KIRI TIPU KANAN. Look at the example below: (1) wellkalau gossip itu betul. its mean company will report me to the court dan saya masuk Penjara lalu saya akan jatuh miskin. For you information ,saya sudah menandatangani surat Perjanjian no marriage selama masih dalam kontrak wellif the news is true, its mean company will report me to the court and I taken into the Cell and I will be poor. For you information, I has signed the contract letter that nothing Prohibited to marriage for in contract. (2). saya Sharif tapi call me Mr. fix I am Sharif but call me Mr. fix From the example above, we can see in data (1) and (2) mix three languages. There are Indonesian, Malay and English language. Both of examples mixed three languages in one sentences.

WORD AND GRAMMAR

WORD AND GRAMMAR


NOUN

NOUN
"terrer" - (pronounced as the English "terror") Refers to someone or something being awesomely amazing or good (e.g., "Bloody hell, that guy is terrer!"). "mempersiasuikan" - disgraceful, derived from hokkien "siasui" + malay.(e.g. "Sungguh mempersiasuikan" or "Very mempersiasuikan" which means very disgraceful/humiliating/embarrassing)

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

ADJECTIVES
"blur" - confused, out-of-it. Roughly equivalent to "spacey" in American slang. "Noob" - useless, lousy or incompetent. It is usable in every situation or noun, even for non-living object. [E.g. Your car is so noob, so slow wan.] It contrast with its original slang term noob, which means novice or newcomer, or somebody inexperienced in any profession or activity.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

VERBS
"gostan" - reverse a vehicle, apparently from the nautical term "go astern" (mostly used in Kelantan, Kedah and Penang) or "go stunt". Sometimes also expressed as "gostan balik" (lit.,reverse back). (any Malay word) + "ing" - doing a certain action ("Tengah makan" or "I'm eating right now" is shortened to "Makan-ing' and "He's the one cheating me!" equates to 'He's d one dat tipu-ing me leh..' ")
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

EXCLAMATION
"Alamak": exclamation of surprise or shock. (E.g. "Alamak!" (Oh no!)). From the Malay exclamation 'alamak "Cehwah/Fuyoh/Fulamak/Aiseh" exclamation of amazement/wonder/marvel. (E.g. Fuyoooh, his hair so jinjang!)

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

GRAMMAR
"(Subject + predicate), is it?" - this is often used as a question. "It" doesn't refer to the subject, but rather to the entire preceding clause ("Is it so?") This is comparable to the French phrase "n'est-ce pas?" (literally "isn't it?") and the German usage of "..., oder?" (literally "..., or?")

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

STRUCTURES
"There is"/"there are" and "has"/"have" are both expressed using got, so that sentences can be translated in either way back into British / American English. This is equivalent to the Chinese yu (to have): Got question? Is there a question? / Do you have a question? Where got!? lit. Where is there [this]?, also more loosely, What are you talking about? or Where did you get that idea?; generic response to any accusation.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish

REFERENCES
Asmah Haji Omar . The Linguistic Scenery in Malaysia. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Asmah Hj. O. (1982). Language and Society in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Asmah Hj. O. (1992). The Linguistic Scenery in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Mohd. Faisal B. Hanapiah. English Language and the Language of Development : A Malaysian Perspective, Retrieved 21 January 2012 Stern H. H. (1983). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

REFERENCES
Strange Symphony. Manglish: A Rojak Language. http://blog.aizatto.com/2007/03/24/manglish-arojak-language/ Retrieved 21 January 2012 Trudgill P. (1992). Introducing Lamguage and Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd. Wilkins D. A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold. Yule G. (2006). The Study of Language: Third edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bahasa_Rojak, Retrieved 21 January 2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish, Retrieved 21 January 2012 http://www.interproinc.com/articles.asp? id=0303, Retrieved 21 January 2012 http://www.malaxi.com/population_size_age _structure2001_2010.html, Retrieved 21 January 2012 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_switchi ng, Retrieved 21 January 2012 http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manglish_voc abulary, Retrieved 25 January 2012

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