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CHAPTER 7

PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT


Reporter: Mrs. Sheryll M. Capulong

Projects are described as the cutting edge of development or as building blocks of development.

PLANNING PROCESS
is

of course continuous and never-ending.

the

results, such as in the form of a plan, a program, or a project are interim and tentative in the sense that the results always require constant updating and change.
the

assumptions used in the planning process inevitably undergo revisions and trigger a chain reaction throughout the stages or sequences of a plan.

WHAT are the concrete functional differences between:


PLAN

PROGRAM

PROJECT

All three can be processes and/or outputs at given moments in time. As a PROCESS, you can:

Plan a plan, Program a plan, and Projecticize a program.

As results or outputs of planning process, we can make the following functional differentiations:

THE CONCEPT of CORPORATE PLANNING


CORPORATE PLANNING is the total planning

A formal and systematic process to ensure that long-range, intermediate and annual planning is carried out regularly within the organization. Programs and projects that evolve out of these processes just have logical and contributory linkages to the goals and objectives of the corporate plan.

Three levels of planning make up Corporate Planning:


Firstly, Strategic or long-range planning. This is made by top management and senior divisional heads. Secondly, tactical or development planning. This is made by operating management. It is intermediate in terms of scope and consists of programs. Thirdly, annual operating planning. This is made by all functional units within the strategic, policies and guidelines mandated by top management.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
-is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a successful project.
Three Key Concept Of Project Management Are: The single point of integrative management Each project has a single point of integrative responsibility-the Project Manager 2. Integrative planning control Pull together critical information related to the products or services resulting from the project, the time, the cost, in funds, manpower or other key resources 3. Multi-disciplinary skills and time-bound The complexity of projects demand a multitude of functional specialist. Teamwork therefore is critical as projects are time-bound
1.

ADVANTAGES of PROJECT MANAGEMENT


1.The advantages of using project management Project commitments are made only to achievable technical, cost, and scheduled goals, and Every project is planned, scheduled and controlled so that commitments are in fact achieved. 2. The advantages of appointing a Project Manager Accountability is placed on one person for overall results of the project. Assurance that decisions are made on the basis of the overall good of the project, rather than for the good of one another contributing functional department. Coordination of all functional contributors to the project. Proper utilization of integrated planning and control methods and the information they produce.

3. The advantages of integrated planning and control of all projects are: Assurance that the activities of each functional area are being planned and carried out to meet the overall needs of the project. Assurance that the effects of favoring one project over another are known, such as in resources allocation. Early identification of problems that may jeopardize the success of the project, thereby allowing prompt corrective action

Management Mistakes
Many Filipino school principals and university presidents especially from family-owned, religion-affiliated institutions demonstrate a number of management mistakes also common with state university officials: 1.Short attention span meaning, the executive pays attention just for a short while, then turns around and forgets about it completely. Too much politics. 2. Wrong emphasis such as the politicians smile, not the genuine attitude, and Filipinos are quick to spot the hypocrite and the actor from the genuine article.3.

3. Rigor mortis if there are too many procedures, too many rules, too much control, too much fear of mistake, then the faculty and staff will not move or do anything and things just float along.

CHAPTER 8

HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN THE PHILIPPINES

HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN THE PHILIPPINES

According to the Department of Education, todays educational planning in the Philippines can claim an unbroken history even before the establishment of our formal educational system. During the pre-Spanish era and the period of more than four centuries when the Philippines was a possession of Spain and of the United States there was a long and routine sort of educational planning though it was not visible enough to compare with the present educational planning activities.

HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN THE PHILIPPINES


At a minimum, they had to estimate how many students there would be, how many classroom, teachers, desks and books would be needed to serve them adequately; how much money these would require, where the money would come from; and how and when it would be spent. This process was educational planning which was taken for granted as a normal part of the school administrators job. Much more in some instances. It was abused that it led to wasteful imbalances of our much limited school inputs.

HOW JAPANESE SEE PHILIPPINES

Firstly, while we had an early start with American assistance on industrialization in the 1960s, we have not been able to exploit this early lead. Our development has fallen off; government protection through tariffs of so-called infants industries (owned by selfish family elites) have made these industries inefficient, labor salaries cheap, and our products low in quality. Secondly, since our industries needed overseas materials we depended on foreign exchange. But crises like political events (Aquino Assassination, Marcos overthrow, etc.) have paralyzed these situations, resulting in gross illiquidity and financing problems. Thirdly, although we have a big population, our consumptions levels are low and purchasing power weak, discouraging local manufactures. And fourthly, our elite families and their professional managers (who have little authority) prefer overnight riches to long-term rewards such as through equipment investments.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE PRESENT PERIOD

Philippine education is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (nongovernment). However, recently, the Department of Education proposed the K-12 education system, along with the new curriculum for all students. The implementation of the system is "phased". The first phase of the implementation will start on S.Y. 2012-2013. During this school year, universal kindergarten will be finally offered, and will now be a part of the compulsory education system; and a new curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 students. By SY 2016-2017, Grade 11/Year 5 will be introduced, and Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017-2018; with the phased implementation of the new curriculum finished by the SY 2017-2018.

Educational System in the Present Period

However, during the new educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrollment could slow down or could turn to nil because of the entrance of the lower-year students to the new educational All public and private elementary schools, high schools and colleges and universities in the Philippines start classes from early-June to mid-June and end from mid-March to earlyApril.

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