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WEATHER PATTERNS AND SEVERE STORMS (CHAPTER 19)

AIR MASS
a giant body of air that takes on the character of the area over which it forms A large body of air, usually 1600 km or more across which is characterized by a sameness of temperature, humidity and moisture at any given altitude. Air Mass Weather- situation in which the region under an air mass will probably experience fairy constant weather

SOURCE REGIONS
Classifications Continental Maritime Polar/Arctic Equatorial/Tropical

-Are where an air mass requires its characteristics. Properties of temperature and moisture:

Source Region Land Water Polar/High Altitude Dry

Nature

Moist/Humid Cold/Very Cold

Equator/ Low Altitude Warm/ Very Warm

BASIC TYPES OF AIR MASSES


1. Continental Polar (cP)
2. Continental Arctic (cA) 3. Continental Tropical (cT) 4. Maritime Polar (mP) 5. Maritime Tropical (mT) 6. Maritime Equatorial (mE)

Cold and dry


Very cold and dry Warm and dry Cold and moist/ humid Warm and Moist/Humid Very warm and humid/ Moist

FRONTS
-Boundaries that separate air masses of different density; when two air masses interact with each other

Warm fronts- when the surface (ground) position of a front moves so that warm air occupies territory formerly covered by cooler air.

The warm air rises at a shallow gradient above the cooler air This will lead to a distinct succession of cloud formation In the early stages of a warm front advance, there are cirrus clouds that form As the front continues to approach, the clouds get heavier and lower to include altostratus and nimbostratus clouds Warm fronts are usually associated with moderate precipitation over a wide area Warm fronts are identified on a weather map by a line with semicircles on it

Cold fronts- when cold air actively advance into a region occupied by warmer air

Stationary fronts- Surface position of the front does not move formed ; when two air masses flow parallel to each other

Occluded front- active cold front overtakes a warm front

A occluded front is formed when a cold air masses overtakes a warm air mass This event is usually identified with a midlatitude cyclone and provides much of the weather for the central US We often see heavy cloud cover and precipitation over a wide area

MIDLATITUDE CYCLONE
Are large centers of low pressure that generally travel from west to east Have a counterclockwise circulation with an airflow inward toward their centers

LIFE CYCLE OF CYCLONES

Formation: 1. Two air masses of different densities are moving roughly parallel to the front, but in opposite directions 2. The frontal surface that separates the two will take on a wave shape 3. Then, Warm air advances poleward while cold air moves equatorward, the resulting flow is a counterclockwise cyclonic circulation

The position of cold front advances faster than the warm front and begins to close the warm front Occlusion begins, the storm intesifies, pressure falls, and wind speeds increase The pressure gradient weakens, in a day or two, the horizontal temperature difference has been eliminated

THUNDERSTORM
Simply a storm that generates lightning and thunder and forms when warm, humid air rises in an unstable environment

THUNDERSTORMS
Thunderstorms are some of the most fascinating types of weather phenomenon Thunderstorms occur as warm, moist air is forced to rise rapidly Thunderstorms are associated with cumulonimbus clouds Other phenomenon that may be observed with thunderstorms include lightning, thunder, and hail

LIGHTNING
Simply an electrical discharge between the ground surface and an overlying cloud

LIGHTNING
a cumulonimbus clouds drifts over the earths surface, positively charged ions migrate to the top of the cloud while negatively charged ions migrate to the bottom The earth has an overall positive electrical charge If the charge imbalance between the bottom of the cloud and the ground surface is great enough, an electrical current is produced

THUNDER
When a lightning strike occurs, it heats the air up to 50,000 degrees! Thus rapid heating causes the air to expand outward, producing a sound wave The wave propagates through the compressions and expansion of the air Similar to a primary (P) seismic wave

TORNADOES

Tornadoes are forms of severe weather that often accompany thunderstorms Tornadoes are simply rotating columns of air The formation of tornadoes is due to the variable wind currents within the storm

TORNADO FORMATION:
A. Before thunderstorms develop, a change in wind direction and an increase in wind speed with increasing height creates an invisible, horizontal spinning effect in the lower atmosphere

B. Rising air within the thunderstorm updraft tilts the rotating air from horizontal to vertical

The center of the tornado is the vortex and this can range in size from around 500 feet to 2000 feet Tornadoes travel around 45 miles per hour and cuts a path approximately 6 miles in length

Tornado
a) ~69% of all tornadoes b) Less than 5% of tornado deaths c) Wind speeds less than 110 mph

Light
a) ~29% of all tornadoes b) ~30% of all tornado deaths c) Wind speeds between 110 and 205 mph a) ~2% of all tornadoes b) ~70% of all tornado deaths c) Wind speeds greater than 205 mph

Moderate Severe

The severity of a tornado is based on the Fujiata (F) scale F0 is a mild tornado and and F5 is severe

TORNADO DAMAGE

F0 Damage

F1 Damage

F2 Damage

F3 Damage

F4 Damage

F5 Damage

HURRICANES
Are the most destructive weather event on the earth

They are characterized by a distinct circular form, very low pressure, a steep pressure gradient, and a rapidly inward-spiraling wind In order for a storm to be classified as a hurricane, it must have wind speeds greater than 74 mph When the winds speed in a low pressure system is less than 39 mph, it is referred to as a tropical depression When the wind speed goes above 39 mph, the storm is referred to as a tropical storm

Hurricanes will fade away one certain situations Move over land Move over cold water In either situation, the hurricane loses its primary source of energy Warm moisture from the ocean Hurricanes may also dissipate as the circulation of air within the storm cannot be maintained

Destruction from a hurricane comes in three ways Wind Heavy rain (flooding) Storm surge A sea wave that is pushed onshore as a hurricane approaches land

The hurricane rotates around a feature known as the eye Although hurricanes are associated with heavy rainfall and very fast winds, inside the eye, there is no rain, no winds, and usually clear skies Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, where conditions are at their worst

HURRICANE FORMATION
Hurricanes originate as low pressure systems over West Africa As the system moves over the Atlantic Ocean, it absorbs water vapor which intensifies the stormy conditions The hurricane represents an area of low pressure so winds flowing inward from surrounding high pressure areas begin to rotate the storm

NOW THATS THE END OF THE SHOW.


Thanks for watching.. GROUP 4 Janine C. Santos Marion Lei Muyot Gladys Navallo Carmelita Jane Cruz Michaella Emily Cruz Joana Marie Perez Sharaine Reyes Stefanny Santiago Abegail Decano Maria Sophia Trinidad