A

presentation
of Dissertation phase 3
on
“Range-Free Localization Using Expected Hop
Progress in Wireless Sensor Networks”


Presented By
Pradnyavant Nimbaji Kalamkar

Under the Guidance of
Dr. Mrs. A. A. Agashe

Walchand College of Engineering Sangli


Wireless Sensor Network
• Wireless sensor network combines the
concept of wireless network with sensors.
• WSN are highly distributed network having
small, light weighted sensor node.
• Deployed in a large no. to monitor
environmental condition by measuring
physical parameter
• Sensor are nothing but node having three
subsystem
– Sensing
– Processing
– Communication
• Individual sensor have its own limited sensing
range.

WSN
-0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1
2
3
4
5
WSN
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
2
3
4
5
WSN
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1
2
3
4
5
Localization in WSN
• Many applications of WSN require the
localization information of sensor.
• Localization is the ability of wireless sensor node
to find out its own physical position.
• A primary solution for localization is to equip
each node with a GPS.
• Because of size, price, energy consumption, and
coverage problems of GPS it is not feasible
solution for localization of sensor nodes.
• Localization algorithm:

– Range-based localization scheme
• Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)
• Angle of Arrival (AOA)
• Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)

– Range-free localization scheme
• Centroid Algorithm
• DV-Hop Algorithm
DV-Hop Algorithm
• It’s hop-by-hop positioning algorithm.
• First, anchors broadcast their location
information throughout the network.
• Second, any anchor estimates the average hop
distance between neighbouring sensors.

• Then, it broadcasts the corresponding average
hop distance.
• Each sensor can estimate its distance to each
anchor.
• The product of average hop distance and
corresponding hop counts.
• Perform the trilateration algorithm to get its
estimated location.

Plotting of nodes
• Deploy 10 nodes randomly in two dimension
area of 100mx100m.
• The comm. Radius of each sensor is 60m.
Sensor Network
Distance among all sensor nodes
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 0 36.55 78.53 41.28 26.45 82.43 18.64 91.12 42.16 59.93
2 36.55 0 42.40 26.67 20.56 71.08 23.58 54.57 8.19 61.15
3 78.53 42.40 0 49.44 60.63 87.27 62.66 15.68 39.37 90.67
4 41.28 26.67 49.44 0 42.01 97.66 22.78 64.83 34.10 85.38
5 26.45 20.56 60.63 42.01 0 59.73 25.93 70.58 21.25 43.47
6 82.43 71.08 87.27 97.66 59.73 0 85.61 86.15 64.46 29.03
7 18.64 23.58 62.66 22.78 25.93 85.61 0 76.42 31.21 68.16
8 91.12 54.57 15.68 64.83 70.58 86.15 76.42 0 49.86 94.51
9 42.16 8.19 39.37 34.10 21.25 64.46 31.21 49.86 0 57.24
10 59.93 61.15 90.67 85.38 43.47 29.03 68.16 94.51 57.24 0
Initial Hop count matrix
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 0 1 inf 1 1 inf 1 inf 1 1
2 1 0 1 1 1 inf 1 1 1 inf
3 inf 1 0 1 inf inf inf 1 1 inf
4 1 1 1 0 1 inf 1 inf 1 inf
5 1 1 inf 1 0 1 1 inf 1 1
6 inf inf inf inf 1 0 inf inf inf 1
7 1 1 inf 1 1 inf 0 inf 1 inf
8 inf 1 1 inf inf inf inf 0 1 inf
9 1 1 1 1 1 inf 1 1 0 1
10 1 inf inf inf 1 1 inf inf 1 0
Hop count Matrix
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 2 1 1 2
4 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 2
5 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 1 1
6 2 2 3 2 1 0 2 3 2 1
7 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 2
8 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 0 1 2
9 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1
10 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 0
Sensor nodes connectivity
Hoping among anchor nodes
1 2 3 4
1 0 1 2 1
2 1 0 1 1
3 2 1 0 1
4 1 1 1 0
1 2 3 4
1 0 36.55 78.53 41.28
2 36.55 0 42.40 26.67
3 78.53 42.40 0 49.44
4 41.28 26.67 49.44 0
Anchor nodes
Calculations of avg. distance per Hop
• Hopsize 1 = = 39.09

• Hopsize 2 = = 35.21

• Hopsize 3 = = 42.59

• Hopsize 4 = = 39.13
Hoping among unknown nodes and anchor
nodes
5 6 7 8 9 10
1 1 2 1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 1 1 2
3 2 3 2 1 1 2
4 1 2 1 2 1 2
Sensor nodes connectivity
Distance from unknown nodes to anchor
5 6 7 8 9 10
1 39.09 78.18 39.09 78.18 39.09 39.09
2 35.21 70.42 35.21 35.21 35.21 70.42
3 85.19 127.79 85.19 42.59 42.59 85.19
4 39.13 78.27 39.13 78.27 39.13 78.27
Trilateration Method
• d
1
2
= (X – x
1
)
2
+ (Y – y
1
)
2
(1)

• d
2
2
= (X – x
2
)
2
+ (Y – y
2
)
2
(2)
• d
3
2
= (X – x
3
)
2
+ (Y – y
3
)
2
(3)

• d
n
2
= (X – x
n
)
2
+ (Y – y
n
)
2
(4)


Eq
n
(1)-Eq
n
(4) and Eq
n
(2)-Eq
n
(4)
d
1
2
– d
n
2
= (X – x
1
)
2
+ (Y – y
1
)
2
– [(X – x
n
)
2
+ (Y – y
n
)
2
]
d
2
2
– d
n
2
= (X – x
2
)
2
+ (Y – y
2
)
2
– [(X – x
n
)
2
+ (Y – y
n
)
2
]
d
3
2
– d
n
2
= (X – x
3
)
2
+ (Y – y
3
)
2
– [(X – x
n
)
2
+ (Y – y
n
)
2
]





• 2X(x
1
– x
n
) + 2Y(y
1
– y
n
) - x
1
2
+ x
n
2
- y
1
2
+ y
n
2
+ d
1
2
- d
n
2
= 0
• 2X(x
2
– x
n
) + 2Y(y
2
– y
n
) - x
2
2
+ x
n
2
- y
2
2
+ y
n
2
+ d
2
2
- d
n
2
= 0
• 2X(x
3
– x
n
) + 2Y(y
3
– y
n
) – x
3
2
+ x
n
2
– y
3
2
+ y
n
2
+ d
3
2
- d
n
2
= 0

Compare with Std. linear equation

AX-B = 0



(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
=
2
2
3
2 2
3
2 2
3
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
n n n
n n n
n n n
y y x x d d
y y x x d d
y y x x d d
B
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
* 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
n n
n n
n n
y y x x
y y x x
y y x x
A

• By using pseudo inverse method



• Error = New position – Original position

) ( * ) ( 1
1
B A A A
Y
X
X
T T ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
Error in unknown nodes
References
• Yun Wang, Demin Wang, Dharma P. Agrawal, “Range-Free
Localization Using Expected Hop Progress in Wireless Sensor
Networks”, IEEE Transactions On Parallel and Distributed
Systems, vol. 20, NO. 10, October 2009.
• D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS),”
Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (GLOBECOM ’01), Nov.
2001.
• N. Patwari, A.O. Hero, M. Perkins, N.S. Correal, and R.J. ODea,
“Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,”
IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2137- 2148,
Aug. 2003.
• S.Y. Wong, S. Rao, and W.K. Seah, “Density-Aware Hop-Count
Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks with Variable
Density,” proc. IEEE Conf. Mar. 2005.
Contd..
• L. Fang, W. Du, and P. Ning, “An Anchor-Less Location
Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE
INFOCOM, 2005.
• J. Yli-Hietanen, K.K. Vi, and J. Astola, “Low-Complexity Angle
of Arrival Estimation of Wideband Signals Using Small Arrays,”
Proc. Eighth IEEE Signal Processing Workshop Statistical Signal
and Array Processing (SSAP ’96), p. 109, 1996.
• P. Bahl and V. Padmanabhan, “Radar: An In-Building rf-Based
User Location and Tracking System,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM,
2000.
• Vossiek, M. Wiebking, L. Gulden, P. Wieghardt, J. Hoffmann,
and C. Heide, “Wireless Local Positioning,” IEEE Microwave
Magazine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 77-86, 2003.


THANK YOU

Wireless Sensor Network
• Wireless sensor network combines the concept of wireless network with sensors. • WSN are highly distributed network having small, light weighted sensor node. • Deployed in a large no. to monitor environmental condition by measuring physical parameter

• Sensor are nothing but node having three subsystem
– Sensing – Processing – Communication

• Individual sensor have its own limited sensing range.

8 1 1.4 0.2 .6 0.WSN 1.2 0.2 5 0 -0.2 0 0.2 1 2 4 0.8 0.6 1 0.2 -0.4 3 0.

6 0.9 1 .3 0.7 0.5 0.1 0 -0.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.2 3 0.WSN 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.1 4 1 5 0 0.7 2 0.4 0.

8 2 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.8 1 1.2 0.2 0.4 .5 0.6 0.2 1.1 0 1 4 5 0 0.9 0.WSN 1 0.3 3 0.

energy consumption. . • Localization is the ability of wireless sensor node to find out its own physical position. price.Localization in WSN • Many applications of WSN require the localization information of sensor. • Because of size. and coverage problems of GPS it is not feasible solution for localization of sensor nodes. • A primary solution for localization is to equip each node with a GPS.

• Localization algorithm: – Range-based localization scheme • Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) • Angle of Arrival (AOA) • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) – Range-free localization scheme • Centroid Algorithm • DV-Hop Algorithm .

• First. . any anchor estimates the average hop distance between neighbouring sensors. anchors broadcast their location information throughout the network. • Second.DV-Hop Algorithm • It’s hop-by-hop positioning algorithm.

• The product of average hop distance and corresponding hop counts. it broadcasts the corresponding average hop distance. • Perform the trilateration algorithm to get its estimated location. • Each sensor can estimate its distance to each anchor. .• Then.

• The comm.Plotting of nodes • Deploy 10 nodes randomly in two dimension area of 100mx100m. . Radius of each sensor is 60m.

Sensor Network .

10 85.03 68.78 64.19 39.24 0 41.66 22.58 62.45 82.01 82.53 41.56 60.43 71.37 90.44 60.21 49.93 85.03 0 76.08 87.19 61.16 0 49.15 78.67 49.64 91.68 39.57 15.63 87.58 86.28 26.Distance among all sensor nodes 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 36.47 0 85.38 0 59.64 23.40 49.12 54.66 59.55 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 36.15 76.73 18.61 91.28 26.44 26.43 18.55 78.63 42.86 59.15 64.66 15.51 57.40 26.16 94.45 20.25 64.83 70.67 20.08 23.42 42.51 0 57.10 21.56 71.78 25.24 .67 85.73 25.38 43.58 54.93 70.16 8.16 59.46 29.25 43.15 90.12 42.27 62.61 86.58 21.46 31.57 0 8.01 97.67 0 42.93 0 42.37 34.66 22.42 31.68 64.47 29.93 61.83 34.21 68.27 97.86 94.53 42.

Initial Hop count matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 0 1 inf 1 1 inf 1 inf 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 inf 1 1 1 inf 3 inf 1 0 1 inf inf inf 1 1 inf 4 1 1 1 0 1 inf 1 inf 1 inf 5 1 1 inf 1 0 1 1 inf 1 1 6 inf inf inf inf 1 0 inf inf inf 1 7 1 1 inf 1 1 inf 0 inf 1 inf 8 inf 1 1 inf inf inf inf 0 1 inf 9 1 1 1 1 1 inf 1 1 0 1 10 1 inf inf inf 1 1 inf inf 1 0 .

Hop count Matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 0 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 0 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 8 9 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 10 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 0 .

Sensor nodes connectivity .

55 78.67 49.53 41.44 0 78.40 26.67 0 49.40 41.44 .55 0 42.28 2 3 4 1 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 3 4 36.Hoping among anchor nodes 1 1 0 2 1 3 2 4 1 1 1 0 2 3 4 36.53 42.28 26.

Anchor nodes .

59 = 39.Calculations of avg. distance per Hop • Hopsize 1 = • Hopsize 2 = • Hopsize 3 = • Hopsize 4 = = 39.21 = 42.09 = 35.13 .

Hoping among unknown nodes and anchor nodes 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 .

Sensor nodes connectivity .

59 42.27 39.18 39.09 39.42 35.18 39.13 78.21 35.59 85.27 .09 2 35.13 78.27 39.19 4 39.19 127.09 78.Distance from unknown nodes to anchor 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 39.21 35.13 78.42 3 85.21 70.19 42.09 78.21 70.79 85.

Trilateration Method .

• • • • d12 = (X – x1)2 + (Y – y1)2 d22 = (X – x2)2 + (Y – y2)2 d32 = (X – x3)2 + (Y – y3)2 dn2 = (X – xn)2 + (Y – yn)2 (1) (2) (3) (4) Eqn (1)-Eqn (4) and Eqn (2)-Eqn (4) d12 – dn2 = (X – x1)2 + (Y – y1)2 – [(X – xn)2 + (Y – yn)2] d22 – dn2 = (X – x2)2 + (Y – y2)2 – [(X – xn)2 + (Y – yn)2] d32 – dn2 = (X – x3)2 + (Y – y3)2 – [(X – xn)2 + (Y – yn)2] .

• 2X(x1 – xn) + 2Y(y1 – yn) .dn2 = 0 Compare with Std.dn2 = 0 • 2X(x3 – xn) + 2Y(y3 – yn) – x32 + xn2 – y32 + yn2 + d32 .x12 + xn2 .y22 + yn2 + d22 .y12 + yn2 + d12 . linear equation AX-B = 0 .dn2 = 0 • 2X(x2 – xn) + 2Y(y2 – yn) .x22 + xn2 .

 ( x1  xn ) ( y1  yn )  ( x  x ) ( y  y )  A  2*  2 n 2 n  ( x3  xn ) ( y3  yn )   2  d12  d n 2  x12  xn 2  y12  yn   2 2 2 2 2 2 B   d 2  d n  x2  xn  y 2  y n  d 2  d 2  x 2  x 2  y 2  y 2  n 3 n 3 n   3 .

• By using pseudo inverse method X  X 1     ( AT A) 1 * ( AT B) Y  • Error = New position – Original position .

Error in unknown nodes .

Wong. Patwari. Nath. “Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks. (GLOBECOM ’01). S. Nov. Mar. Aug. Rao. A. 10. IEEE Global Telecomm. Correal. IEEE Conf.O. Dharma P. Hero. “Density-Aware Hop-Count Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks with Variable Density.Y.References • Yun Wang. N. 20. October 2009. • N. Demin Wang. 2137.K. IEEE Transactions On Parallel and Distributed Systems. Niculescu and B. Perkins. 8. and R. Conf. Agrawal. 2001. M. ODea.” Proc. 2003. vol. “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS).” IEEE Trans.J. • S. “Range-Free Localization Using Expected Hop Progress in Wireless Sensor Networks”. .2148. 51. and W. no. pp. Signal Processing. • D. 2005. Seah. NO.” proc. vol.S.

pp. 4.” Proc. p. • Vossiek. Ning. Astola.Contd.. Fang. Hoffmann. W. J. 4.” IEEE Microwave Magazine. 2000. 1996. Wieghardt. “Low-Complexity Angle of Arrival Estimation of Wideband Signals Using Small Arrays. Yli-Hietanen. 109. Du. M. and C. Gulden. IEEE INFOCOM. 2003. “An Anchor-Less Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks. Heide.” Proc.K. • L. and J.” Proc. Eighth IEEE Signal Processing Workshop Statistical Signal and Array Processing (SSAP ’96). P. and P. 77-86. vol. K. “Wireless Local Positioning. Padmanabhan. . IEEE INFOCOM. • P. L. 2005. “Radar: An In-Building rf-Based User Location and Tracking System. Vi. Bahl and V. Wiebking. • J. no.

THANK YOU .

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