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ICT DALAM PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN

The Third Wave(Tofler)


Agriculture

Industrial

Information

Information Age
Information Age Industrial Age Agriculture Age

1940s Computers

Time

Million years

10,000 years

200 years 1980

Expected Changes From Education in the Industrial Society to Education in the Information

Traditionally Important Paradigm

The Emerging Paradigm


Pelgrum and Anderson (Ed.),1999

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

Actor

Education in the Industrial Society (the traditionally important paradigm)


Isolated from society Most information on school

Education in the Information Society (the emerging paradigm)


Integrated in society Information openly available

School

functioning confidential Teacher


Initiator of instruction Whole class teaching Evaluates student Places low emphasis on Helps student find appropriate

communication skills

instructional path Guides students independent learning Helps student to evaluate own progress Places high emphasis on communication skills
More active Learns at school and outside school Much teamwork Asks questions Find answers to questions High interest

Student

Mostly passive Learns mostly at school Hardly any teamwork Takes questions from books or

teachers Learn answers to questions Low interest in learning Parent


Hardly actively involved in learning

Very active in learning process Co-steering Parents provide model

process No steering of instruction No life-long learning model

International Society for Technology in Education


Traditional Learning Environments Teacher-centered instruction Single sense stimulation Single path progression Single media Isolated work Information delivery Passive learning New Learning Environments Student-Centered Instruction Multisensory stimulation Multipath progression Multimedia Collaborative work Information exchange Active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning

Factual, knowledge based learning Reactive response


Isolated, artificial context

Critical thinking and informed decision making Proactive/planned action


Authentic, real-world context

Stages of Technology Adoption


Entry
Adoption Adaptation Appropriation Invention

ACOT

Use of ICT in Education


Penggunaan ICT dalam P&P

bermaksud menggunakan ICT secara terancang, bersesuaian, dan berfikrah untuk meningkatkan kecekapan proses dan keberkesanan P&P

Categories of ICT Integration in T&L


ICT for tutorial learning
ICT for exploratory learning ICT as aplications ICT for communication

Adapted from Barbara Means classifications of technology use in learning, 1994

ICT for tutorial learning


ICT dikatakan untuk pembelajaran tutorial apabila diguna untuk menyampai kandungan pelajaran berdasarkan urutan yang telah ditetapkan. Pembelajaran tutorial ini merangkumi:

Pembelajaran ekspositori Demonstrasi sesuatu fenomena yang ditunjukkan dan dikawal urutan babaknya oleh sistem, Latihan atau latihtubi yang disampai dan dikawal oleh sistem

ICT for exploratory learning


Penggunaan ICT untuk pembelajaran penerokaan berlaku apabila ICT digunakan sebagai medium untuk:

mencari dan mengakses maklumat daripada CDROM, Internet, gerbang maklumat dll. mengalami, mempelajari dan mengkaji sesuatu fenomena secara simulasi melihat demontrasi sesuatu kejadian yang urutan babaknya boleh dikawal oleh murid

ICT as aplications
ICT dikatakan diguna sebagai alat aplikasi apabila membantu murid melaksanakan tugasan pembelajaran, bukan sebagai mekanisma penyaluran maklumat p&p

ICT for communication


ICT dikatakan sebagai alat pemudah komunikasi apabila diguna untuk memboleh murid dan guru daripada lokasi yang berbeza menghantar, menerima dan berkongsi maklumat yang pelbagai bentuk.