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Chapter 4 Tissues and Histology

Tissues - collections of similar cells and the substances surrounding them Tissue classification based on structure of cells, composition of noncellular extracellular matrix, and cell function Major types of adult tissues Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous Histology: Microscopic Study of Tissues Biopsy: removal of tissues for diagnostic purposes Autopsy: examination of organs of a dead body to determine cause of death

Embryonic Tissue

3 major germ layers that form the embryonic disc (source of stem cells) Endoderm Inner layer Forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives Mesoderm Middle layer Forms tissues as such muscle, bone, blood vessels Ectoderm Outer layer Forms skin and neuroectoderm

I. Epithelial Tissue
Cellularity - Consists almost entirely of cells Covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, and forms glands
Outside surface of the body Lining of digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems Heart and blood vessels Linings of many body cavities

Polarity - Has apical, basal, and lateral surfaces Rests on a basement membrane Specialized cell contacts bind adjacent cells together Avascular - no blood vessels Regenerative -Replaces lost cells by cell division

Functions of Epithelia
Protecting underlying structures; e.g., epithelium lining the mouth Acting as barriers; e.g., skin Permitting the passage of substances; e.g., cells lining air sacs in lungs and nephrons in kidney Secreting substances; e.g., pancreatic cells Absorbing substances; e.g., lining of stomach and small intestine

Special Characteristics of Epithelia

Figure 4.1

Classification of Epithelium
Number of layers of cells
Simple- one layer of cells. Each extends from basement membrane to the free surface Stratified- more than one layer. Pseudostratified- tissue appears to be stratified, but all cells contact basement membrane so it is in fact simple

Shape of cells
Squamous- flat, scale-like Cuboidal- about equal in height and width Columnar- taller than wide

Classifications of Epithelia

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Figure 4.3a

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Figure 4.3b

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Figure 4.3c

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

Figure 4.3d

Stratified Epithelia
Contain two or more layers of cells Regenerate from below Major role is protection Are named according to the shape of cells at apical layer

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Many layers of cells squamous in shape Deeper layers of cells appear cuboidal or columnar Thickest epithelial tissue adapted for protection

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Specific types
Keratinized contain the protective protein keratin
Surface cells are dead and full of keratin

Non-keratinized forms moist lining of body openings

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Function Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion Location
Keratinized forms epidermis Non-keratinized forms lining of esophagus, mouth, and vagina

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Figure 4.3e

Transitional Epithelium

Figure 4.3h

Epithelium: Glandular
A gland is one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid Two types of glands formed by infolding of epithelium:
Endocrine: no contact with exterior of body; ductless; produce hormones (pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas) Exocrine: open to exterior of body via ducts (sweat, oil)

Exocrine glands classified either by structure or by the method of secretion Classified by structure
Unicellular: goblet cells Multicellular: sweat, oil, pituitary, adrenal

Multicellular Exocrine Glands

Classified on the basis of types of ducts or mode of secretion Types of ducts Simple: ducts with few branches Compound: ducts with many branches If ducts end in tubules or sac-like structures: acini. Pancreas If ducts end in simple sacs: alveoli. Lungs

Lateral Surface Features

Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap junctions

Membrane Junctions: Tight Junction

Integral proteins of adjacent

cells fuse together Completely encircle the cell and form an adhesion belt. Form an impermeable junction. Common near apical region

Lateral Surface Features Cell Junctions

Desmosomes two disc-like plaques connected across intercellular space
Plaques of adjoining cells are joined by proteins called cadherins Proteins interdigitate into extracellular space Intermediate filaments insert into plaques from cytoplasmic side

Membrane Junctions: Desmosome

Linker proteins extend from plaque like teeth of a zipper. Intermediate filaments extend across width of cell.

Common in superficial layers of skin; skin

peels after a sunburn Reduces chance of tearing, twisting, stretching
Figure 3.5b

Membrane Junctions: Gap Junction

Connexon proteins are transmembrane proteins. Present in electrically excitable tissues (heart, smooth muscle)

Basal Feature: The Basal Lamina

Noncellular supporting sheet between the epithelium and the connective tissue deep to it Consists of proteins secreted by the epithelial cells Functions:
Acts as a selective filter, determining which molecules from capillaries enter the epithelium Acts as scaffolding along which regenerating epithelial cells can migrate

Basal lamina and reticular layers of the underlying connective tissue deep to it form the basement membrane

Epithelial Surface Features

Apical surface features
Microvilli finger-like extensions of plasma membrane
Abundant in epithelia of small intestine and kidney Maximize surface area across which small molecules enter or leave

Cilia whip-like, highly motile extensions of apical surface membranes

Movement of cilia in coordinated waves

Connective Tissue
Most diverse and abundant tissue Main classes
Connective tissue proper Cartilage Bone tissue Blood

Mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin (mesenchyme derived from mesoderm) Varying degrees of vascularity Nonliving extracellular matrix, consisting of ground substance and fibers Cells are not as abundant nor as tightly packed together as in epithelium

Connective Tissue: Embryonic Origin

Figure 4.5

Functions of Connective Tissue

Enclose organs as a capsule and separate organs into layers. Areolar Connect tissues to one another. Tendons and ligaments. Support and movement. Bones. Storage. Fat. Insulation. Fat. Transport. Blood. Protection. Bone, cells of the immune system.

Structural Elements of Connective Tissue

Ground substance unstructured material that fills the space between cells Fibers collagen, elastic, or reticular Cells fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and others

Connective Tissue Cells

Fibroblasts - secrete the proteins needed for fiber synthesis and components of the extracellular matrix Adipose or fat cells (adipocytes). Common in some tissues (dermis of skin); rare in some (cartilage) Mast cells. Common beneath membranes; along small blood vessels. Can release heparin, histamine, and proteolytic enzymes in response to injury. Leukocytes (WBCs). Respond to injury or infection Macrophages. Derived from monocytes (a WBC). Phagocytic; provide protection Chondroblasts - form cartilage Osteoblasts - form bone Hematopoietic stem cells - form blood cells Undifferentiated mesenchyme (stem cells). Have potential to differentiate into adult cell types.

Extracellular Matrix - ECM

ECM has 3 major components
1. Protein fibers 2. Ground substance 3. Fluid

Protein fibers
Collagen fibers. Composed of the protein collagen. Strong, flexible, inelastic; great tensile strength (i.e. resist stretch). Perfect for tendons, ligaments Elastic fibers. Contain molecules of protein elastin that resemble coiled springs. Returns to its original shape after stretching or compression. Perfect for lungs, large blood vessels Reticular fibers. Formed from fine collagenous fibers; form branching networks (stroma). Fill spaces between tissues and organs.

Ground Substance
Interstitial (tissue) fluid within which are one or more of the molecules listed below: Hyaluronic acid: a polysaccharide. Very slippery; serves as a good lubricant for joints. Common in most connective tissues. Proteoglycans: protein and polysaccharide complex. Polysaccharides called glyocosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate, keratin sulfate). Protein part attaches to hyaluronic acid. Able to trap large amounts of water. Adhesive molecules: hold proteoglycan aggregates together. Chondronectin in cartilage, osteonectin in bone, fibronectin in fibrous connective tissue. Functions as a molecular sieve through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells

Embryonic Connective Tissue

Mesenchyme: source of all adult connective tissue.
Derived from mesoderm Delicate collagen fibers embedded in semifluid matrix

Mucus: found only in the umbilical cord. Whartons jelly.

Areolar Connective Tissue

Figure 4.12b

Adipose Tissue

Figure 4.12c

Reticular Connective Tissue

Figure 4.12d

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

Figure 4.12e

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

Figure 4.12f

Elastic Connective Tissue

Bundles and sheets of collagenous and elastic fibers oriented in multiple directions In walls of elastic arteries (aorta), lungs, vocal ligaments Strong, yet elastic; allows for recoil of tissue after being stretched

Connective Tissue: Cartilage

Composed of chondrocytes (cells) located in matrixsurrounded spaces called lacunae. Type of cartilage determined by components of the matrix. Firm consistency. Ground substance: Proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid complexed together trap large amounts of water (microscopic sponges). Allows tissue to spring back after being compressed. Avascular and no nerve supply. Heals slowly. Perichondrium. Dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds cartilage. Fibroblasts of perichondrium can differentiate into chondroblasts (cartilage-forming cells) Types of cartilage
Hyaline Fibrocartilage Elastic

Hyaline Cartilage

Figure 4.12g

Elastic Cartilage

Figure 4.12h


Figure 4.12i

Bone Tissue

Figure 4.12j

Blood Tissue

Figure 4.12k

Muscle Tissue
Characteristics Cells are referred to as fibers Contracts or shortens with force when stimulated Moves entire body and pumps blood Types Skeletal:attached to bones Cardiac: muscle of the heart. Smooth: muscle associated with tubular structures and with the skin. Nonstriated and involuntary.

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Figure 4.14a

Cardiac Muscle Tissue

Figure 4.14b

Smooth Muscle Tissue

Figure 4.14c

Nervous Tissue

Figure 4.15

Tissues and Aging

Cells divide more slowly Collagen fibers become more irregular in structure, though they may increase in number
Tendons and ligaments become less flexible and more fragile

Elastic fibers fragment, bind to calcium ions, and become less elastic
Arterial walls and elastic ligaments become less elastic

Changes in collagen and elastin result in

Atherosclerosis and reduced blood supply to tissues Wrinkling of the skin Increased tendency for bones to break

Rate of blood cell synthesis declines in the elderly Injuries dont heal as readily