This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Section B exam prep
In order to succeed
• Develop a case study on a film studio which produces or distributed films to the UK • Your study will cover production, distribution, exhibition and consumption • FilmFour/ working title is the chosen company and you MUST focus on this in the exam with specific films used
• the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; • the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; • the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; • the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; • the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; • the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; • the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences
What is a British film?
• • • • • A setting in the UK? or A focus on British people abroad? A predominantly British cast? A storyline about some aspect of British life? Based on the work of a British author?
The importance of a national film industry
• Significant returns for the UK economy through film making, inward investment, film exhibition, DVD rentals and sales, film exports • The UK Film Council estimates that a successful Brit film will make up to 70% of its revenue outside the UK
• If a film addresses a domestic audience about culturally specific themes, is it likely to find wider distribution difficult? • Will non British people want to see the film? • What significant advantage do British filmmakers have over European filmmakers?
British Cinema and Hollywood
• British film production companies have coproduction and distribution with Hollywood studios • ‘British’ films can be funded and distributed by US companies • Decisions on which British films to produce and how to market them are often based on the tastes of both domestic and American audiences
Hollywood – a brief overview
• Hollywood is built around studios • Companies who aim to make money from films • Why are Hollywood blockbuster movies so successful?
The Challenge of Hollywood
• In general Hollywood has been able to continually re-invent itself by responding to a changing marketplace and taking advantage of new opportunities offered by new technologies
Recent British Cinema
• British film has become more confident in expanding its range to include a wider crosssection of ethnic groupings, gender groupings and cultural groupings • Promoting diversity and offering a more representative and inclusive national identity • Slumdog is a recent example!
A distinctive cinema?
• 180 million tickets sold yearly • Inward investment to improve the cinemagoing experience • 80% of admissions come out of mainstream American distributors • British ‘themes’ and values
• Hollywood realised that there is serious money to be made in international distribution so they invest heavily • They retain the rights to their films so secure profits for many years • British film industry is production led whereby distribution is usually through an American company • Any money made is not going back into the British film industry • ‘Cottage’ industry
• British film industry unable to respond to increasing audience demand • Hollywood has diversified and strengthened to develop links with other media and delivery platforms creating vast media empires – examples? • Global market at $63 billion in 2003 • US takes 80% of this global market
• A British production company – finances British films • 1982 – 1998 known as Channel 4 film • Part of channel 4s remit was to experiment and innovate and cater for audiences not addressed by other channels • Nowadays they fund around 20 films per year • A number of films are by first time feature screenwriters or directors • They look for distinctive films which will make their mark in a competitive cinema market • Television premieres on FilmFour Channel and Channel 4 2 years after theatrical release
• David Rose, commissioning editor, “a preference for contemporary and social political topics” • My Beautiful Laundrette (1985) portrayed the homosexual relationship between a white fascist and a Omar, born in Britain to Pakistani parents. • Main audiences were contemporary critical audiences in the 20 – 30 age ranges • Before Laundrette, a large percentage of the British population went largely unrepresented
• • • •
1996 Starring Ewan McGregor in his 2nd film Directed by Danny Boyle a British director A co-production with Figment Films, Polygram and The Noel Gay Motion Picture co. • Budget $3,500,000
Research the marketing of Trainspotting
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUOTs55K Y40 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6iKFn8dlx X8 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uN90xB7 DswE • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbGhC47 NSmY • http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=N8X9BtN mSig&feature=related
• David Aukin, Head of Drama at Four Films “it isn’t really about drugs…it’s a buddy movie” • US critics compared the movie to Kubricks ‘A Clockwork Orange’ • Both are anti-social-realist films dealing with subjects – gangs, violence, drugs – which are stylised and fast-paced. • Both are independent films which shocked the critics and audiences
• However Trainspotting was more an object of youth culture or popular culture than it was cinematic • Britpop was Trainspotting's main vehicle to integrate youth subculture into popular culture. • Polygram put large sums of money into a sophisticated marketing and branding strategy including posters and a soundtrack • Knew film would appeal to clubbers and ravers so targeted these – Underworld’s Born Slippy became a massive hit from the soundtrack • Film gained distribution in the US although it did need subtitles!
• • • • • • The ‘brand’ Trainspotting Soundtrack Posters DVDs Copied of the screenplay Reprinting of Welsh’s novel featuring the poster on the cover • Music cross-promotion
Four Weddings and a Funeral
• 1994 • Starring Hugh Grant and Andie MacDowell • Co-production with Polygram and Working Title • Budget $6,000,000 • http://www.youtube.com/res ults?search_query=four+wed dings+and+a+funeral+trailer& aq=3
• Played upon aspects of national identity • Played upon the more ‘naïve’ elements of Britishness • Hugh Grants quintessential fumbling middle class gentleman • Appealing to an American audience • A universal storyline of romance and a feel good happy ending
• • • • • • 2008 Funded by Film4 Co-production with Celador and Pathe Directed by Danny Boyle Budget $15,000,000 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIzbwV7o n6Q
1990s under David Aukin
• Typical cost rose from £400k to £1.8million • Trainspotting and Four Weddings were hugely successful although appealed to very different audiences • Trainspotting was a low budget film which had carved itself a niche audience
Representation and Cultural Identity
• FilmFour films explored and developed ideas of cultural hybridity • East is East • The first British film representing hybrid and ever changing cultural and social mix in Britain making it into mainstream multiplex cinemas. • Brick Lane (2007) won a BAFTA
• One of FilmFour's biggest problems has been competing for cinema space with multinational film companies, whose films account for more than two thirds of UK box office takings. FilmFour blames the poor box office results on its lack of clout in the distribution market rather than the quality of its films. (BBC on Film Four Partner Search)
Film Four channel
• Originally only subscribers could access the channel • The company wasn’t making enough money through subscriptions alone • Relaunched the channel in July 2006 as a freeview channel • Believed they could make more money through advertising • Has become the Uks largest free film channel available to 18 million homes
Supply and Demand
• Why do you go to the cinema? • What other options are available to you if you want to see a film? • What are the pros and cons of these options? • So why do you still go to the cinema?!
Changing patterns of consumption
• Young people are increasingly watch films on small screens using various models of DVD players • Cinema admissions in Britain fell by 4% in 2005 and US box-office by 9% • Trend towards home consumption began in the 1960s when studios realised they could use television to show films long after they had passed their sell-by date in the cinema
VHS to DVD
• • • • • 1970s VHS was introduced 1980s satellite was introduced DVDs have pushed VHS out of the home What are the advantages of DVD over VHS? What are some drawbacks for the studios?
• Massive corporations may be able to • Publicise and advertise their films via their own print, sound and visual media arms • Put out associated books and music, again from within their own organisation • Show their films via their own various TV and cinema outlets
Film Four and synergy
• A major issue for FilmFour is that it does NOT own its own exhibition theatrical chain • What issues might this raise for FilmFour? • Synergy was not always apparent at the company as in 2003 Ali G went to Working Title!
New technologies and the consumer
• An improved overall experience as a result of better sound and images reproduction • A heightened emotional experience as a result of a stronger sense of empathy with characters who in some way seem more real • Enhanced spectacle • Improved ease of access • New, easier and intensified ways of using film to pleasure themselves e.g. IMAX • Enhanced intellectual experience • The chance for new, ever cheaper and more compact devices to make films for themselves
New technologies and the film industry
• The chance to repackage and resell old products, esp cult films, thereby establishing a new audience base for an old product • An opportunity to place products for sale in a new ‘window’ thereby lengthening the commercial life of each film • The chance to encourage multiple purchases of essentially the same product • A means of still managing to make profit on films that initially perform poorly at the box office
New technologies and the cinema experience
• New technologies have always added to the cinema experience • The size/quality of the spectacle have been enhanced
• Also available in a standard DVD edition, the Blu-ray version of Slumdog Millionaire argues effectively for a conversion over onto the new format. The film looks sensation here, and this is coming from someone who saw the movie twice in theaters. The use of color that Boyle excels at is heightened here, the attention to detail and panoramic vistas recreated superbly within the 2.35:1, AVCX 1080p encode. Remember—Boyle utilized both 35mm stock and digital cameras to capture the action, so there will be a definite distinction between the two. The use of grain, the occasional muddiness and lack of clarity are artistic choices on the director's part (his accompanying commentary track assures us of same). Sonically, the Blu-ray comes with only one audio mix—an English-Hindi 5.1 DTS-HD Master Audio that engages all the channels without subjecting us to aural chaos. Indeed, the balance between dialogue and ambient elements is excellent, and the use of music and effects really elevate the overall immersive effect. While the film itself is subtitled out of necessity, there are optional SDH, French, and Spanish translations offered.
Slumdog – Blu ray
• Boyle and Patel take the audience through the backstreets and countryside of India • Interviews with Beaufoy • Deleted scenes • Making-of • Music video for ‘Bombay Liquid Dance’ • Trailers • Short film entitled ‘Manjha’
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.