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Primary Data Collection Collection Collection Collection purpose process cost time For the problem at hand Very involved High Long Secondary Data For other problems Rapid & easy Relatively low Short
Uses of Secondary Data
• Identify the problem • Better define the problem • Develop an approach to the problem • Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables) • Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses • Interpret primary data more insightfully
Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data
• Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data • Error: Accuracy of the Data • Currency: When the Data Were Collected • Objective(s): The Purpose for Which the Data Were Collected • Nature: The Content of the Data • Dependability: Overall, How Dependable Are the Data
units of relevance of data. & generalizable to the problem. Why were the data collected? Census data are updated by syndicated firms. sampling. Specifications Data collection method. credibility. . fieldwork. increase their relationships examined. Reconfigure the data to measurement. Error & research design. Data should be obtained from an original source. quality & analysis of data. Examine errors in approach. The objective determines the Definition of key variables. usefulness. reputation. Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources.Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data Criteria Issues Remarks Data should be reliable. Expertise. frequency of updates. Currency Objective Nature Dependability Time lag between collection & publication. sampling technique & size. and trustworthiness of the source. categories used. & reporting. response & Methodology rate. data Accuracy collection & analysis. valid. questionnaire design.
A Classification of Secondary Data Secondary Data Internal External Ready to Use Requires Further Processing Published Materials Computerized Databases Syndicated Services .
. house wares) • Sales by specific stores • Sales by geographical region • Sales by cash versus credit purchases • Sales in specific time periods • Sales by size of purchase • Sales trends in many of these classifications were also examined . men's wear.Internal Secondary Data Department Store Project Sales were analyzed to obtain: • Sales by product line • Sales by major department (e.g.
Length of residence .Identification (name.Marital status .Sex . telephone) .Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms I. email.Home ownership .Number and make of cars owned .Names of family members . address.Income .Age (including ages of family members) .Number of children present .Occupation . Demographic Data .
Interest in cable television There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and .Interest in snow skiing .Interest in electronics .Interest in pets .Interest in bicycling .Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms II.Interest in fishing .Interest in golf . Psychographic Lifestyle Data .Interest in book reading .Interest in running .
A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources Guides Directories Indexes Statistical Data Census Data Other Government Publications .
A Classification of Computerized Databases Computerized Databases Online Internet Off-Line Bibliographic Databases Numeric Databases Full-Text Databases Directory Databases SpecialPurpose Databases .
Studies and Surveys. Encyclopedia of Associations. and trade publications • One of the first sources a researcher should consult Directories • Helpful for identifying individuals or organizations that collect specific data • Examples: Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory.Published External Secondary Sources Guides • An excellent source of standard or recurring information • Helpful in identifying other important sources of directories. and Research Services Directory Indices • Helpful in locating information on a particular topic in several different publications . trade associations. FINDEX: The Directory of Market Research Reports.
organizations.Classification of Computerized Databases • Bibliographic databases are composed of citations to articles • Numeric databases contain numerical and statistical information • Full-text databases contain the complete text of the source documents comprising the database • Directory databases provide information on individuals. and services • Special-purpose databases provide specialized information .
diary panels. or electronic scanner services • Institutional data may be obtained from retailers.Syndicated Services • Companies that collect and sell common pools of data of known commercial value designed to serve a number of clients • Syndicated sources can be classified based on the unit of measurement (households/consumers or institutions) • Household/consumer data may be obtained from surveys. or industrial firms . wholesalers.
A Classification of Syndicated Services Unit of Measurement Households/ Consumers Institutions .
Syndicated Services: Consumers . Households / Consumers Panels Electronic scanner services Scanner Panels Scanner Panels with Cable TV Purchase Surveys Media Volume Tracking Data Advertising Evaluation Psychographic & Lifestyles General .
Syndicated Services: Institutions Institutions Retailers Wholesalers Industrial firms Audits Direct Inquiries Clipping Services Corporate Reports .
inform ation on underly m ing otives D isadvantages Interview errors.Overview of Syndicated Services T ype Su rveys C haracteristics S urvey conductedat s regular intervals A dvantages M flexible w of ost ay obtainingdata. establishing consum profiles. m aturation M ia Pan ed els S e as purchase am panel S e as purchase am panel . m arket share and trends. selectingm edia programor air tim e. er brandloy and alty sw itching. evaluating test m arkets. advertisingthem e selectionand advertising effectiveness Forecastingsales. establishingview er profiles Pu ase rch Pan els H ouseholds provide specific inform ation regularlyover an extendedperiodof tim respondent e. er respondent errors U ses M arket segm entation. and distribution Establishing advertisingrates. response bias. askedto record specific behaviors as theyoccur Electronic devices autom atically recordingbehavior. advertising. supplem entedbya diary R ecordedpurchase behavior canbe linkedto the dem ographic/ psy chographic characteristics L of ack representativeness.
sample representative. ability to link of data limited panel data to household characteristics Audit services Verification of product movement by examining physical records or performing inventory analysis Relatively precise information at the retail and wholesale levels Coverage may be incomplete. competitive activity.Overview of Syndicated Services Scanner Diary Panels Scanner panels of Data reflect actual Data may not be with Cable TV households that purchases. positioning Industrial Product Data banks on Important source of Syndicated Services industrial information on establishments created industrial firms. and quality Measurement of consumer sales and market share. copy testing. new product testing. defining sales territories. analyzing distribution patterns: tracking of new products Determining market potential by geographic area. clipping initial phases of the services. through direct inquiriesparticularly useful in of companies. matching of data on competitive activity may be difficult Promotional mix analyses. allocating advertising budget . quantity. and corporate projects reports Data are lacking in terms of content. quality subscribe to cable TV control.
including media consumption and purchases. such as sales. advertising. and promotion . advertising. promotion.Single-Source Data Single-source data provide integrated information on household variables. price. and marketing variables. such as product sales. and in-store marketing effort • Recruit a test panel of households and meter each home's TV sets • Survey households periodically on what they read • Grocery purchases are tracked by UPC scanners • Track retail data.
A Classification of International Sources International Secondary Data Domestic Organizations in the United States International Organizations in the United States Organizations in Foreign Countries Government Sources Nongovernment Sources Governments International Organizations Trade Associations .
Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research .
A Classification of Marketing Research Data Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Qualitative Data Descriptive Survey Data Observational and Other Data Quantitative Data Causal Experimental Data .
Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Objective To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of nonrepresentative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome .
A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Qualitative Research Procedures Direct (Nondisguised) Indirect (Disguised) Projective Techniques Focus Groups Depth Interviews Association Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques .
and communication skills of the moderator . interpersonal. informal atmosphere 1-3 hours Use of audiocassettes and videotapes Observational. prescreened Relaxed. respondents.Characteristics of Focus Groups Group Size Group Composition Physical Setting Time Duration Recording Moderator 8-12 Homogeneous.
Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. . Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. 3. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction. 4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding. 2.
Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level. 7. . Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. cont. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process.Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators. 5. 6.
Procedure for Planning and Conducting Focus Groups Determine the Objectives and Define the Problem Specify the Objectives of Qualitative Research State the Objectives/Questions to be Answered by Focus Groups Write a Screening Questionnaire Develop a Moderator’s Outline Conduct the Focus Group Interviews Review Tapes and Analyze the Data Summarize the Findings and Plan Follow-Up Research or Action .
• Dueling-moderator group.Variations in Focus Groups • Two-way focus group. and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed. but they deliberately take opposite positions on the issues to be discussed. This allows one target group to listen to and learn from a related group. A focus group conducted by two moderators: One moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session. For example. There are two moderators. . a focus group of physicians viewed a focus group of arthritis patients discussing the treatment they desired. • Dual-moderator group.
• Client-participant groups. Focus group sessions by phone using the conference call technique. These groups consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5 respondents. Focus groups conducted online over the Internet. • Online Focus groups. The moderator asks selected participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics. • Mini groups.Variations in Focus Groups • Respondent-moderator group. . • Tele-session groups. Client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group.
Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Characteristic Groups Group size Online Focus Groups Traditional Focus 4-6 8-12 Drawn from the local area Group composition Anywhere in the world Time duration Physical setting 1-1.5 hours 1-3 hours Researcher has little control Under the control of the researcher Respondent identity Difficult to verify Can be easily verified Respondent attentivenessRespondents can engage in other tasks Attentiveness can be monitored .
advertising demonstrations. or by traditional means Limited Recruited by traditional means (telephone. Can be recruited online. except for sensitive topics Body language and emotions observed A variety of stimuli (products.) can be used Group dynamics Openness of respondents Respondents are more candid due to lack of face-to-face contact Body language cannot be observed Emotions expressed by using symbols Limited to those that can be displayed on the Internet Nonverbal communication Use of physical stimuli . mail. mail panel) Synergistic. etc. panel. e-mail. snowballing (bandwagon) effect Respondents are candid.Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Respondent recruiting Easier.
Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Transcripts Available immediately Time consuming and expensive to obtain Observers can manually send notes to the focus group room Observational Observers’ communication with moderator Unique moderator skills Observers can communicate with the the moderator on a split-screen Typing. transcript preparation . familiarity with chat room slang Can be set up and completed completion None Much less expensive Turnaround time in a few days Client travel costs Basic focus group costs Takes many days for setup and Can be expensive More expensive: facility rental. computer usage. food. taping.
etc.Advantages of Online Focus Groups • Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. lawyers. • Moderators can carry on side conversations with individual respondents. • There is no travel. • Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors. • Unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date. . videotaping. or facilities to arrange so the cost is much lower.
.. • There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment.g.. • Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. clothing) or smelled (e. • Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. Products can not be touched (e.Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups • Only people that have access to the Internet can participate.g. perfumes).
“You're The Boss. This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings. Wide body aircrafts (product characteristic) I can get more work done I accomplish more I feel good about myself (user characteristic) Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying our airline.” .Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering In laddering. the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics.
Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning
In hidden issue questioning, the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots;” not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns.
Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis
Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non-usage of the product, attributes of an imaginary “nonproduct,” and opposite types of products. “What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?” “Without planes, I would have to rely on letters and longdistance calls.” Airlines sell to the managers face-to-face communication. Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package.
Focus Groups Versus Depth Interviews
Characteristic Group synergy and dynamics Peer pressure/group influence Client involvement Generation of innovative ideas In-depth probing of individuals Uncovering hidden motives Discussion of sensitive topics Focus Groups + + + Depth Interviews + + + +
Focus Groups Versus Depth Interviews Characteristic Interviewing competitors Interviewing professional respondents Scheduling of respondents Amount of information Bias in moderation and interpretation Cost per respondent Focus Groups + + + Depth Interviews + + + - Note: A + indicates a relative advantage over the other procedure. a . .indicates a relative disadvantage.
Definition of Projective Techniques • An unstructured. beliefs. indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations. • In interpreting the behavior of others. respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. or feelings into the situation. respondents indirectly project their own motivations. • In projective techniques. attitudes. beliefs. . attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern.
one at a time. called test words.Word Association In word association. respondents are presented with a list of words. and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time. . are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral. and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. The words of interest. Responses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response. (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given.
C ironing clean soiled clean dirt soap and water children wash .Word Association EXAMPLE STIMULUS washday fresh pure scrub filth bubbles family towels MRS. husband does this neighborhood bath squabbles dirty MRS. M everyday and sweet air don't.
I ________ A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion.Completion Techniques In sentence completion. Generally. Penney is most liked by _________________________ When I think of shopping in a department store. A person who shops at Sears is ______________________ A person who receives a gift certificate good for Sak's Fifth Avenue would be __________________________________ J. . C. respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase.
They are required to give the conclusion in their own words. respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending.Completion Techniques In story completion. .
The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality.Construction Techniques With a picture response. . the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. In cartoon tests. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques.
.A Cartoon Test Sears Let’s see if we can pick up some house wares at Sears.
respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. colleague. This third person may be a friend.Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques. neighbor. . or a “typical” person.
Advantages of Projective Techniques • They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. sensitive. beliefs. and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level. • Helpful when underlying motivations. or subject to strong social norms. . • Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal.
• Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses.Disadvantages of Projective Techniques • Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques. • They tend to be expensive. . • May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior. • Require highly-trained interviewers. but to a greater extent. • There is a serious risk of interpretation bias.
. • Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding. • Given their complexity. projective techniques should not be used naively.Guidelines for Using Projective Techniques • Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods.
Obtaining sensitive information No 8.Comparison of Focus Groups. Moderator bias Relatively low 4. and Projective Techniques Criteria Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques 1. Interpretation bias Low 5. Uncovering subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative High information Low 7. Depth Interviews. Probing of individual Low respondents Relatively medium 3. Involve unusual behavior or questioning Relatively medium Relatively low High Medium Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high Medium Medium To a limited extent Useful Low to high Relatively high High Low High Yes Somewhat useful 9. Degree of Structure Relatively high 2. Overall usefulness Highly useful .
2) Data display – Develop a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram. .Analysis of Qualitative Data 1) Data reduction – Select which aspects of the data are to be emphasized. or matrix. minimized. or set aside for the project at hand. chart. The display helps to illuminate patterns and interrelationships in the data. 3) Conclusion drawing and verification – Considers the meaning of analyzed data and assess its implications for the research question at hand.
A Classification of Survey Methods Survey Methods Telephone Personal Mail Electronic In-Home Mall Intercept Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing Mail Interview E-mail Internet Traditional Telephone Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Panel .
color. return address Postage Method of addressing Cover Letter Sponsorship Type of appeal Postscript Personalization Signature Questionnaire Length Size Layout Format Content Reproduction Color Respondent anonymity Return Envelope Type of envelope Postage Incentives Monetary versus non-monetary Prepaid Versus promised amount .Some Decisions Related to the Mail Interview Package Outgoing Envelope Outgoing envelope Size.
branches Boat owners Chambers of Commerce Personal computer owners Families Hardware wholesalers Magazines.Sample Mailing Lists List Title Advertising agencies Banks. consumers Photographic. except where noted. portrait Sales executives $55/M Wives of professional men YMCA’s Number on List 3892 11089 4289601 6559 2218672 76000000 7378 4119 33742 190002 1663614 1036 Price $45/M $85/M $50/M $45/M Inquire Inquire $45/M $45/M $45/M $60/M $85 * Price shown is per 1000 names (/M). .
Criteria for Evaluating Survey Methods Flexibility of Data Collection • The flexibility of data collection is determined primarily by the extent to which the respondent can interact with the interviewer and the survey questionnaire. . as well as the ability to actually see the questions. a product prototype. or promotional displays during the interview. commercials. Diversity of Questions • The diversity of questions that can be asked in a survey depends upon the degree of interaction the respondent has with the interviewer and the questionnaire. Use of Physical Stimuli • The ability to use physical stimuli such as the product.
Quantity of Data • The ability to collect large amounts of data. Control of the Data Collection Environment • The degree of control a researcher has over the environment in which the respondent answers the questionnaire. Control of Field Force • The ability to control the interviewers and supervisors involved in data collection.Criteria for Evaluating Survey Methods Sample Control • Sample control is the ability of the survey mode to reach the units specified in the sample effectively and efficiently. .
In plus-one sampling.Random Digit Directory Designs Adding a Constant to the Last Digit An integer between 1 and 9 is added to the telephone number selected from the directory. Replace the last four digits of the block with randomly selected numbers 5. 2. . Add one to the last digit to form 404-953-3005. 8. and 6 to form 404-881-5286. 3. Randomizing the r Last Digits Replace the r (r = 2. Number selected from directory: 404-881-1124. This is the number to be included in the sample. the number added to the last digit is 1. or 4) last digits with an equal number of randomly selected digits. Number selected from directory: 404-953-3004 (exchangeblock).
Random Digit Directory Designs Two-Stage Procedure The first stage consists of selecting an exchange and telephone number from the directory. . the last three digits of the selected number are replaced with a three-digit random number between 000 and 999. In the second stage. Cluster 1 Selected exchange: 636 Selected number: 404-636-3230 Replace the last three digits (230) with randomly selected 389 to form 404-636-3389. Repeat this process until the desired number of telephone numbers from this cluster is obtained.
Response Rate Criteria for Evaluating Survey Methods • Survey response rate is broadly defined as the percentage of the total attempted interviews that are completed. . Social Desirability/Sensitive Information • Social desirability is the tendency of the respondents to give answers that are socially acceptable. whether or not they are true. Perceived Anonymity • Perceived anonymity refers to the respondents' perceptions that their identities will not be discerned by the interviewer or the researcher.
. Cost • The total cost of administering the survey and collecting the data.Criteria for Evaluating Survey Methods Potential for Interviewer Bias • The extent of the interviewer's role determines the potential for bias. Speed • The total time taken for administering the survey to the entire sample.
.g. observing children playing with new toys. an auditor performing inventory analysis in a store.. the observer monitors all aspects of the phenomenon that seem relevant to the problem at hand.g. e. e..Observation Methods Structured Versus Unstructured Observation • For structured observation. the researcher specifies in detail what is to be observed and how the measurements are to be recorded. • In unstructured observation.
the respondents are unaware that they are being observed.Observation Methods Disguised Versus Undisguised Observation • In disguised observation. Disguise may be accomplished by using one-way mirrors. Observers may be disguised as shoppers or sales clerks. hidden cameras. • In undisguised observation. the respondents are aware that they are under observation. or inconspicuous mechanical devices. .
respondents' behavior is observed in an artificial environment. • In contrived observation. such as a test kitchen. one could observe the behavior of respondents eating fast food in Burger King. For example. .Observation Methods Natural Versus Contrived Observation • Natural observation involves observing behavior as it takes places in the environment.
A Classification of Observation Methods Classifying Observation Methods Observation Methods Personal Observation Mechanical Observation Audit Content Analysis Trace Analysis .
. • For example. a researcher might record traffic counts and observe traffic flows in a department store. • The observer does not attempt to manipulate the phenomenon being observed but merely records what takes place.Observation Methods Personal Observation • A researcher observes actual behavior as it occurs.
– – – – – Eye-tracking monitors Pupilometers ( change in pupils measures the cognitive activity) Psychogalvanometers (measures galvanic skin response) Voice pitch analyzers Devices measuring response latency ( time taken to respond) . motion picture.Do not require respondents' direct participation. On-site cameras (still. – – – Observation Methods Mechanical Observation Turnstiles that record the number of people entering or leaving a building. or video) Optical scanners in supermarkets Do require respondent involvement.
Observation Methods Audit • The researcher collects data by examining physical records or performing inventory analysis. • Retail and wholesale audits conducted by marketing research suppliers were discussed in the context of syndicated data in Chapter 4 . • Data are collected personally by the researcher. usually of physical objects. • The data are based upon counts.
space and time measures (length or duration of the message). and quantitative description of the manifest content of a communication. themes (propositions).Observation Methods Content Analysis • The objective. • Analytical categories for classifying the units are developed and the communication is broken down according to prescribed rules. • The unit of analysis may be words. or topics (subject of the message). systematic. characters (individuals or objects). .
. of past behavior. The position of the radio dials in cars brought in for service was used to estimate share of listening audience of various radio stations.Observation Methods Trace Analysis: Data collection is based on physical traces. or evidence. The number of different fingerprints on a page was used to gauge the readership of various advertisements in a magazine. Internet visitors leave traces which can be analyzed to examine browsing and usage behavior by using cookies. The selective erosion of tiles in a museum indexed by the replacement rate was used to determine the relative popularity of exhibits. The age and condition of cars in a parking lot were used to assess the affluence of customers. The magazines people donated to charity were used to determine people's favorite magazines.
A Comparative Evaluation of Observation Methods Criteria Degree of structure Degree of disguise Ability to observe in natural setting Observation bias Analysis Bias General remarks Personal Mechanical Observation Observation Low Low to high Medium Low to high High Low to high High High Most flexible Low Low to Medium Can be intrusive Audit Content Analysis Analysis High Low High Low Low Trace Analysis High Medium High High Medium Low Medium Medium Low Medium Expensive Limited to Method of commulast resort nications .
• If the observed phenomenon occurs frequently or is of short duration. • Certain types of data can be collected only by observation. observational methods may be cheaper and faster than survey methods.Relative Advantages of Observation • They permit measurement of actual behavior rather than reports of intended or preferred behavior. . and potential bias caused by the interviewer and the interviewing process is eliminated or reduced. • There is no reporting bias.
and preferences. • In some cases. beliefs. as in observing people without their knowledge or consent. attitudes. . • Selective perception (bias in the researcher's perception) can bias the data.Relative Disadvantages of Observation • The reasons for the observed behavior may not be determined since little is known about the underlying motives. It is best to view observation as a complement to survey methods. and it is difficult to observe certain forms of behavior. the use of observational methods may be unethical. • Observational data are often time-consuming and expensive. rather than as being in competition with them.
A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods for International Marketing Research Mail + + + + + + + - Electron . and a (–) denotes a disadvantage.eria Telephone Personal sample control + + culty in locating + + ondents at home cessibility of homes + + vailability of a large + + of trained interviewers e population in rural areas + vailability of maps + + vailability of current + phone directory vailability of mailing lists + + penetration of telephones + + of an efficient postal system + + level of literacy + -to-face communication culture + access to computers & Internet ? + ? : A (+) denotes an advantage.
X is only one of a number of possible causes of Y. . we can infer that X is a cause of Y. Here cause will always occur prior to the effect. We can never prove that X is a cause of Y. X must always lead to Y (X is a deterministic cause of Y).Concept of Causality A statement such as "X causes Y " will have the following meaning to an ordinary person and to a scientist. At best. ____________________________________________________ Ordinary Meaning Scientific Meaning ____________________________________________________ X is the only cause of Y. The occurrence of X makes the occurrence of Y more probable (X is a probabilistic cause of Y). It is possible to prove that X is a cause of Y.
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