This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A presentation by: Vishakha Chopra & Abhishek Kumar
The order of processes in a garment manufacturing company:
CUT ORDER PLANNING SPREADING OF FABRIC AMD MARKING
REPLACEMENT OF CUT PARTS (IF DEFECTIVE)
CUT PARTS SEND TO STITCHING LINE
Cut Order Planning
• The planning department or the marker making dept. issues a cutting order plan to the cutting department for commencing cutting for any particular order. • The cut order plan states the size wise quantity to be cut in that style and the fabric required for the total quantity mentioned. • The cutting In-charge makes a daily cutting plan for the work order quantity and does the resource allocation. • The cut order plan also gives an estimate of the fabric that should be taken from the fabric store.
Spreading And marking
• While spreading th fabric many aspects have to be kept in mind like lay i.e. style, fabric width, no. of plies, marker way, consumption for that lay etc. • After the spreading is done, the lay should be checked by the QC and a format called Cutting Room Inspection Report is generated. • After the lay is cleared by the QC, it goes for next operation i.e. marking. • The marking could be done manually by patterns or paper markercould be fixed on top ply to make it ready for manual cutting.
• During the cutting process. the accuracy of the cut parts in relation to the original pattern is subject to the stability of the fabric. the quality of the cut edge (clean cut without fraying. and the accurate inclusion of sewing marks such as notches in the cut edge. the vertical accuracy of the cutting edge as it cuts through the cloth. • When cutting multiple layers of fabric. the movement of the fabric during cutting. and drill CUTTING.• Cutting is the process of separating the garment parts from the body of the fabric lay. . several issues of accuracy and quality must be addressed. flagging or singing).
in discussion with the sewing floor in charge. .Ticketing And Bundling • Once the lay is cut the cut parts are numbered. • After numbering the pieces are bundled into a group of certain pieces. all parts that makes one complete garments are given same number so as to avoid any mismatching of shade. • The size of the bundle is decided by the cutting-room in charge.
the shade matching. size. . etc. presence of all parts etc. • The inspection also checks for the pieces w.Inspection • Inspection on the bundled garments is done by the cuttingroom quality control manager who checks the bundles for bundle ticket descriptions. no of pieces etc. notch positioning. as mentioned in the format. • The cut bundles are then issued to the sewing line with details of the bundles issued like bundle no.t. correct sequence of ply numbers.r.
. when dividing the garment by visualizing an imaginary vertical line drawn from the center of the neck.Symmetry and Asymmetry of garments • Garments can either be Symmetric.down to the bottom edge of the garment. • As defined. through the navel (belly button). a Garment is Symmetric if. (the Vertical Centerline of the body) all the patterns on the left side of the body are exactly the same but mirror image to all the patterns on the right side of the body. or Asymmetric. • This determination is based on the shapes of the patterns for the garment.
• The marker for a half set of patterns is called a “Closed Marker” or a closed on open marker .Efficiency increases for symmetric garments • Symmetric garments cost half as much to cut since only a half set of patterns need to be cut out of the fabric as long as the fabric is spread on the cutting table where alternating layers of fabric are face up and face down. • Then every pair of plies laying face-to-face become the left and right pattern for each part of the garment.
. This is known as a “Open Marker” for flat. • This means that all the patterns must be placed in the marker. and all the patterns must be cut individually.Asymmetric Garments • Asymmetric garments are defined as having left and right patterns that are different shapes or different parts. both left and right be cut together as they differ. Open and rolled fabric. • Asymmetric garments require all the patterns.
or the direction that the fibres in the surface naturally lay. the fabric has a directional nap direction • Most solid color plain weave fabrics have no visible Nap Direction and are therefore Symmetric. • For printed fabrics. if the pattern in the fabric all appears to point in one direction. .Symmetry and Asymmetry of fabric • Fabric Nap Direction is defined as it relates to the direction that the nap (surface) is viewed. A Symmetric fabric can turned 180 degrees in the same plane (looking at the face of the fabric) and there is NO visible difference in appearance.
4 types of fabrics Double Symmetrical fabric .
4 types of fabrics Double asymmetrical fabric .
4 types of fabrics lenghtwise symmetrical fabric .
4 types of fabrics widthwise symmetrical fabric .
• Some methods of put-up are used to protect the fabric. . others are strictly for the convenience of spreading and handling. • The way in which it is rolled or folded when dyeing and finishing is completed is referred to as “put-up”.Fabric Put up: • Fabrics are prepared at the mill in a variety of ways for production.
• The fabric is rolled on a hard cardboard tube (or plastic tube) where the selvedges are at opposite ends of the tube. Flat. open and rolled is the most common preparation. • Roll lengths on each tube can reach 1.Fabric is flat open with the face to the inside of the roll Flat. depending on the weight of the roll. open and rolled a. • The fabric is usually rolled with the technical face to the inside of the roll. . • It is utilized for most woven fabrics prepared for factory production.200 yards on a single roll. but are more often in the 150 yard range.
Folded and Rolled is a put-up that allows the utilization of a single center fold in the length of the goods. • Folded and rolled fabric orients the technical face of the fabric inside the folded surfaces. • This preparation is utilized with very wide fabrics that cannot be processed by a manufacturer who does not have wide enough cutting tables.Folded and Rolled b. so they are not visible on the surface of the spread. . the fabric selvedges are superimposed one over the other. • In this preparation.
Fabric is laid back and forth in a • carton. This put-up results in fabric on a roll with two folds. Book Fold is the most relaxed put up. d. These machines knit in a circular motion. the face is not visible • from the surface of the spread. Book Fold is used for delicate fabrics to minimize the stress on the • fabric. . This preparation results in the technical face of • the fabric oriented together. For every other layer. one • at each end of the tube.Tubular Folded & Book Fold c. creating • a tube of fabric. Tubular Folded goods are prepared by rolling fabrics manufacturers on • weft knitting machines.
MARKER TYPES: .
1. There is no restriction on where they can be placed. . Mixed marker • A marker in which all the pattern pieces of a style are utilized. as long as they are placed on-grain.
(all the left and right pattern pieces). and flat open knits. • Open marker is used on fabric that is spread open and face up on the table. The • Open marker patterns are placed in pairs (left and right of the same size) to ensure that if there are shade differences in the length of the goods. . open markers offer the second best utilization of fabric.2. parts of the garment that are seen side by side will appear with the same shade. Open marker • A marker in which all the pattern pieces of a style are utilized as pairs. • For most woven fabrics.
• After cutting. any one pattern piece would yield the left and right piece of the garment when choosing a pair of consecutive plies.3. • As only one half of the pattern set is used. Closed marker • Closed marker is used under special circumstances. • Can produce on fold patterns . the fabric spread on the table is folded in it’s length and is oriented face to face.
Every part of the garment must have corresponding left and right patterns. or blocking and relaying is required. as garments will be constructed of two consecutive plies of fabric. placed on open fabric. Closed-on-open • A marker with half of a set of patterns for each garment. . • Styles with one-piece parts like a one-piece back panel can not be made using a closed-on-open marker without blocking and re-laying. • Fabric dyeing must be consistent to use this method.4. a pair of consecutive plies of fabric (spread face to face) produce the left and right pieces of the garment. This mode is intended for fabric spread face to face. • For any one part in the marker.
• After the part is cut. and the smaller size pattern of that part is placed on the second half. only the larger pattern of the two is placed in the marker. • This is then recut to the smaller size. . for two consecutive sizes in the marker. when one pattern in the garment is full body width (rather than left and right patterns). Blocking and re-laying • Blocking and re-laying in the spreading process may be used in conjunction with a closed-on-open marker.5. • To take advantage of a symmetric garment. and placing a half set of patterns in the marker. the cut block for the pattern is divided in half.
6. Although at the lowest efficiency. The section marker facilitates producing different order ratios using the same marker through step spreading. known as section markers are utilized when the order ratios are unknown in advance.Section Marker • Single Section Marker. When the patterns of all the different sizes are scattered throughout the full length of the marker (placed wherever they fit the best). single-section markers permit total flexibility . the marker is known as non-sectional or single section marker. • Markers with more than one section.
MARKER MODES .
Medium Quality. Low Efficiency. Slower Spreading This mode is necessary for fabrics that are asymmetric. .The Nap/One/ Way marker is the highest quality but least efficient of the three nap directions for a marker.Marker: Nap One Way (N/O/W).
• Marker: Nap Up and Down (N/U/D). . This Mode assumes consistent (dye) color in the length and width of the goods. placed wherever they fit best. The patterns may be oriented either “down” or “up”. Nap/ Either/ Way also requires the fabric be symmetric. only making sure that the patterns are on-grain. The Nap/ Either/ Way marker is usually the most efficient mode yielding the highest fabric utilization.
and good quality. .Marker: Nap Either Way (N/E/W) This method is yields moderately good fabric utilization.
Fabric is flat open with the face to the inside of the roll SPREADING MODES (OPEN FABRIC) .
Zigzag spread . rotated 180 degrees. Spreading starts .Fabric is cut at the far end. then spread to the far end againprocess is repeated. the roll is brought to the beginning of the table.Spreading starts at one end of the table on each ply Spreading starts .Fabric is cut at the far end. process is repeated. rotated 180 degrees. then spread to the beginning.
Fabric is flat open with the face to the inside of the roll SPREADING MODES (CLOSED/FOLDED FABRIC) These processes are also used on tubular rolled fabric Folded fabric spreading starts at one end of the table. Then the process is repeated Zigzag in closed roll . then returned to the beginning. Fabric is cut at the far end.
Types of Cutting machines .
• This method is slow and unproductive.Hand Shears • Hand Shears are used when cutting samples and limited quantities of garments. . but usually no more than two layers of fabric due to the loss of accuracy as the shears lifts the fabric off the cutting table. • The cutter must control the shears keeping the cut edge layer adds to the difficulty of accurate cutting. • Hand shears are limited to the cutters physical strength. the patterns are often traced in tailor’s chalk on the top layer of fabric.
distorting multiple layers of fabric. scoring the table in the process much the same way as slicing vegetables on a cutting board. as the short knife pushes as it cuts through the fabric. • Fabrics cut this way must be heavily weighted. . The short knife slices through the fabric. The short knife is also used for sloping on dress shirts and other ‘customized’ apparel where only a few layers of fabric are being cut at one time.Short Knife • The Short Knife is an alternate method to hand shears. • Ten to twelve layers of fabric may be accurately cut this way.
Straight Knife Cutting Machine • The Straight Knife (Vertical Knife) is a machine with a straight vertical blade. this may represent a wide range of plies. . • When encountering notches. Depending on the density of the fabric. capable of cutting lays from 2 ½” to 13 ½” in height. the straight knife may be used to cut notches by pushing the blade into the notch mark on the patterns above each bundle. • Straight knives are available from 3” to 14” tall.
it also makes cutting very dense fabrics easier. . Therefore. facilitating cutting on slippery fabrics. the blade is not vertical. • The disadvantage of the round knife is that at the cutting edge. • Additional advantage of the round knife are that it can cut without pushing the lay as it cuts. • Continuously slicing downward. cutting accuracy is sacrificed as the lay get higher.Round Knife Cutting Machine • The Round Knife utilizes a circular blade that cuts cleanly through fabric much the same way that a circular wood saw cuts through wood.
Die cutting machine • Die Cutting is an off-table cutting method that provides cutting quality close to perfection. and the machine head presses the dies down through the fabric lay. The blocks are shifted off the cutting table. • A die is made of steel is required for every part in every size that must be cut. is the height of the cutting dieis 2 inches in height. . the dies are placed (by size. • A limitation. • Every part comes out the same exact shape and size when die cut correctly. etc as needed.) down on the cloth. • At the cutting machine (known as a ‘clicker’). • In this process. Fabric blocks are included in the marker for the parts to be cut by die.
• The band knife is particularly useful for high pile fabrics like terry. The Band knife is similar to the butcher or wood working band saw. or velvet.Band Knife Cutting Machine • Band Knife Cutting is another off-table cutting method. . • A continuous blade passes down through a table top cutting surface. • Cutting accuracy is achieved by using thin wooden forms the shape of each pattern to be cut. The operator guides the block of fabric to the blade. The block of fabric is moved to the band knife cutting machine. as well as soft knits.
Auxiliary Devices • Notchers: are either manual or electric machines used to make notches in the edge of a cut bundle. Unless cutting notches while cutting with the up and down knife. notchers are necessary for creating notches. • Drillers: Cloth Drills are used when a mark is needed inside the body of a part to indicate the point of a dart. location of a .
THANK YOU .