GROUP # 4

KHAQAN AMIN MUHAMMAD YAHYA NAEEM AMIN USMAN AFZAL TALHA SHAUKAT ZAKRIYA ZUBAIR 09-NTU-1057 09-NTU-1072 09-NTU-1077 09-NTU-1082 09-NTU-1094 09-NTU-1102

CONTENTS
Intelligence • Introduction • History • Difinitions • Human intelligence • Factors related to intelligence • Types of intelligence

CONTD.
Emotional intelligence • Introduction • History • Definitions • Four branches of EI • Measuring EI • Future of EI • Importance of EI

INTRODUCTION
• Intelligence includes the abilities for abstract thoughts, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, retaining, planning and problem solving.

• Intelligence is most widely studied in humans, but has also been observed in animals and plants.

HISTORY
• Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere which derives from inter-legere meaning to "pick out" or discern. • A form of this verb,intellectus, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous. • The term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy.

DEFINITION
• The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

• The unique propensity of human beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation.

HUMAN INTELLIGENCE
• Human intelligence is the collection of Abstract thought, Communication, Creativity, Emotional Intelligence, Knowledge, Learning, Memory, Problem solving, Reaction time, Reasoning, Understanding, Visual processing.

• There are many different theories that explained the different aspects of human intelligence in one or another way. Cattell–Horn–Carroll theory, Fluid and crystallized intelligence, General intelligence factor, Intelligence quotient, Theory of multiple intelligences, Triarchic theory of intelligence, PASS theory of intelligence.

FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE
• Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the capacity to think logically and solve problems in novel situations, independent of acquired knowledge. • It is the ability to analyze novel problems, identify patterns and relationships that underpin these problems and the extrapolation of these using logic

THOERY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
• The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific modalities, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.

• The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process.

TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
• The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg, a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. • Mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, realworld environments relevant to one’s life, which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan.

FACTORS RELATED TO INTELLIGENCE
• Environment and intelligence • Neuroscience and intelligence • Race and intelligence

ENVIRONMENT AND INTELLIGENCE
• Environment and intelligence research investigates the impact of environment on intelligence. • This is one of the most important factors in understanding human group differences in IQ test scores and other measures of cognitive ability.

NEUROSCIENCE AND INTELLIGENCE
• Neuroscience and intelligence concerns the various neurological factors that may be responsible for the variation of intelligence within a species or between different species. • The basic mechanisms by which the brain produces complex phenomena such as consciousness and intelligence are still poorly understood.

RACE AND INTELLIGENCE
• Race is a classification system used to categorize humans into large and distinct populations or groups by heritable phenotypic characteristics, geographic ancestry, physical appearance, and ethnicity. • As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, selfidentities, and social institutions.

TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE
• Naturalist Intelligence (“Nature Smart”) • Musical Intelligence (“Musical Smart”) • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (“Number/Reasoning Smart”) • Existential Intelligence • Interpersonal Intelligence (“People Smart”) • Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“Body Smart”) • Linguistic Intelligence (“Word Smart”) • Intra-personal Intelligence (“Self Smart”) • Spatial Intelligence (“Picture Smart”)

INTRODUCTION
• Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups. • Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature.

HISTORY
• The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation. • Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people.

DEFINITIONS
• Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. • Emotional intelligence refers to the capacity to recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationship.

FOUR BRANCHES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

THE PERCEPTION OF EMOTIONS
• The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. • In many cases, this might involve understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial expressions.

REASONING WITH EMOTIONS
• The next step involves using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity. • Emotions help prioritize what we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that garner our attention.

UNDERSTANDING EMOTIONS
• The emotions that we perceive can carry a wide variety of meanings. • If someone is expressing angry emotions, the observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean.

MANAGING EMOTIONS
• The ability to manage emotions effectively is a key part of emotional intelligence. • Regulating emotions, responding appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important aspect of emotional management.

MEASURING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
• In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report that is, ability testing is the only adequate method to employ. Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers." --John D. Mayer

REUVEN BAR- ON’s EQ-i
• A self-report test designed to measure competencies including awareness, stress tolerance, problem solving, and happiness.

• According to Bar-On, Emotional intelligence is an array of noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.

MULTIFACTOR EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SCALE (MEIS)
• An ability-based test in which test-takers perform tasks designed to assess their ability to perceive, identify, understand, and utilize emotions.

SELIGMAN ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE QUESTIONNAIRE (SASQ)
• Originally designed as a screening test for the life insurance company Metropolitan Life, the SASQ measures optimism and pessimism.

EMOTIONAL COMPETANCE INVENTORY (ECI)
• Based on an older instrument known as the Self-Assessment Questionnaire, the ECI involves having people who know the individual offer ratings of that person’s abilities on a number of different emotional competencies.

FUTURE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
• Peter Salovey: “I think in the coming decade we will see well-conducted research demonstrating that emotional skills and competencies predict positive outcomes at home with one’s family, in school, and at work.’’

IMPORTANCE OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
• John Gottman: "In the last decade or so, science has discovered a tremendous amount about the role emotions play in our lives. Researchers have found that even more than IQ, your emotional awareness and abilities to handle feelings will determine your success and happiness in all walks of life, including family relationships."

CONTD.
• McCown et al: "Experiencing one's self in a conscious manner--that is, gaining selfknowledge--is an integral part of learning.’’ • Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, and Palfai: "People in good moods are better at inductive reasoning and creative problem solving."

CONTD.
• John D. Mayer: "An emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously.’’ • Mayer & Salovey: "People high in emotional intelligence are expected to progress more quickly through the abilities designated and to master more of them."

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