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I. Understanding a Social System
A. Social Equilibrium B. Functional and Dysfunctional Effects C. Psychological and Economic Contracts
II. Social Culture
A. Cultural Diversity B. Social Culture Values
A. Role Perceptions B. Mentors C. Role Conflict D. Role Ambiguity
IV. Status A. Status Relationships
B. Status Symbols C. Sources of Status D. Significance of Status
V. Organizational Culture A. Characteristics of Cultures
B. Measuring Organizational Culture C. Communicating and Changing Culture
VI. Fun Workplaces
Understanding a Social System
A social system is a complex set of human relationships
interacting in many ways. 2 points : 1. The behavior of any one member can have an impact, directly or indirectly, on the behavior of any other. Although these impacts may be large or small, all parts of the system are mutually interdependent. 2. Any social system engages in exchanges with its environment, receiving input from it and providing output to it (which then becomes input for its adjacent systems).
open systems that interact with their surroundings. members of a system should be aware of the nature of their environments and their impact on other members both within and outside their own social system. Consequently. therefore. . Social systems are.
over time the sea’s basic character changes very little. Despite constant change and movement in every organization.Social Equilibrium A social system is said to be in equilibrium when its interdependent parts are in dynamic working balance. the system’s working balance can still be retained over time. Equilibrium is a dynamic concept. . The system is like a sea: in continuous motion and even suffering substantial disruption from storms. not a static one.
. they are soon absorbed by adjustments within the system and equilibrium is regained. seriously reducing its forward progress until it can reach a new equilibrium. some of its parts are working against one another instead of in harmony. a single significant change or a series of smaller but rapid changes may throw an organization out of balance. In a sense. when it is in disequilibrium. When minor changes occur in a social system. On the other hand.
predict both short-term and long-term effects 3. measure “hard” (e. Management tasks: 1.Functional and Dysfunctional Effects A change has a functional effect when it is favorable for the system. consider the probable effects on various stakeholders . such as a decline in productivity. productivity) and “soft” (satisfaction and commitment) criteria 4. appraise both actual and proposed changes to determine possible functional and dysfunctional effects 2. it has a dysfunctional effect. When it creates unfavorable effects.
the organization needs to receive a commitment from the employees. they need to receive clear expectations and promises of reward. Employees can also have functional and dysfunctional effects on the organization. For employees to exhibit functional behaviors. in exchange. . Furthermore.
hours. creativity. and extra effort. They seek job security.Psychological and Economic Contracts Economic contract. Psychological contract. fair treatment.exchange of time. Employees agree to give certain amount of loyalty. and organizational support in fulfilling their career development expectations. rewarding relationships.employee’s involvement (both contributions and expectations) with the social system. talent and energy for wages. but in return they expect more than economic rewards from the system. . and reasonable working conditions.
The Result of the Psychological Contract and the Economic Contract Employee: • Expected gains •Intended contributions Psychological contract Employee: If expectations are met: • High job satisfaction • High performance • Continuance with organization If expectations are not met: • Low job satisfaction • Low performance • Possible separation Employer: • Expected gains • Rewards offered Economic contract Employer: If expectations are met: • Employee retention • Possible promotion If expectations are not met: • Corrective action. discipline • Possible separation .
employers are urged to: Help employees clarify their expectations and perceptions Initiate explicit discussions of mutual obligations Exercise caution when conveying promises Provide candid explanations for broken promises Alert employees to the realistic prospects of reneging (ex.Guidelines for Employers To prevent breakdowns of the psychological contract. When a business downturn forces an employer to withdraw previous commitments) .
the psychological contract is continually examined and often revised as new needs emerge and new rewards become available. each person regularly examines the rewards and costs of that interaction. . Consequently. both parties must believe that a net positive ratio (rewards to costs) exists from their perspective.Exchange Theory This theory simply suggests that whenever a continuing relationship exists between two parties. In order to remain positively attracted to the relationship .
Social Culture Culture is the conventional behavior of a society. Social cultures can have dramatic effects on behavior at work. . and it influences all actions of an individual even though it seldom enters one’s conscious thoughts. Social culture is an individual’s environment of human-created beliefs. Social cultures are often portrayed as consistent within a nation. customs. knowledge and practices.
treatment of females. this dependency may also place intellectual blinders on employees. Some of the ways in which cultures differ include patterns of decision making. Knowledge of social cultures is especially important because managers need to understand. appreciate. . respect for authority. People learn to depend on their culture. and accepted leadership styles. It gives them stability and security. and respond to the backgrounds and beliefs of all members of their work unit. However.
and opportunities they present. . traits. Cultural dependency is further compounded under conditions involving the integration of two or more cultures into the workplace. Employees need to learn to adapt to others in order to capitalize on the distinctive backgrounds. while avoiding possible negative consequences.
. rank in the organization. job-related differences and similarities such as type of work. ethnicity. socioeconomics.Cultural Diversity Employees in organizations are divided into subgroups. and race This cultural diversity. raises the issue of fair treatment for workers who are not in positions of authority. Two broad sets of conditions : 1. sex. or rich variety of differences among people at work. non-job related conditions such as those related to culture. and physical proximity. 2.
Either may exist without the other. whereas prejudice is an attitude. If actions lead to what is legally determined to be discriminatory results. The law focuses on an employer’s actions. not feelings. .Discrimination & Prejudice Problems may persist because of a key difference in this context between discrimination and prejudice. such actions are unlawful regardless of the employer’s alleged good intentions. Discrimination is generally exhibited as an action.
and used to collective advantage. Differences need to be recognized. acknowledged. . appreciated. respect the value that others contribute and use that information to build a stronger organization.Valuing Diversity Key premise: Prejudicial stereotypes develop from unfounded assumptions about others and from their overlooked qualities. learn from others around them. All participants will need to explore their differences. The workforce of the future will contain a rich blend of people representing diverse cultural and social conditions.
He usually has a stronger commitment to the organization and its goals than do other employees. . This attitude is also strong in some parts of Asia. When one has work ethic. These characteristics of the work ethic make it highly appealing to employers. the culture of the Western world emphasized work as a desirable and fulfilling activity. Work ethic is viewing work as very important and as a desirable goal in life.Social Culture Values The Work Ethic For many years. he tends to like work and derives satisfaction from it.
. available researches present 2 possible conclusions: 1.On the issue of work ethic. the general level of the work ethic has declined gradually over many decades. especially with the younger workers. the proportion of employees with a strong work ethic varies sharply among sample groups (varying between 15 to 85%) 2.
such as leisure ethic (a high priority placed on personal gratification). Competing social values have emerged. desire for community and connectedness (an emphasis on close personal relationships). and entitlement (a belief that people should receive societal benefits without having to work) 2. changes in social policy and tax laws have reduced incentives to work and occasionally even penalized hard work and success(in the minds of some workers. at least) .Why has the work ethic declined? 1.
is the recognition that organizations have significant influence on the nation’s social system and that this influence must be properly considered and balanced in all organizations actions. . The presence of strong social values such as social responsibility has a powerful impact on organizations and their actions. It leads them to take a broader view of their role within a social system and accept their interdependence with it.Social Responsibility .
. power and responsibility. Role reflects a person’s position in the social system. In order to be able to interact with one another. with its accompanying rights and obligations.ROLE A role is the pattern of actions expected of a person in activities involving others. people need some way of anticipating others’ behavior. Role performs this function in the social system.
Each Employee Performs Many Roles Who is an employee? .
a worker may have more than one role. Within the work environment alone. . A person has roles both on the job and away from it. Each role calls for different types of behavior.
Supervisors especially need to change roles rapidly as they work with both subordinates and superiors. . and with technical and non-technical activities.Role Perceptions How one thinks he is supposed to act in his own role and how others should act in their roles. When a manager and an employee interact. Since managers perform many different roles. each one needs to understand four different role perceptions. they must be highly adaptive (exhibiting role flexibility) in order to change from one role to another quickly.
. Reaching such an understanding requires studying the available job descriptions.Role Perceptions Manager Manager’s perception of own role Manager’s perception of employee’s role Employee Employee’s perception of own role Employee’s perception of manager’s role The key is for both parties to gain accurate role perceptions for their own roles and for the roles of the other. Unless roles and clarified and agreed upon by both parties. conflicts will inevitably arise. as well as opening up lines of communication to discover the other’s perceptions .
and identify challenges and opportunities. encourage. coach. act as sounding boards. stimulate you to take risks. support your efforts to set “stretch” goals. build your confidence.Mentors A mentor is a role model who guides another employee ( a protégé) by sharing valuable advice on roles to play and behaviors to avoid. challenge you to improve. and sponsor their protégés so as to expedite their personal satisfaction and career progress. support. advise. The best mentors are credible. Mentors teach. .
3. 7. . Seek their advice on career-building moves that will enhance your promotability. 2. Consult them periodically. and problems you are facing. current issues. Select more than one mentor. Seek feedback from them. Be candid.Tips for Protégés Using Mentors 1. Share a summary of your strengths and weaknesses. 6. 5. and your action plan for overcoming your limitations Ask your mentors to watch for opportunities opening up that might use your skills. and expect candor in return. Ask suggestions for improvement. 4. Brief them on your progress.
Choose your words carefully. be supportive. 7. help the protégé refine them. avoid sounding like an expert. . 2. watch from a distance. eliminate signs of power. Be open to alternative views and choices. 8. and help them build on them.Tips for Mentors who have Protégés 1. Identify protégés strengths. Listen. Let the protégé make decisions. 5. Don’t place yourself on a pedestal. Be real. 6. 4. Foster self-discovery by asking insight-generating questions. avoid being directive or judgmental. intervene only when necessary. for that will increase ownership. 3. be authentic.
Role conflict was most difficult for employees with many job contacts outside the organization. so role conflict resulted. that person tends to experience role conflict.Role Conflict When others have different perceptions or expectations of a person’s role. Role conflict at work is fairly common. Such conflict makes it difficult to meet one set of expectations without rejecting another.that is. They found that their external roles placed demands on their jobs different from the demands of their external roles. . with boundary roles.
job satisfaction and organizational commitment will likely decline. role ambiguity exists. . On the other hand. employees tend to be more satisfied with their jobs when their roles are clearly defined by job descriptions and statements of performance expectations. because people are not sure how they should act in situations of this type. When role conflict and role ambiguity exist.Role Ambiguity When roles are inadequately defined or are substantially unknown.
A better understanding of roles helps people know what others expect and how they should act. If any role misundertanding exists when people interact. then problems are likely to occur. .
honor. Wherever people gather into groups. It is the amount of recognition. esteem. and acceptance given to a person. because they enable people to affirm the different characteristics and abilities of group members. Individuals are bound together in status systems . which define their rank relative to others in the group.Status Status is the social rank of a person in a group. they are said to feel status anxiety. or status hierarchies. . status distinctions are likely to arise. If they become seriously upset over their status.
then employees are strongly motivated to support their company. People.is a serious event for most people. Since status is important to people. become quite responsible in order to protect and develop their status. If it can be tied to actions that further the company’s goals. . therefore. which becomes the basis of a sense of general responsibility. they will work hard to earn it. Loss of status-sometimes called “losing face” or status deprivation.
. and tend to participate more in group activities As a result. receive more privileges from their group. lower-status members tend to feel isolated from the mainstream and show more stress symptoms than higher-ranked members.Status Relationships Effects of Status High status gives people an opportunity to play a more important role in an organization High-status people have more power and influence.
Without it. normally it is beneficial because it helps people interact and cooperate with one another. In a work organization. . status provides a system by which people can relate to one another as they work. they would tend to be confused and spend much of their time trying to learn how to work together. Though status can be abused.
These are the visible external things that attach to a person or workplace and serve as evidence of social rank. and think they should.Status Symbols The status system becomes most visible through its use of status symbols. and this situation requires management attention. there is evidence of status anxiety. can become preoccupied with that need. Status symbols are a serious matter. They may endanger job satisfaction because employees who do not have a certain symbol. . When an employee gives unreasonable attention to status symbols.
Typical Symbols of Status
Furniture, such as a mahogany desk or a conference table Interior decorations, such as carpeting, draperies and artwork Location of workplace, such as a corner office or an office having a
window with a view Quality and newness of equipment used, such as a new vehicle or tools Type of clothes normally worn, such as a suit Privileges given , such as a golf club membership or company automobile Job title or organizational level, such as vice president Employees assigned, such as an administrative assistant Degree of financial discretion Organizational membership,such as a position on the executive committee
Major Sources of Status on the Job
Significance of Status
When employees are consumed by the desire for
status, it often is the source of employee problems and conflicts that management need to solve. It influences the kinds of transfers that employees will take , because they don’t want a low-status location or dead-end job assignment. It helps determine who will be an informal leader of a group It serves to motivate those seeking to advance in the organization
This culture may have been consciously created by its key members.Organizational Culture Organizational culture is the set of assumptions. or it may have simply evolved across time. It represents a key element of the work environment in which employees perform their jobs . and norms shared by an organization’s members. values. beliefs.
5.Benefits of Organizational Culture Organizational cultures are important to a firm’s success for several reasons: 1. They are an important source of stability and continuity to the organization. Cultures help stimulate employee enthusiasm for their tasks. Knowledge of organizational culture helps newer employees interpret what goes on inside the organization 4. They give an organizational identity to employees 2. 3. which provides a sense of security to its members. Organizational cultures identify role models to emulate .
Most cultures are implicit and unconscious rather than explicit 4. Cultures are distinctive -Each organization has its own history. patterns of communication. Cultures are relatively stable in nature. usually changing only slowly over time (except for merging) 3.Characteristics of Cultures 1. stories and myths… 2. VM. Cultures are seen as symbolic representations of underlying beliefs and values . systems and procedures.
culture clearly depends on the factors in its environment Cultures will be more easily recognized when their elements are generally integrated and consistent with each other Most members must at least accept. the assumptions and values of the culture Most cultures evolve directly from top management A culture may be made up of various subcultures Cultures have varying strengths – weak or strong .Other dimensions of Culture No best culture for all firms. if not embrace.
rituals. This allows direct sensing. and ceremonies Interviews and open-ended questionnaires to assess employees values and beliefs Examination of corporate philosophy statements Direct survey to employees regarding their perceptions of the organization’s culture but this method can produce a confusing portrait… Membership in the organization and engage in participant observation. symbols. .Measuring Organizational Culture Examination of stories.
many organizational cultures are in the process of changing and need to be monitored regularly and by a variety of methods to gain a truer picture. .Any attempt to measure organizational culture can only be an imperfect assessment. In reality.
Corporate philosophy statements c. Codes of ethical conduct . and learn about their new work environment. gain approval. they must be able to communicate them to employees. Examples of formal communication vehicles: a.Communicating & Changing Culture If organizations are to consciously create and manage their cultures. especially the newly hired ones. Executive visions of the firm’s future b. People are generally more willing to adapt and learn when they want to please others.
Informal means: a. Public recognition of heroes and heroines b. Retelling historical success stories c. Leakage of stories . Exaggeration of myths Unintentional a.
Example: demanding selection procedures .is the continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organization’s culture to its employees. 2 powerful methods for communicating an organizational culture to new employees: 1. Signature experiences. Organizational socialization.clearly defined and dramatic devices that convey a key element of the firm’s culture and vividly reinforce the values of the organization.
Stories convey a sense of tradition and convey personal frailty through tales of mistakes made and learned from and enhance cohesion around key values . inform.Stories highlight purposeful plots and patterns that the organization cherishes .stories point out consequences of actions and provide valuable lessons .Stories entertain.2. uplift. teach . Storytelling -Good stories tap into the emotions of an audience .
occurs when employees successfully exert influence on the social system around them at work by challenging the culture or deviating from it. . Individualization affects the organization Individualization.
deviation from norms) High .Four Combinations of Socialization and Individualization High Conformity Socialization (impact of organizational culture on employee. acceptance of norms) Creative Individualism Isolation Rebellion Low Low Individualization (impact of employee on organizational culture.
Effectiveness of Methods for Changing Organizational Culture Very great Probable effectiveness Great Moderate Minimal Communicate Train Formulate Reward Use stories Publicly Use Appoint a top employees value behaviors and myths recognize slogans manager management statements heroes and of culture support heroines Culture-change methods 1 .
6. Immersion in the activity Surprise Variety Choice Experience of progress Opportunities to make contributions Opportunities to “win” . 3. 7.FUN WORKPLACES Elements: 1. 2. 4. 5.
It means different things to various people. It is easily recognized (by observing the presence of laughter. 4. A fun work environment is a unique and increasingly popular organizational culture in which supervisors encourage. A fun workplace culture has several key features: 1. and spontaneity). It is relatively easy to create at work. . It elicits a broad range of personal and organizational payoffs. 2. initiate and support a variety of playful and humorous activities. 3. smiles. surprise.
celebrations of departmental achievements 3. Entertainment and the use of humor in publications Specific tactics: 1. Exaggerated job titles 4. Use of modified board games 6. Games and friendly competitions 4. Cartoons tailored to employees 3. dress-up days 2. “joke for the day” 5. . TV show formats 1.Approaches to Stimulate Fun at Work Recognition for personal milestones Hosting of special social events. 2.
Can help decrease stress Reduce boredom Stimulate friendships Increase satisfaction Produce several physiological results for employees (lower BP. and more positive energy) . 5. greater immunity to infection.Positive Effects of Fun at Work 1. 3. 4. 2.
Organizational benefits Attracting and retaining employees is easier 2. 1. Company’s values and norms become clearer 3. . Customer satisfaction improves as a result of the treatment of energized employees.
7. 6. not a short-term program. 5. Address other employee needs first (job content) 2.Guidelines for Fun-Oriented Managers 1. Become more playful yourself. 4. 10. 8. Capitalize on the surprise factor. 9. not just a set of mechanical practices. Use a wide variety of fun-related activities. Build a fun workplace on an underlying philosophical foundation. Assess and regularly monitor your success at creating a fun work culture. Involve others in creating fun experiences. Make a long-term commitment to fun as an ongoing process. . Make sure that fun at work will be a good fit with the organization’s culture and with employee expectations 3. Satisfy employee needs for recognition in new and unique ways.
Thank you! .