This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM
The SSB filters are the same as in the encoder, i.e. each one centred on f1, f2
and f3 to select the appropriate sideband and reject the others. These are then followed by a synchronous demodulator, each fed with a synchronous LO, fc1, fc2 and fc3 respectively. designs for the SSB filters (each used twice) and 1 design for the LPF (used 3 times).
For the 3 channel system shown there is 1 design for the BLF (used 3 times), 3
A co-axial cable could accommodate several thousand 4 kHz channels, for
example 3600 channels is typical. The bandwidth used is thus 3600 x 4kHz = 14.4Mhz. Potentially therefore there are 3600 different SSB filter designs. Not only this, but the designs must range from kHz to MHz.
a hierarchical system for telephony used the FDM principle to form groups. for designs to have a centre frequency at around say 10Mhz. Q 4 kHz To overcome these problems.000kHz gives a Q = 2500 which is difficult to achieve.Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM For ‘designs’ around say 60kHz. 4kHz However. supergroups. 15 . Q 60kHz = 15 which is reasonable. 10. master groups and supermaster groups.
m1(t) m2(t) m3(t) Multiplexer freq 12kHz 60kHz m12(t) i. 16 .Basic 12 Channel Group The diagram below illustrates the FDM principle for 12 channels (similar to 3 channels) to a form a basic group. 12 telephone channels are multiplexed in the frequency band 12kHz 60 kHz in 4kHz channels basic group.e.
6 15.4kHz 16.4kHz f1 = 16kHz Increase in 4kHz steps FDM OUT 12 – 60kHz 52.4kHz CH1 m1(t) 300Hz 3400kHz f1 = 12kHz 4kHz CH2 m2(t) 300Hz 3400kHz 12.4kHz 300Hz 3400kHz 4kHz CH12 m12(t) 56.6 19.3 19.3 59.4kHz f12 = 56kHz 17 .6 59.4kHz 12.3 15.Basic 12 Channel Group A design for a basic 12 channel group is shown below: Band Limiting Filters DSBSC 4kHz SSB Filter 8.
Super Group These basic groups may now be multiplexed to form a super group. 12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 – 60kHz 420kHz 12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 – 60kHz 468kHz 12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 – 60kHz 516kHz BASIC GROUP 12 – 60kHz 564kHz BASIC GROUP 12 – 60kHz 612kHz SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER 12 Inputs 12 Inputs 18 .
Super Group 5 basic groups multiplexed to form a super group. super groups may be multiplexed to form a master group.e. a total of 17 designs are required for 60 channels. i. In a similar way. There are 12 designs (low frequency) for one basic group and 5 designs for the super group.e. each carrier frequency is separated by 48kHz. The Q for the super group SSB filters is 612kHz Q 12 .which is reasonable 48kHz Hence. i. Note – the channel spacing in the super group in the above is 48kHz. and master groups to form super master groups… 19 . 60 channels in one super group.
. telephone companies have traditionally multiplexed signals from lower bandwidth lines onto higher bandwidth lines.Multiplexing application(cont’d) Analog Hierarchy To maximize the efficiency of their infrastructure.
Multiplexing application(cont’d) Analog hierarchy .
. Each digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits are modulated to 1 Hz. each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. each transmitting at 1 Mbps. We divide it into four channels. Figure 6.8 shows one possible configuration. One solution is 16QAM modulation. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. 2004 .Example 3 Four data channels (digital). Inc. Design an appropriate configuration using FDM Solution The satellite channel is analog. use a satellite channel of 1 MHz.
2004 ..8 Example 3 McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.Figure 6. Inc.
Figure 6.. Inc. 2004 .9 Analog hierarchy McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.
the band is divided into 832 channels. we get 833. How many people can use their cellular phones simultaneously? Solution Each band is 25 MHz. The first band. McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.. is used for sending. and 869 to 894 MHz is used for receiving. The 3KHz voice is modulated using FM.33. 824 to 849 MHz. Inc. 2004 .Example 4 The Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) uses two bands. creating 30 KHz of modulated signal. If we divide 25 MHz into 30 KHz. In reality. Each user has a bandwidth of 30 KHz in each direction.
14 McGraw-Hill 11 May 2012 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.. 2004 .
2004 .TDM 15 McGraw-Hill 11 May 2012 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc..
Inc.544 Mbps The example of the system that use TDMA is digital cellular radio system where several signals from mobile units are combined on one channel by assigning each a time slot. 193 x 8 kbps = 1. 11 May 2012 McGraw-Hill 16 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.TDM Example : If the system consists of 24 PCM voice channel.. Find the total bit rate transmitted: Solution : 24 x 8 + 1 (framing bit) 193 bits. multiplexed by using TDM where each channel is sampled at 8 kHz with 8 bit per sample. 2004 .
and 24 kbit/sec. which will then represent the minimum length of the repetitive cycle of slot assignments in the multiplexing process. which is the sum of the bit rates of the three sources. and “c” to indicate data from Source C. to the lowest possible form. 11 May 2012 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. Example 7.2—TDM with sources having different data rates Consider the case of three streams with bit rates of 8 kbit/sec. respectively. we must reduce the ratio of the rates. and three slots to Source: C (24 kbit/sec). The solution is now readily obtained: In each cycle of six time slots we assign one slot to Source A (8 kbit/sec). which in this case is 1:2:3. 2004 17 McGraw-Hill . The sum of the reduced ratio is 6. 8:16:24. two slots to Source B (16 kbit/sec).. The high-speed stream in this case must have a transmission rate of 48 kbit/sec. Inc. Figure 7-4 illustrates this assignment. To determine the number of time slots to be assigned to each source in the multiplexing process.16 kbit/sec. “b” to indicate data from Source B. We want to combine these streams into a single high-speed stream using TDM. using “a” to indicate data from Source A.
Inc.8. 2004 ..5 Multiplexing application : Telephone system Telephone Network McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Actually. called an end flag. a particular pattern of bits. reduce the effective transmission rate on the channel. for example. Combined. or to indicate priority level for a particular message). we divide each stream of bits coming from a source into fixed-size blocks. Inc. Each block transmitted across the channel thus contains a group of information bits that the user wants. can be used to conclude the block. These additional bits. and another particular pattern of bits. to indicate the position of a particular block in a sequence of blocks coming from the same user. while necessary to system operation.. 2004 . Extra bits can also be added to the beginning and end of a block for synchronization. with the header containing the addresses of the source and intended user for that block. such as extra bits for error control (see Chapter 10) or additional bits for link control (used. can be used in the header to mark the start of a block. Prior to transmission. 19 McGraw-Hill 11 May 2012 ©The McGraw-Hill Companies. called a start flag. We then add a small group of bits called a header to each block. the block and header are called a packet. The block and the header are then transmitted together across the channel. Figures 7-5 and 7-6 present the statistical TDM technique and the structure of a typical packet. the header may contain other information besides the source and user addresses. plus additional bits needed by the system to ensure proper transmission.
2004 .. Review questions • Why is multiplexing so cost effective? • How is interference avoided by using FDM • What is echo-cancellation? • Define upstream and downstream with respect to subscriber lines. Inc. • Explain how synchronous TDM works. • Why is statistical TDM more efficient than a synchronous TDM multiplexer? • Draw the block diagrams of an FDM and TDM communication system • Why is ADSL best suited for residential customers for accessing the Internet? McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies.