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Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM

The SSB filters are the same as in the encoder, i.e. each one centred on f1, f2

and f3 to select the appropriate sideband and reject the others. These are then followed by a synchronous demodulator, each fed with a synchronous LO, fc1, fc2 and fc3 respectively. designs for the SSB filters (each used twice) and 1 design for the LPF (used 3 times).

For the 3 channel system shown there is 1 design for the BLF (used 3 times), 3

A co-axial cable could accommodate several thousand 4 kHz channels, for

example 3600 channels is typical. The bandwidth used is thus 3600 x 4kHz = 14.4Mhz. Potentially therefore there are 3600 different SSB filter designs. Not only this, but the designs must range from kHz to MHz.

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Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM


For designs around say 60kHz,

60kHz = 15 which is reasonable. 4kHz

However, for designs to have a centre frequency at around say 10Mhz,

10,000kHz gives a Q = 2500 which is difficult to achieve. Q 4 kHz

To overcome these problems, a hierarchical system for telephony used the FDM principle to form groups, supergroups, master groups and supermaster groups.

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Basic 12 Channel Group


The diagram below illustrates the FDM principle for 12 channels (similar to 3 channels) to a form a basic group.
m1(t) m2(t) m3(t)

Multiplexer
freq 12kHz 60kHz

m12(t)

i.e. 12 telephone channels are multiplexed in the frequency band 12kHz 60 kHz in 4kHz channels basic group. 16

Basic 12 Channel Group


A design for a basic 12 channel group is shown below:
Band Limiting Filters DSBSC
4kHz

SSB Filter 8.6 15.4kHz 12.3 15.4kHz

CH1 m1(t)
300Hz 3400kHz

f1 = 12kHz

4kHz

CH2 m2(t)
300Hz 3400kHz

12.6 19.4kHz

16.3 19.4kHz

f1 = 16kHz

Increase in 4kHz steps FDM OUT 12 60kHz 52.6 59.4kHz


300Hz 3400kHz

4kHz

CH12 m12(t)

56.3 59.4kHz f12 = 56kHz

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Super Group
These basic groups may now be multiplexed to form a super group.
12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 60kHz 420kHz 12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 60kHz 468kHz 12 Inputs BASIC GROUP 12 60kHz 516kHz BASIC GROUP 12 60kHz 564kHz BASIC GROUP 12 60kHz 612kHz SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER SSB FILTER

12 Inputs

12 Inputs

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Super Group
5 basic groups multiplexed to form a super group, i.e. 60 channels in one super group. Note the channel spacing in the super group in the above is 48kHz, i.e. each carrier frequency is separated by 48kHz. There are 12 designs (low frequency) for one basic group and 5 designs for the super group. The Q for the super group SSB filters is

612kHz Q 12 - which is reasonable 48kHz

Hence, a total of 17 designs are required for 60 channels. In a similar way, super groups may be multiplexed to form a master group, and master groups to form super master groups

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Multiplexing application(contd)
Analog Hierarchy
To maximize the efficiency of their infrastructure,

telephone companies have traditionally multiplexed signals from lower bandwidth lines onto higher bandwidth lines.

Multiplexing application(contd)
Analog hierarchy

Example 3
Four data channels (digital), each transmitting at 1 Mbps, use a satellite channel of 1 MHz. Design an appropriate configuration using FDM

Solution
The satellite channel is analog. We divide it into four channels, each channel having a 250-KHz bandwidth. Each digital channel of 1 Mbps is modulated such that each 4 bits are modulated to 1 Hz. One solution is 16QAM modulation. Figure 6.8 shows one possible configuration.
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Figure 6.8

Example 3

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Figure 6.9

Analog hierarchy

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Example 4
The Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) uses two bands. The first band, 824 to 849 MHz, is used for sending; and 869 to 894 MHz is used for receiving. Each user has a bandwidth of 30 KHz in each direction. The 3KHz voice is modulated using FM, creating 30 KHz of modulated signal. How many people can use their cellular phones simultaneously?

Solution
Each band is 25 MHz. If we divide 25 MHz into 30 KHz, we get 833.33. In reality, the band is divided into 832 channels.
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TDM

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TDM
Example : If the system consists of 24 PCM voice channel, multiplexed by using TDM where each channel is sampled at 8 kHz with 8 bit per sample. Find the total bit rate transmitted:
Solution : 24 x 8 + 1 (framing bit) 193 bits.
193 x 8 kbps = 1.544 Mbps The example of the system that use TDMA is digital cellular radio system where several signals from mobile units are combined on one channel by assigning each a time slot.
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Example 7.2TDM with sources having different data rates Consider the case of three streams with bit rates of 8 kbit/sec,16 kbit/sec, and 24 kbit/sec, respectively. We want to combine these streams into a single high-speed stream using TDM. The high-speed stream in this case must have a transmission rate of 48 kbit/sec, which is the sum of the bit rates of the three sources. To determine the number of time slots to be assigned to each source in the multiplexing process. we must reduce the ratio of the rates, 8:16:24, to the lowest possible form, which in this case is 1:2:3. The sum of the reduced ratio is 6, which will then represent the minimum length of the repetitive cycle of slot assignments in the multiplexing process. The solution is now readily obtained: In each cycle of six time slots we assign one slot to Source A (8 kbit/sec), two slots to Source B (16 kbit/sec), and three slots to Source: C (24 kbit/sec). Figure 7-4 illustrates this assignment, using a to indicate data from Source A, b to indicate data from Source B, and c to indicate data from Source C.
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8.5 Multiplexing application : Telephone system

Telephone Network

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Prior to transmission, we divide each stream of bits coming from a source into fixed-size blocks. We then add a small group of bits called a header to each block, with the header containing the addresses of the source and intended user for that block. The block and the header are then transmitted together across the channel. Combined, the block and header are called a packet. Actually, the header may contain other information besides the source and user addresses, such as extra bits for error control (see Chapter 10) or additional bits for link control (used, for example, to indicate the position of a particular block in a sequence of blocks coming from the same user, or to indicate priority level for a particular message). Extra bits can also be added to the beginning and end of a block for synchronization; a particular pattern of bits, called a start flag, can be used in the header to mark the start of a block, and another particular pattern of bits, called an end flag, can be used to conclude the block. Each block transmitted across the channel thus contains a group of information bits that the user wants, plus additional bits needed by the system to ensure proper transmission. These additional bits, while necessary to system operation, reduce the effective transmission rate on the channel. Figures 7-5 and 7-6 present the statistical TDM technique and the structure of a typical packet.

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Review questions Why is multiplexing so cost effective? How is interference avoided by using FDM What is echo-cancellation? Define upstream and downstream with respect to subscriber lines. Explain how synchronous TDM works. Why is statistical TDM more efficient than a synchronous TDM multiplexer? Draw the block diagrams of an FDM and TDM communication system Why is ADSL best suited for residential customers for accessing the Internet?

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