0 Up votes0 Down votes

6 views19 pagesMay 11, 2012

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- Micro: A Novel
- The Wright Brothers
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The 6th Extinction
- The Black Swan
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- The Last Battle
- Prince Caspian
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Theory of Death: A Decker/Lazarus Novel

You are on page 1of 19

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Analysis of Variance

GOALS

When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to:

ONE : Discuss the general idea of analysis of variance.

TWO : List the characteristics of the F distribution.

THREE : Conduct a test of hypothesis to determine

whether two sample variances are equal.

FOUR : Organize data into a one-way ANOVA table.

FIVE : Conduct a test of hypothesis among three or more

treatment means.

SIX : Develop confidence intervals for the difference

between treatment means.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1999

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Characteristics of F-Distribution

There is a family of F Distributions Each

member of the family is determined by two

parameters: the numerator degrees of freedom

and the denominator degrees of freedom.

(Note: That the shape of the curve changes

as the degree of freedom change.)

The F distribution is continuous.

F cannot be negative.

The F distribution is positively skewed.

As F the curve approaches the x-axis.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Test for Equal

Variances

For the two tail test, the test statistic is

given by:

are the sample variances for the two

samples. The null hypothesis is rejected if the

computed test statistic is greater than the critical

(table) value with confidence level and

numerator and denominator degrees of freedom.

2

2

2

1

s

s

F =

S and S

1

2

2

2

o / 2

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

ANOVA: THE GENERAL IDEA

The second use of the F distribution

involves the ANOVA technique.

- ANOVA uses sample information to

determine whether or not three or more

treatments produce different results.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

ASSUMPTIONS UNDERLYING THE ANOVA TEST

Before we actually conduct a test using the

ANOVA technique, the assumption underlying the test

will be examined. If any of the following assumptions

cannot be met.

Another analysis of variance technique

1. The three or more population of interest are

normally distributed.

2. The distribution have equal standard deviations.

3. The sample we select from each of the population

are random and independent that is, they are not

related.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Analysis of Variance Procedure

The Null Hypothesis: the population means are

the same.

The Alternative Hypothesis: at least one of the

means is different.

The Test Statistic:

Decision rule:

For a given significance level o , reject the null

hypothesis if F (computed) is greater than F (table) with

numerator and denominator degrees of freedom.

leVariance WithinSamp

e pleVarianc BetweenSam

F =

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

EXAMPLE 1

Supposed the manager of RMP branch of

Appliance Center Inc. resigned, and 3

salespeople at the branch are being

considered for the position. All 3 have the

same length of service, education, and so on.

In order to make a decision, it was suggested

that each of their monthly sales records be

examined.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

MONTHLY SALES (P0000)

Ms. MAPES Ms. SONNAR Mr. MAFEE

15 15 19

10 10 12

9 12 16

5 11 16

16 12 17

Treatment

Means

11 12 16

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Step 1: THE NULL HYPOTHESIS AND THE

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS: Ho states that there is

no significant difference among the mean sales

of the three sales people; that is 1=2= 3. H1

states that at least one mean is different

Ho : 1= 2= 3

H1 : The treatment means are not the same.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Step 2: THE LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE

The 0.05 level was selected..

Step 3 : THE TEST STATISTICS

Note: The numerator has k -1 degrees of freedom and

the denominator N k degrees of freedom where k is

the number of treatments and N is the total number of

observations.

leVariance WithinSamp

e pleVarianc BetweenSam

F =

Step 4: THE DECISION RULE

Step 5: COMPUTE F, AND ARRIVE AT A DECISION

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

General Format for ANOVA Table

Source of

Variation

Sum of

Squares (1)

Degrees of

Freedom(2)

Mean Square

(1)/(2)

Between

Treatments

SST K 1

Within

Treatments

SSE N - K

Total SS total

MSTR

k

SST

=

1

MSE

k N

SSE

=

MSE

MSTR

k N

SSE

k

SST

F =

=

1

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Where:

MSTR mean square between treatments

MSE mean square due to error. It is also referred to as the

mean square treatment.

SST sum of squares treatment.

Where: Tc^2 directs one to square each column.

nc the number of observations for each

respective treatment.

EX the sum of all observations

k the number of treatment

N total number of observation

( )

N

x

n

T

SST

c

c

2

2

=

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

( )

(

=

c

c

n

T

x SSE

2

2

( )

( )

N

x

x SStotal

2

2

=

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Ms. MAPES Ms. SONNAR

Mr. MAFEE

X1 X1^2 X2 X2^2 X3 X3^2

15 225 15 225 19 361

10 100 10 100 12 144

9 81 12 144 16 256

5 25 11 121 16 256

16 256 12 144 17 289

Column Total, Tc 55 60 80 195

Sample Size , nc 5 5 5 15

Sum of squares, x^2 687 734 1306 2727

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

( )

N

x

n

T

SST

c

c

2

2

=

( )

70

15

195

5

80

5

60

5

55

2

2 2 2

=

(

+ + = SST

( )

(

=

c

c

n

T

x SSE

2

2

(

+ + + + + =

5

80

5

60

5

55

17 .... 10 15

2 2 2

2 2 2

SSE

122 = SSE

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

( )

( )

N

x

x SStotal

2

2

=

( )

192

15

195

727 , 2

2

= = SStotal

Source of

Variation

Sum of

Squares (1)

Degrees of Freedom(2) Mean

Square

(1)/(2)

Between

Treatments

70 K 1 = 3 1 = 2 35

Within

Treatments

122 N K = 15 3 = 12 10.17

SSTotal

192

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

17 . 10

35

1

= =

=

MSE

MSTR

k N

SSE

k

SST

F

44 . 3 = F

The decision rule states that if the computed value is to

the critical value of 3.89., the null hypothesis is not

rejected. If the F value is > 3.89, Ho is rejected and H1

accepted. However, since 3.44 < 3.89. the null

hypothesis is accepted at the 0.05 level. From a

practical standpoint, the levels of sales of the three

salespeople being considered for store manager are the

same. No decision with respect to the position can be

made o the basis of monthly sales.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Example 2

The following represent the test scores of three groups

of students

Group A Group B Group C

12 18 6

18 17 4

16 16 14

8 18 4

6 12 6

12 17 12

10 10 14

1. Do the means of the three groups differ significantly?

Use 0.05 level.

2. If so, apply the scheffe test to find out where the

difference are.

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000

LIND

MASON

MARCHAL

Test after the F test

In our problems there are three means, thus three

means comparison may be made.

A vs B ; A vs C ; B vs C

Where : Sw^2 Mean Square Within Treatments

At 0.05 level of F for within groups 2, 18 degrees of

freedom, is 3.55. this value is multiplied by ( k 1),

where k is the number of groups or treatment.

( )

( )

2 1 2 1

2

2

2

1

/ N N N N Sw

x x

F

+

- Understanding the One-way ANOVAUploaded byTaufiq Us Samad Tonmoy
- 10872.pdfUploaded byMorrison Omokiniovo Jessa Snr
- An OvaUploaded bychagzgupta
- DX71 03E TaguchiUploaded byJuly Revilla
- Hypothesis Testing KelompokUploaded byVania Nurull ChikaTiah Dua
- ShineUploaded byJoan Ilon
- Hypothesis Test FormatUploaded bybookhunter01
- 97_Erduran_Avc (A STUDY ON IMPACT OF BRAIN-BASED LEARNING APPROACH ON STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT AND RETENTION OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT “WORK-ENERGY” TOPIC)Uploaded byM. Furqon
- artikelUploaded byFaisal_Fauzi_2898
- 14DecUploaded bySuraj
- yepp ahUploaded byTomasLieffering
- cdUploaded byRam Kumar
- seminar3.docxUploaded byashwani kaushik
- One Way ANOVA.pptUploaded bymathworld_0204
- 2^2 and -2^3-TemplatesUploaded byNirmalya Chanda
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byArun Gupta
- 2 Biofloc Effect on Juvenils Cachama Blanca PiaractusUploaded byYenka Flores Solis
- 4088Uploaded byMark Shuster
- AnovaUploaded byAman Jasuja
- 7e607ed4-1e79-4a72-a31c-d6236b253707-160809152336.pdfUploaded byRicha Mandyani
- Descriptive CausalUploaded byvillacalon
- Project for MAT204Uploaded byMeo Map
- 162 1st exam sample.docxUploaded byBless Atienza Garachico
- AnovaUploaded bykxkjxnj
- Anova TestUploaded byRAJESH KUMAR
- 47934-164919-1-PBUploaded bySagyan Regmi Regmi
- Research Presentation.pptxUploaded byKidny Matthew D. Alonzo
- A_structural_equation_model_fo.pdfUploaded byAnchal
- abc.xlsxUploaded byHồ Ngọc Thanh Hiền
- (Educare International Journal of Commerce and Management)Uploaded byJignesh Togadiya

- Health Assessment-msn 4005Uploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- NEUROANA Blood Supply of the Central Nervous System From CarpentersUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Nutrition and Metabolic AssessmentUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Signed MEMO_Reg. 6-8_LGU WSP mtg_sonabel (1).pdf.pdfUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Water Quality Management ProjectUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- MNCH Case Study Review.docxUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- JAPAN Travel ItineraryUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Signed MEMO_Reg. 6-8_LGU WSP Mtg_sonabelUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- who ish risk factor.pdfUploaded byFahrizal
- PSCC Keyboard Shortcuts WinUploaded byMaribel Lakes
- Family Collage Competition Judges SheetUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- nclexrnteststudyguide.pdfUploaded byLids70
- Arts SchoolUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- ISO 2016 Document LabelsUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Colli Ler t SpecsUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- ART.docxUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Monitoring ESUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- ConceptUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- PEUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- FirstRRL.docsUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Citrus AurantiumUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- High-School-Biology-Reviewer.docUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Research TopicUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Water & Sanitation Case Study Review.docxUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- Accomplishment ReportUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao
- InformedConsent-clinicalstudiesUploaded bytiscon
- Nurs0616ps eUploaded byPRC Board
- Green FashionUploaded byNikko Pananganan Dajao

- hw08 (1).pdfUploaded byDavid Olorato Ngwako
- MIT18_655S16_LecNoUploaded byKira Lopez
- PhD Proposal - Spectral Theory of Non-selfadjoint OperatorsUploaded byjoukend
- 5Uploaded byEliseo Marpa
- qubitUploaded byKadek Ayu Asari
- 287931773 Srividya Mantra Srividya Sadhana Mantras Sri Vidya SadhanaUploaded byizzybj
- FtheoryUploaded bySitthichai Pinkanjanarod
- A Beginner’s Guide to SupergravityUploaded bysabernight
- BEREZHIANI Quantum-Elettrodinamics 2017-2018 EnUploaded byFlavio Zuccarini
- Empirical Probability FormulaUploaded bytutorciecle123
- Atkins_solutions_test_uachUploaded byDuilioMarcelo
- Lost in the Tensors: Einsteins Struggles With Covariance PrincipUploaded byG. Alfred
- InferentialStats_SPSSUploaded byMd Didarul Alam
- Yun-Song Piao- Emergently Thermalized Islands in the LandscapeUploaded byGijke3
- handout2Uploaded byPepe Garcia Estebez
- mathematica.pdfUploaded byAsanka Amarasinghe
- Chi SquareUploaded byAltaf Khaan
- KPSS1 Time series analysisUploaded byGive-Ruchira Khempeth
- ejtpv11i30p87Uploaded byAoi Chiisai Hoshi
- 6. Kolmogorov Smirnov Test.docxUploaded byCharmaine Rosales
- Chapter 8 ChiSquareUploaded byYii Phin Jong
- corr_e-n_motion_newUploaded byWilver Muriel
- MATH2131_Final_2012WUploaded byexamkiller
- Julian SchwingerUploaded byPedro Figueroa
- Nucl.Phys.B v.613Uploaded bybuddy72
- Basic StatisticsUploaded byTimrongel Delos Santos
- SkriptQFT2Uploaded byTom Luthier
- ptUploaded byshailendra236
- ParadoxesUploaded bySuvajit Majumder
- tmp1663.tmpUploaded byFrontiers

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.