You are on page 1of 26

USING 360 DEGREE EVALUATION METHODS IN EMPLOYEE EVALUATIONS Susan M.

Cypert Associate VP for Human Resources, SLU

PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS
A PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION -NOT A SINGLE EVENT

AGENDA
1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Introduction / overview What is the 360 method? Questions How to do a 360 Questions Samples Questions - Wrap-up

Why we shouldnt be surprised that this is a challenging issue

How good are we at honest evaluation? Candid feedback?

In our homes? In schools? In relationships? Politics? Social organizations?


So why would we expect to be any better at work?

Opinions range

from, zero support for performance evaluations to traditional must-do annual evals Not really in conflict all opinions agree that feedback to employees is needed HOW it is done makes the difference

Continued

Call it

Coaching developmental feedback Constructive criticism Appreciation appraisal

What is needed is fair regular frequent enough to be effective honest, positive when possible

PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS

When done as a cooperative conversation between supervisor and employee

Performance evals continued

Provide a basis for coaching to improve employee performance Assist in setting goals for employee development Assist in making systematic judgments Provide feedback to the employee from multiple sources Assist in realigning the culture of a department or organization

WHAT WORKS?

Mutual goal setting rather than criticism Day to day coaching rather than flu shot Participation by the employee (self evaluation, mutual development of process) = greater ownership Setting specific goals which are better than vague or general ones

Ex: Vague: Improve customer service. Specific: Send out confirmation reports daily. Include a time dimension for goals Goals should be challenging but reachable

WHAT DOESNT WORK?


Straight

criticism, especially without agreement on WHAT is important, or without examples An evaluation that has poor credibility will = defensiveness Direct tie to salary [surveys tell us $$ has little or short term impact]

The 360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PROCESS What is it?

NOTE: 360* [degree] feedback* is a registered trademark of TEAMS, Inc.

The 360 what is it?


The 360 degree evaluation process provides information to an employee from multiple sources - a circle of stakeholders peers supervisor direct reports higher mg levels internal customers external customers vendors consultants others = 360.

Two lines of thought: Use the 360 for


1) Developmental purposes only. The information is gathered by neutral entity not the supervisor and shared only with the employee. OR 2) Evaluation. The supervisor is involved in designing, gathering information, and in communication with the employee.

CONSIDER THIS

Because a good evaluation IS about development if done correctly a 360 is good for both development and evaluation. Because a good evaluation should focus on developing strengths a 360 can be a very good approach because the information gathered is from so many sources.

IN MULTISOURCE EVALUATIONS

Peers and direct reports: will see how things are going PLUS Supervisor: will see what is being done = The 360 provides a way to integrate the two views Surveys show employees prefer multisource feedback to supervisor only feedback Edwards & Ewen, pgs. 182-183

PROS AND CONS RE THE 360 PROCESS from Jones & Bearley, pg. 11

Shaver (1995, p. 13) points out that the 360 assessment helps people
uncover expectations, strengths, and weaknesses that are news to them broadens the perspective on evaluating an individual by using multiple data sources provides ratings that can become benchmarks in the feedback recipients performanceevaluation process may promote people becoming increasingly accountable for their own growth and development.

PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN,


pgs. 3 - 23

Multisource feedback can get at issues the supervisor might miss Peer opinion can change behavior Multisource feedback is more diverse: As organizations diversify by gender, ethnicity, age, disability, race, etc., more pts of view are needed for accurate assessment [same principle can apply in using committees or teams in recruitment and selection]

PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN,


pgs. 3 - 23

Can be tailored to the individuals needs In planning the 360 the supervisor and the employee can come to a clearer understanding of what each believes is important, which furthers the process of developing a common language within the department and the organization The quiet high performer might not be getting noticed by the supervisor

PROS with credit to EDWARDS AND EWEN,


pgs. 3 - 23

The choices regarding what is important to be appraised can be tied into an organizations goals such as a need for change or new emphases such as safety, diversity, or creativity

Probably less costly than other methods, though that can depend but contrast it to getting the evaluation wrong, or to mis-applied training costs Involves many stakeholders, valuing their opinions is an important message about their importance [customers, vendors, unions]

Interviews

The questions should be developed based on what has been identified as important. Will the interviewer be trained and openminded? Who will process the results?

Collins in Thin Book recommends: get examples of good work to illustrate the qualities you want to understand better

Validity concerns:
Rater bias and fear can lead to inflation raters are afraid to be truly candid In a truly anonymous situation with good safeguards the fear is reduced and the bias of friends and enemies can cancel each other out as potential inflation and deflation. NOTE: Ratings are relative, open to interpretation. A good, doesnt mean the same to everyone: but for most people there is internal consistency.

Examples are important, but dont focus on the unusual unless the single event is unusual or very important. Look for patterns. Critical incidents a single event that is outstandingly good or bad, or very important for some reason. THE OUTLIER FEEDBACK: There may be one interviewee who has very different responses from everyone else the outlier. Dont discount the outlier. The feedback of the outlier could be a signal of a new and important but so far uncommon quality, such as risk-taking. Or it could be a sign of concern.

COMMENTS ON FEEDBACK:

THESE ELEMENTS ARE CRITICAL :

Clarity about purpose & process


Trust - the MOST important element runs through everything

Consistency in methodology
Dependable anonymity and safeguards

FINAL IMPORTANT STEP:

Get feedback to the raters important to maintain their trust in the process

RESOURCES

Buckingham, Marcus and Donald O. Clifton, Ph.D., NOW, Discover Your Strengths, The Free Press, 2001 Collins, Michelle LeDuff, Ph.D. The Thin Book of 360 Feedback: A Manager's Guide, Thin Book Publishing Co., 2000

Edwards, Mark R. and Ann J. Ewen, 360 Degree Feedback: The Powerful New Model for Employee Assessment & Performance Improvement, amacom American Management Association, 1996 Jones, John E., Ph.D. and William L. Bearley, Ed.D., 360 Feedback : Strategies, Tactics, and Techniques for Developing Leaders, HRD Press & Lakewood Publications, 1996 Peiperl, Maury A., Getting 360-Degree Feedback Right, Harvard Business Review, January 2001