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Introduction to IP Multicasting

2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Implementing Multicast Routing (EIMR), Version 12.1. Part # DOC-01616.

Student Objectives
Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to: Describe IP multicast and its applications Describe differences between broadcast and multicast traffic Describe packet replication List bandwidth and server load considerations for multicasting List the range of IP addresses that are reserved for multicast List addresses reserved for link-local multicast addresses List addresses reserved for administratively scoped multicast addresses Map an IP multicast address to a MAC address

Slide 2

Multicast Applications

Slide 3

IP Unicast and Broadcast


198.10.10.1

Routers forward unicast packets but block broadcasts LAN

A
192.1.1.1

198.10.10.2

L2

198.10.10.3

198

10 subnet

10

255 host

11001010 00001010 00001010 11111111

Slide 4

IP Multicast
Receiver

Source

Receiver

Multicast Operation
Multicast data is received by a router then forwarded out of each interface towards member hosts

Page 5

Packet Replication
The difference between packet replication at the source versus replication at the network layer.

Source

Source

4 S1

S1

S1

S1

S1

Unicast Replication
Slide 6

Multicast Replication

Bandwidth Considerations
Unicast versus Multicast Bandwidth for Audio and Video

14 12
10

Unicast Video

Bandwidth Mbps

8
6

Unicast Audio
Multicast

4 2 0 1

Clients
20
40 60 80 100

Slide 7

Server Load
Many simultaneous requests for traffic can overload a unicast server

Live video streaming server

Live video streaming server

Unicast IP

Multicast IP

Slide 8

Multicast Issues
Unreliable User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Network must be multicast enabled Multicast routers must maintain state information of active multicast groups which costs CPU processing time and memory Extreme Networks switches make fdb entries in hardware for every multicast
stream.

Multicasting has no effect on the forwarding capacity of Extreme Networks


switches.

Slide 9

Ethernet Multicast MAC Address

01

00

5E

XX

XX

XX

0 7

00000001

00000000

01011110

0XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX

Broadcast / Multicast Bit (Bit 0) Locally Administered address Bit (Bit 1)

Slide 10

Multicast Group Addresses

Class D -- Multicast Address


1110XXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX

224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255

Multicast IP addressing uses the Class D IP address space. The address range is reserved by the IANA and spans from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

Slide 11

Address Mapping
28 bit multicast address

The last 23 bits of a multicast IP address are mapped to the MAC address
Class D

5 lost bits

23 bits

1110

01

00 24 bits

5e

0 23 bits

Slide 12

Performance Impact
Every multicast MAC address can denote any one of 32 IP addresses. This can have a performance impact on receiving hosts.

224.1.1.1 224.129.1.1 225.1.1.1 225.129.1.1

01 239.1.1.1 239.129.1.1
? 224 - 239 129 or 1

00

5E

01

01

01

1110XXXX X 0000001 00000001 00000001


Mapped to MAC address
Slide 13

Address Mapping Exercise


Calculate the Ethernet MAC address for the following IP Multicast addresses. 224.100.10.10 224.24.1.1 239.100.10.10 IP multicast address 239.24.10.10 1110 225.228.10.10
23 bits

01

00

5e

0
Ethernet multicast address

Slide 14

Link-Local Reserved Addresses


Address 224.0.0.1 224.0.0.2 224.0.0.3 224.0.0.4 224.0.0.5 224.0.0.6 Usage All Hosts All Routers Unassigned DVMRP Routers OSPF All Routers OSPF Designated Routers

224.0.0.7
224.0.0.8 224.0.0.9 224.0.0.10 224.0.0.11 224.0.0.12 224.0.0.13 224.0.0.14 224.0.0.15 224.0.0.16 224.0.0.17 224.0.0.18 224.0.0.24

ST Routers
ST Hosts RIP2 Routers IGRP Routers Mobile-Agents DHCP Server/Relay Agent All PIM Routers RSVP-Encapsulation All CBT Routers Designated-SBM All SBMS VRRP OSPF-TE

224.0.0.X

Not forwarded by routers

Slide 15

Additional Reserved Addresses


Address 224.0.1.0 224.0.1.1 224.0.1.2 Usage VMTP Managers Group NTP-Network Time Protocol SGI-Dogfight

224.0.1.3
224.0.1.6 224.0.1.8 224.0.1.20

Rwhod
NSS-Name Service Server SUN NIS+ Information Service Any Private Experiment

224.0.1.21
224.0.1.32 224.0.1.33 224.0.1.34 224.0.1.39 224.0.1.40 224.0.1.52 224.0.1.78 224.0.1.79 224.0.1.125 224.0.1.128
Slide 16

DVMRP on MOSPF
Mtrace RSVP-encap-1 RSVP-encap-2 Cisco-RP-Announce Cisco-RP-Discovery Mbone-VCR-Directory Tibco Multicast 1 Tibco Multicast 2 PolyCom Relay1 CNN

224.0.1.X

Forwarded by routers

The SSM Address Block


Source Specific Multicast (SSM) is an extension of IP Multicast Multicast packets are forwarded "only" to receivers that have explicitly expressed interest in receiving packets from those specific multicast sources. Source-Specific Multicast Addresses Block: 232.0.0.0 to 232.255.255.255 Addresses in the SSM block must not be used for other purposes.

Slide 17

Administratively Scoped Address


Private multicast address scheme, contained within a private network

239.X.X.X

Slide 18

Summary
You should now be able to: Describe IP multicast and its applications Describe differences between broadcast and multicast traffic Describe packet replication List bandwidth and server load considerations for multicasting List the range of IP addresses that are reserved for multicast List addresses reserved for link-local multicast addresses List addresses reserved for administratively scoped multicast addresses Map an IP multicast address to a MAC address

Slide 19

Review Questions

2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Implementing Multicast Routing (EIMR), Version 12.1. Part # DOC-01616.

This presentation contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, including statements regarding our expectations as to products, trends and our performance. There can be no assurances that any forward-looking statements will be achieved, and actual results could differ materially from forecasts and estimates. For factors that may affect our business and financial results please refer to our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, under the captions: Managements Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, and Risk Factors, which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (http://www.sec.gov). We undertake no obligation to update the forward-looking information in this release.

2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Implementing Multicast Routing (EIMR), Version 12.1. Part # DOC-01616.

2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Implementing Multicast Routing (EIMR), Version 12.1. Part # DOC-01616.