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Taguchi Yaklam

Faktr saysnn az olmas durumunda tam faktriyel

tasarm, fazla olmas halinde de kesirli faktriyel

tasarm olarak kullanlabilecek tasarm matrislerini

tasarlayan Dr. Genichi Taguchiye gre, deney

tasarm aada verilen admlarda gerekletirilir:

1.Deerlendirilecek faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin seilmesi,

2.Faktr dzeylerinin seilmesi,

3.Uygun ortogonal dizinin (orthogonal array) seilmesi,

4.Faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin stunlara atanmas,

5.Testlerin yaplmas,

6.Sonularn analiz edilmesi,

7.Dorulama deney(ler)inin yaplmas.

2

Adm 1 Faktr ve/veya

Etkileimlerin Seilmesi

Bu admda, sz konusu olan problem ve bu problemin

zmne ilikin ama ortaya konulduktan sonra,

klasik deney tasarmnda olduu gibi, beyin frtnas,

sre ak emas ve sebep-sonu diyagram gibi

yntem ve teknikler kullanlarak, ilgilenilen

performans karakteristiine etkisi olan ya da

deerlemeye alnacak faktr ve/veya etkileimler

seilir.

3

Adm 1

lgilenilen performans karakteristii, alminyum malzemeden

yaplm silindirik paralarn CNC tornada ilendikten sonraki

yzey dzgnszl olsun.

Bylesi bir kalite karakteristii;

Kesme derinlii,

Kesme hz,

Kesici takm veya para ilerleme hz,

Soutma veya yalama,

Titreim,

Kesici takmn yarap,

Kullanlan takmn mr,

Kesme geometrisine ilikin alar,

Kesilen ve kesen malzeme

faktrlerinin bir fonksiyonudur.

4

Adm 1

Bu ekilde belirlenmi dokuz faktr;

Kesilen ve kesen malzeme yaplan deney boyunca sabittir.

lenen parann kk olmas ve alminyum malzemeden

yaplm olmas nedeniyle titreimin etkisi azdr.

elik ve pirine kyasla alminyum yumuak bir malzeme

olduundan takm mrnde byk deimeler yapmaz.

Silindirik paralarda kesme derinliinin kk olmas

nedeniyle, kesici takmn yarapnda ve kesme geometrisine

ilikin alarda byk deiikler olmaz.

varsaymlar dikkate alnarak 4 faktre indirgenmitir.

5

Adm 2 Faktr Dzeylerinin Seilmesi

lgilenilen kalite karakteristii iin seilen faktrlere

ilikin dzeyler aadaki gibi belirlenmitir:

Faktr 1. Dzey 2. Dzey

A Kesme Derinlii (mm) 0.05 0.10

B lerleme Hz (mm/dev) 0.03 0.06

C Kesme Hz (m/dak) 125.6 188.4

D Soutma Svs Var Yok

6

Adm 3 Ortogonal Dizinin Seilmesi

lgilenilen performans karakteritiine etki eden faktrler ve

dzeyleri dikkate alnarak uygun ortogonal dizinin seildii bu

admda, faktr ve/veya etkileimlerinin saysna bal olarak tam

faktriyel, kesirli faktriyel ve gzlemlemeye dayal tasarm sz

konusu olabilmektedir.

Tasarm matrisi de denilen ortogonal diziler, genel gsterimiyle,

d: toplam deney says

a: faktr dzey says

k: faktr says

olmak zere,

L

d

(a)

k

ya da L

d

eklinde ifade edilir.

7

Adm 3

Yzey dzgnl karakteristiine iki-dzeyli drt faktrn etkili

olduu bir tasarm iin;

L

16

(2)

4

Tam Faktriyel Tasarm

L

8

(2)

4

Kesirli Faktriyel Tasarm

kullanlabilmektedir.

8

Adm 3

L

8

(2)

4

Kesirli Faktriyel Tasarm iin ortogonal dizi

Stunlar

Deney

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1

5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

6 2 1 2 2 1 2 1

7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1

8 2 2 1 2 1 1 2

9

Adm 3

L

16

(2)

4

Tam Faktriyel Tasarm iin ortogonal dizi

Deney 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

5 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2

6 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

7 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1

8 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2

9 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2

10 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1

11 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1

12 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2

13 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1

14 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2

15 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2

16 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

10

Adm 4 Stunlara Atama

Faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin seilen ortogonal dizinin stunlarna

atanmasnda, Taguchi tarafndan gelitirilen dorusal grafikler

(linear graphs) ve tablolar (triangular tables) kullanlr.

Verilen iki tasarm iin dorusal grafikler,

L

8

iin dorusal grafik L

16

iin dorusal grafik

11

Adm 4

Verilen grafiklerde, ke noktalar ana faktrleri, noktalar

birletiren dorular ise ilgili faktrlerin etkileimlerini temsil

etmektedir. Buna gre, ilgilenilen performans karakteristii iin,

L

16

ortogonal dizisi dikkate alnarak,

Ana faktrler (A, B, C ve D) srasyla 1., 2., 4. ve 8. kolonlara,

II. mertebeden faktr etkileimleri (AB, AC, BC, AD, BD ve CD)

srasyla 3., 5., 6., 9., 10. ve 12. kolonlara,

III. mertebeden faktr etkileimleri (ABC, ABD, ACD ve BCD)

srasyla 7., 11., 13. Ve 14. kolonlara,

En yksek mertebeden faktr etkileimi (ABCD) ise 15. kolona

olacak ekilde tasarm matrisi oluturulmutur.

12

Adm 5 Verilerin Derlenmesi

Deney A B C D Gzlemler

1 1 1 1 1 45.5

2 1 1 1 2 44.5

3 1 1 2 1 31.5

4 1 1 2 2 47.0

5 1 2 1 1 35.5

6 1 2 1 2 45.5

7 1 2 2 1 36.5

8 1 2 2 2 45.5

9 2 1 1 1 39.0

10 2 1 1 2 49.5

11 2 1 2 1 36.0

12 2 1 2 2 44.5

13 2 2 1 1 35.0

14 2 2 1 2 69.0

15 2 2 2 1 49.5

16 2 2 2 2 59.5

13

Adm 6 Varyans Analizi

Kaynak Birletirildi

?

SS sd MS F

A H 159.39062 1 159.39062 19.38125

B H 92.64062 1 92.64062 11.26472

AB H 153.14062 1 153.14062 18.62127

C E 11.39062 1 11.39062

AC E 3.51563 1 3.51563

BC H 40.64062 1 40.64062 4.94173

ABC E 0.01563 1 0.01563

D H 582.01562 1 582.01562 70.77073

AD H 54.39062 1 54.39062 6.61368

BD H 54.39062 1 54.39062 6.61368

ABD E 26.26562 1 26.26562

CD E 6.89062 1 6.89062

ACD H 107.64062 1 107.64062 13.08866

BCD H 97.51562 1 97.51562 11.85750

ABCD E 1.26562 1 1.26562

HATA - 49.34374 6 8.22396

TOPLAM - 1391.1094 15

14

Adm 6

Hesaplanan F deerleri, ilgili serbestlik dereceleri dikkate alnarak

test edilecek olursa, A ve D faktrlerinin ve AB ikili etkileimin

kritik olduu sonucuna varlr.

Kritik olduuna karar verilen ana faktrlere ynelik grafik;

D C B A

2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

50,0

47,5

45,0

42,5

40,0

O

r

t

a

l

a

m

a

Ana Faktr Etkileri

15

Adm 6

Kritik olduuna karar verilen etkileime ynelik grafik;

1

2

1 2

42

47

52

A

B

O

r

t

a

l

a

m

a

AxB Etkilesim Grafigi

16

Sz konusu grafikler kullanlarak yzey dzgnlne

etki eden faktrler iin uygun dzeyler;

Sivisi Sogutma D m/dak 4 . 188 C

mm/dev 06 . 0 B mm 05 . 0 A

1 2

2 1

= =

= =

Yzey przll iin tahmin deeri;

Level A B C D A*B

1 41,4375 42,1875 45,4375 38,5625 1 1 42,13

2 47,7500 47,0000 43,7500 50,6250 1 2 40,75

Delta 6,3125 4,8125 1,6875 12,0625 2 1 42,25

Rank 2 3 4 1 2 2 53,25

46875 , 31 ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

12 1 2 1

= + + + + = T B A T D T C T A T

+ =

i

i

) T KF ( T

TAGUCHI METHODS

Prof. Dr. A. Sermet ANAGN

Eskiehir Osmangazi niversitesi

Endstri Mhendislii Blm

sanagun@ogu.edu.tr

DoE

Structured experiments.

The parameters are automatically

tested several times at each level.

Cross influences (interactions) can

be evaluated.

Do not focus on Robust Design

Dr. Genichi Taguchi states that;

instead of constantly directing effort

toward controlling a process to

assure consistent quality,

design the manufactured good to

achieve high quality despite the

variations that will occur in the

production line.

A disciplined engineering approach (Parameter Design) to

find the best combination of design parameters (control

factors) for making a system insensitive to outside

influences (noise factors)

2 steps in the optimization procedure:

1. Reduce effect of variability on design function

2. Improve the performances

Taguchi method

Introduced by Dr. Genichi Taguchi (1980)

Comparable in importance to Statistical Process Control (SPC),

the Deming approach and the Japanese concept of TQC

Unique aspects of the Taguchi method

The Taguchi definition of quality

The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (QLF)

The concept of Robust Design

The Taguchi definition of quality

Ideal quality refers to a target value for determining the quality

level

Ideal quality is delivered if a product or service tangible performs

its intended function throughout its projected life under reasonable

operating conditions without harmful side effects

Ideal quality is a function of customer perception and satisfaction

Service quality is measured in terms of loss to society

The traditional definition is conformance to specifications

Background of the Taguchi Method

What are Taguchis Contributions?

Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis

Taguchi focuses mostly on

Off-Line Quality Control

Off-Line Quality Control =

Improving Quality and Reducing Total Cost in the Design Stage

Total Cost means cost to society so it includes the cost of

problems in manufacturing and the cost of problems in the

field.

Taguchi Loss Function Definition

Taguchi defines Quality as the loss

imparted by the product to society from

the time the product is shipped.

LOSS = Cost to operate, Failure to

function, maintenance and repair cost,

customer satisfaction, poor design.

Product to be produced being within

specification

Taguchis vs. Traditional

Approach

Taguchs Traditional

When a product moves

from its Target will

cause the loss even if

the product lies or not

within Limits

There is Good or Bad

Products only as per

Limits

Taguchis Quadratic Quality Loss

Function

Quality Loss Occurs when a products

deviates from target or nominal value.

Deviation Grows, then Loss increases.

Taguchis U-shaped loss Function Curve.

The traditional model for quality losses

No losses within the specification limits!

The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (I)

The Taguchi loss function

the quality loss is zero only if we are on target

Scrap Cost

LSL USL

Target

Cost

Taguchis U-shaped Loss Function

Curve

LTL

Nominal

Measured

characteristic

UTL

Taguchi loss Fn

Scrap or Rework Cost.

Loss

L(y) = k(ym)

2

(k: constant) L(y) = ky

2

, y > 0 L(y) =k (1 / y

2

) , y > 0

Nominal-The-Best (NB) Smaller-The-Better (SB) Larger-The-Better (LB)

Three characteristics of Taguchis loss function

Expected loss

] m) y ( k[s E[L(y)]

2 2

+ = ] y k[s E[L(y)]

2 2

+ = )] y / (3s [1 ) y k(1/ E[L(y)]

2 2 2

+ + =

Define

k = The unit repair cost when the deviation from target equals the

maximum tolerance level

A = Tolerance interval (allowable parameter variation from target to SL)

m = Target value

y = The actual metric value for a specific product

L(y) = Economic penalty incurred by the customer as a result of quality

deviation from target (The quality loss)

Computing The Taguchi QLF

The Loss Function

L(y) = k(y/A)

2

Example: The repair cost for an engine shaft is $100. The shaft diameter is required

to be 101 mm. On average the produced shafts deviates 0.5 mm from target.

Determine the mean quality loss per shaft using the Taguchi QLF.

Solution: L(0.5) = k (y/A)

2

= 100 (0.5/1)

2

= 100 0.25 = $25 per unit

Solved Problem

Suppose that the specification on a part is 0.500 0.020 cm. A detailed

analysis of product returns and repairs has discovered that many failures

occur when the actual dimension is near the extreme of the tolerance

range (that is, when the dimensions are approximately 0.48 or 0.52) and

costs $50 for repair.

Thus, the deviation from the target, y m , is 0.02 and L(y) = $50.

Substituting these values, we have:

50 = k(0.02)2

or

k = 50/0.0004 = 125,000

Therefore, the loss function for a single part is L(y) = 125000(y m)

2

.

This means when the deviation is 0.10, the firm can still expect an average

loss per unit of:

L(0.10) = 125,000(0.10)

2

= $12.50 per part

Solved problem (continued)

Knowing the Taguchi loss function helps designers to

determine appropriate tolerances economically. For example,

suppose that a simple adjustment can be made at the

factory for only $2 to get this dimension very close to the

target.

If we set L(y) = $2 and solve for y m, we get:

2 = 125000(y m)

2

y m = 0.004

Therefore, if the dimension is more than 0.004 away from

the target, it is more economical to adjust it at the factory

and the specifications should be set as 0.500 0.004.

Taguchis Contributions

Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis

Robust Design?

Robust design is to improve

the quality of a product by

minimizing the effect of the

causes of variation without

eliminating the causes.

Goal: Introducing VARIABILITY (uncertainty) of

parameters in design optimization

Outcomes: better control of realistic product performances

Robust design

1. Performs consistently as intended (design)

2. Throughout its life cycle (manufacturing)

3. Under a wide range of user conditions (design)

4. Under a wide range of outside influences (design)

A product is said to be Robust

Products and services should be designed to be

inherently defect free and of high quality

Meet customers expectations also under non-ideal conditions

Disturbances are events that cause the design

performance to deviate from its target values

Taguchi divides disturbances (noise) into three

categories;

External noise: variations in the environment where the product

is used

Internal noise: ware and tare inside a specific unit

Unit-to-unit noise: deviation from target values

A three step method for achieving robust design:

1. Concept design

2. Parameter design

3. Tolerance design

The focus of Taguchi is on Parameter design

1. Concept Design

The process of examining competing technologies for

producing a product - Includes choices of technology

and process design

A prototype design that can be produced and meets

customers needs under ideal conditions without

disturbances

2. Parameter Design

The selection of control factors (parameters) and

their optimal levels

The objective is to make the design Robust!

Control factors are those process variables

management can influence.

Ex. the procedures used and the type and amount of

training

Often a complex (non-linear) relationship between the

control factors and product/design performance

The optimal parameter levels can be determined

through experimentation

3. Tolerance Design

Development of specification limits

Necessary because there will always be some variation in

the production process

Taguchi fiercely advocates aiming for the target value not

just settle for inside the specification limits!

Occurs after the parameter design

Often results in increased production costs

More expensive input material might have to be used to

meet specifications

Parameter Design

(Robust Design)

Optimize the settings of the design to minimize

its sensitivity to noise ROBUSTNESS.

Taguchi really opened a whole area that

previously had been talked about only by a few

people.

His methodology is heavily dependent on design

of experiments, but he wanted to look at not just

the mean but also the variance.

Classification of Factors

Control FactorsDesign factors that are

to be set at optimal levels to improve

quality and reduce sensitivity to noise

Dimensions of parts, type of

material, etc

Uncontrollable Factors-Noise Factors

that represent the noise that is expected

in production or in use

Dimensional variation

Operating Temperature

Process

x

1

Input

Output, y

x

2

x

n

z

1

z

2

z

m

Controllable input

parameters

Uncontrollable

factors (noise)

Process

x

1

Input

Output, y

x

2

x

n

z

1

z

2

z

m

Controllable input

parameters

Uncontrollable

factors (noise)

Typical Objectives of DOE

(i) Determine which input variables have the most influence on the output;

(ii) Determine what value of x

i

s will lead us closest to our desired value of y;

(iii) Determine where to set the most influential x

i

s so as to

reduce the variability of y;

(iv) Determine where to set the most influential x

i

s such that

the effects of the uncontrollable variables (z

i

s) are minimized.

Process

x

1

Input

Output, y

x

2

x

n

z

1

z

2

z

m

Controllable input

parameters

Uncontrollable

factors (noise)

Process

x

1

Input

Output, y

x

2

x

n

z

1

z

2

z

m

Controllable input

parameters

Uncontrollable

factors (noise)

Tool used:

ANalysis Of VAriance ANOVA

Taguchis Contributions

Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis

Many factors/inputs/variables must be taken into consideration

when making a product especially a brand new one

Ex. Baking a new cake without a recipe

The Taguchi method is a structured approach for determining

the best combination of inputs to produce a product or service

Based on a Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology for

determining parameter levels

DOE is an important tool for designing processes and products

A method for quantitatively identifying the right inputs and

parameter levels for making a high quality product or service

Taguchi approaches design from a robust design perspective

Taguchi Design of Experiments

Number of levels 2 3

Orthogonal arrays L2

m

(m = 2,3,...) L3

m

(m = 2,3,...)

Number of maximum factors 2

m

1 (3

m

1)/2

L4 orthogonal array

Experiment

number

Column number

Basic mark

Genichi Taguchi developed orthogonal arrays;

fractional factorial matrix

permits a balanced comparison of levels of any factor with a reduced

number of experiments.

each factor can be evaluated independently of each of the other factors.

Experimental Design

Orthogonal arrays

L4: three two-level factors

L9: four three level factors

Arrays from http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/tables/orthogonal.htm

Common orthogonal arrays

Array Levels Equivalent

Full Factorial

L

4

3 x 2 8

L

8

7 x 2 128

L

9

4 x 3 81

L

12

11 x 2 2 048

L

16

15 x 2 32 768

L

25

6 x 5 15 625

L

27

13 x 3 1 594 323

Alternative Notation

Std. Fisher's Original Yate s Group The ory Taguchi

Order A B C A B C A B C

1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

2 + a 1 0 0 2 1 1

3 + b 0 1 0 1 2 1

4 + + ab 1 1 0 2 2 1

5 + c 0 0 1 1 1 2

6 + + ac 1 0 1 2 1 2

7 + + bc 0 1 1 1 2 2

8 + + + abc 1 1 1 2 2 2

X

1

X

2

X

3

X

1

X

2

X

3

L

8

array

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 2 2 2 2

1 2 2 1 1 2 2

1 2 2 2 2 1 1

2 1 2 1 2 1 2

2 1 2 2 1 2 1

2 2 1 1 2 2 1

2 2 1 2 1 1 2

C B -BC A -AC -AB -ABC

Linear Graphs for L

8

Array

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Main effects are assigned to columns at nodes in the plot.

Interactions are assigned to the columns on the lines.

Orthogonal Designs

Classical

(2-level Factorials)

Taguchi

2

3

2

4

2

5

2

6-3

2

7-1

2

3-1

=L

4

2

7-4

=L

8

2

15-11

=L

16

L

12

L

18

L

27

Taguchi Designs

Notation

Total Number of Runs

( )

k

N

L 2

Number of Levels per Factor

Number of Factors

Taguchi Orthogonal Arrays

2-level (fractional factorial) arrays

L

4

(2

3

). L

8

(2

7

), L

16

(2

15

). L

32

(2

31

), L

64

(2

63

)

2-level array

L

12

(2

11

) (Plackett-Burman Design)

3-level arrays

L

9

(3

4

). L

27

(3

13

), L

81

(3

40

)

4-level arrays

L

16

(4

5

). L

64

(4

21

)

5-level array

L

25

(5

6

)

Mixed-level arrays

L

18

(2

1

x3

7

), L

32

(2

1

x4

9

), L

50

(2

1

x5

11

)

L

36

(2

11

x3

12

), L

36

(2

3

x3

13

), L

54

(2

1

x3

25

)

Taguchis Contributions

Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis

The Taguchi Process

1. Problem Identification

Locate the problem source not just the symptom

2. Brainstorming Session

Attended at least by project leader/facilitator and workers involved in the

process. Other participants may include managers and technical staff

The purpose is to identify critical variables for the quality of the product or

service in question (referred to as factors by Taguchi)

Control factors variables under management control

Signal factors uncontrollable variation

Define different factor levels (three or four) and identify possible

interaction between factors

Determine experiment objectives

1. Smaller-the-better keep the level of defectives as close to zero as

possible

2. Nominal-is-the-best Outcome as close to target as possible

3. Larger-the-better max number of units per time unit or lot without

defects

The Taguchi Process

3. Experimental Design

Using factor levels and objectives determined via brainstorming

Taguchi advocates off-line-experimentation as a contrast to

traditional on-line or in-process experimentation

Care should be taken to selecting number of trials, trial

conditions, how to measure performance etc.

4. Experimentation

Various rigorous analysis approaches like ANOVA and Multiple

Regression can be used but also simpler customized methods

are available

5. Analysis

The experimentation provides best levels for all factors

If interactions between factors are evident Either ignore or run a full

factorial experiment

6. Conforming Experiments

The results should be validated by running experiments with all factors

set to optimal levels

The Taguchi Process

Traditional Design of Experiments (DOE) focused on

how different design factors affect the average result

level

Taguchis perspective (robust design)

variation is more interesting to study than the average

Run experiments where controllable design factors and

disturbing (noise) factors take on 2 or three levels.

For each combination of the design variables a number

of experiments are run covering all possible

combinations of the signal variables.

Can estimate average effects and the variation different

design factor levels imply

choose factor levels that minimize the sensitivity against

disturbances

The Taguchi Approach to DOE

From every trial series we can obtain an average result level and

a measure of the variation, s

i

, i=1,2, ,9. These values can then

be used as a basis for choosing the combination of factor levels

that provides the most robust design.

The Taguchi Approach to DOE

Experiment

Factor

1 2 3 4

1 -1 -1 -1 -1

2 -1 0 0 0

- - - - -

- - - - -

- - - - -

9 1 1 0 -1

-1 -1 -1

-1 1 1

1 -1 1

1 1 -1

Levels of

disturbing factors

Y

11

Y

12

Y

13

Y

14

) s , Y (

1 1

-1 -1 -1

-1 1 1

1 -1 1

1 1 -1

Y

21

Y

22

Y

23

Y

24

) s , Y (

2 2

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