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Taguchi Yaklam
Faktr saysnn az olmas durumunda tam faktriyel
tasarm, fazla olmas halinde de kesirli faktriyel
tasarm olarak kullanlabilecek tasarm matrislerini
tasarlayan Dr. Genichi Taguchiye gre, deney
tasarm aada verilen admlarda gerekletirilir:

1.Deerlendirilecek faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin seilmesi,
2.Faktr dzeylerinin seilmesi,
3.Uygun ortogonal dizinin (orthogonal array) seilmesi,
4.Faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin stunlara atanmas,
5.Testlerin yaplmas,
6.Sonularn analiz edilmesi,
7.Dorulama deney(ler)inin yaplmas.
2
Adm 1 Faktr ve/veya
Etkileimlerin Seilmesi
Bu admda, sz konusu olan problem ve bu problemin
zmne ilikin ama ortaya konulduktan sonra,
klasik deney tasarmnda olduu gibi, beyin frtnas,
sre ak emas ve sebep-sonu diyagram gibi
yntem ve teknikler kullanlarak, ilgilenilen
performans karakteristiine etkisi olan ya da
deerlemeye alnacak faktr ve/veya etkileimler
seilir.
3
Adm 1
lgilenilen performans karakteristii, alminyum malzemeden
yaplm silindirik paralarn CNC tornada ilendikten sonraki
yzey dzgnszl olsun.

Bylesi bir kalite karakteristii;

Kesme derinlii,
Kesme hz,
Kesici takm veya para ilerleme hz,
Soutma veya yalama,
Titreim,
Kesici takmn yarap,
Kullanlan takmn mr,
Kesme geometrisine ilikin alar,
Kesilen ve kesen malzeme

faktrlerinin bir fonksiyonudur.
4
Adm 1
Bu ekilde belirlenmi dokuz faktr;

Kesilen ve kesen malzeme yaplan deney boyunca sabittir.
lenen parann kk olmas ve alminyum malzemeden
yaplm olmas nedeniyle titreimin etkisi azdr.
elik ve pirine kyasla alminyum yumuak bir malzeme
olduundan takm mrnde byk deimeler yapmaz.
Silindirik paralarda kesme derinliinin kk olmas
nedeniyle, kesici takmn yarapnda ve kesme geometrisine
ilikin alarda byk deiikler olmaz.

varsaymlar dikkate alnarak 4 faktre indirgenmitir.
5
Adm 2 Faktr Dzeylerinin Seilmesi
lgilenilen kalite karakteristii iin seilen faktrlere
ilikin dzeyler aadaki gibi belirlenmitir:
Faktr 1. Dzey 2. Dzey
A Kesme Derinlii (mm) 0.05 0.10
B lerleme Hz (mm/dev) 0.03 0.06
C Kesme Hz (m/dak) 125.6 188.4
D Soutma Svs Var Yok
6
Adm 3 Ortogonal Dizinin Seilmesi
lgilenilen performans karakteritiine etki eden faktrler ve
dzeyleri dikkate alnarak uygun ortogonal dizinin seildii bu
admda, faktr ve/veya etkileimlerinin saysna bal olarak tam
faktriyel, kesirli faktriyel ve gzlemlemeye dayal tasarm sz
konusu olabilmektedir.

Tasarm matrisi de denilen ortogonal diziler, genel gsterimiyle,

d: toplam deney says
a: faktr dzey says
k: faktr says

olmak zere,

L
d
(a)
k
ya da L
d


eklinde ifade edilir.
7
Adm 3
Yzey dzgnl karakteristiine iki-dzeyli drt faktrn etkili
olduu bir tasarm iin;

L
16
(2)
4
Tam Faktriyel Tasarm

L
8
(2)
4
Kesirli Faktriyel Tasarm

kullanlabilmektedir.


8
Adm 3
L
8
(2)
4
Kesirli Faktriyel Tasarm iin ortogonal dizi

Stunlar
Deney
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
4 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
5 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
6 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
7 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
8 2 2 1 2 1 1 2
9
Adm 3
L
16
(2)
4
Tam Faktriyel Tasarm iin ortogonal dizi

Deney 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
5 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
6 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
7 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1
8 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
9 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2
10 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
11 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 1
12 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2
13 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1
14 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2
15 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2
16 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
10
Adm 4 Stunlara Atama
Faktr ve/veya etkileimlerin seilen ortogonal dizinin stunlarna
atanmasnda, Taguchi tarafndan gelitirilen dorusal grafikler
(linear graphs) ve tablolar (triangular tables) kullanlr.

Verilen iki tasarm iin dorusal grafikler,
L
8
iin dorusal grafik L
16
iin dorusal grafik
11
Adm 4
Verilen grafiklerde, ke noktalar ana faktrleri, noktalar
birletiren dorular ise ilgili faktrlerin etkileimlerini temsil
etmektedir. Buna gre, ilgilenilen performans karakteristii iin,
L
16
ortogonal dizisi dikkate alnarak,

Ana faktrler (A, B, C ve D) srasyla 1., 2., 4. ve 8. kolonlara,
II. mertebeden faktr etkileimleri (AB, AC, BC, AD, BD ve CD)
srasyla 3., 5., 6., 9., 10. ve 12. kolonlara,
III. mertebeden faktr etkileimleri (ABC, ABD, ACD ve BCD)
srasyla 7., 11., 13. Ve 14. kolonlara,
En yksek mertebeden faktr etkileimi (ABCD) ise 15. kolona

olacak ekilde tasarm matrisi oluturulmutur.
12
Adm 5 Verilerin Derlenmesi
Deney A B C D Gzlemler
1 1 1 1 1 45.5
2 1 1 1 2 44.5
3 1 1 2 1 31.5
4 1 1 2 2 47.0
5 1 2 1 1 35.5
6 1 2 1 2 45.5
7 1 2 2 1 36.5
8 1 2 2 2 45.5
9 2 1 1 1 39.0
10 2 1 1 2 49.5
11 2 1 2 1 36.0
12 2 1 2 2 44.5
13 2 2 1 1 35.0
14 2 2 1 2 69.0
15 2 2 2 1 49.5
16 2 2 2 2 59.5
13
Adm 6 Varyans Analizi
Kaynak Birletirildi
?
SS sd MS F
A H 159.39062 1 159.39062 19.38125
B H 92.64062 1 92.64062 11.26472
AB H 153.14062 1 153.14062 18.62127
C E 11.39062 1 11.39062
AC E 3.51563 1 3.51563
BC H 40.64062 1 40.64062 4.94173
ABC E 0.01563 1 0.01563
D H 582.01562 1 582.01562 70.77073
AD H 54.39062 1 54.39062 6.61368
BD H 54.39062 1 54.39062 6.61368
ABD E 26.26562 1 26.26562
CD E 6.89062 1 6.89062
ACD H 107.64062 1 107.64062 13.08866
BCD H 97.51562 1 97.51562 11.85750
ABCD E 1.26562 1 1.26562
HATA - 49.34374 6 8.22396
TOPLAM - 1391.1094 15
14
Adm 6
Hesaplanan F deerleri, ilgili serbestlik dereceleri dikkate alnarak
test edilecek olursa, A ve D faktrlerinin ve AB ikili etkileimin
kritik olduu sonucuna varlr.

Kritik olduuna karar verilen ana faktrlere ynelik grafik;
D C B A
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
50,0
47,5
45,0
42,5
40,0
O
r
t
a
l
a
m
a
Ana Faktr Etkileri
15
Adm 6
Kritik olduuna karar verilen etkileime ynelik grafik;
1
2
1 2
42
47
52
A
B
O
r
t
a
l
a
m
a
AxB Etkilesim Grafigi
16
Sz konusu grafikler kullanlarak yzey dzgnlne
etki eden faktrler iin uygun dzeyler;
Sivisi Sogutma D m/dak 4 . 188 C
mm/dev 06 . 0 B mm 05 . 0 A
1 2
2 1
= =
= =
Yzey przll iin tahmin deeri;
Level A B C D A*B
1 41,4375 42,1875 45,4375 38,5625 1 1 42,13
2 47,7500 47,0000 43,7500 50,6250 1 2 40,75
Delta 6,3125 4,8125 1,6875 12,0625 2 1 42,25
Rank 2 3 4 1 2 2 53,25
46875 , 31 ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
12 1 2 1
= + + + + = T B A T D T C T A T

+ =
i
i
) T KF ( T
TAGUCHI METHODS
Prof. Dr. A. Sermet ANAGN

Eskiehir Osmangazi niversitesi
Endstri Mhendislii Blm
sanagun@ogu.edu.tr
DoE
Structured experiments.
The parameters are automatically
tested several times at each level.
Cross influences (interactions) can
be evaluated.

Do not focus on Robust Design

Dr. Genichi Taguchi states that;
instead of constantly directing effort
toward controlling a process to
assure consistent quality,
design the manufactured good to
achieve high quality despite the
variations that will occur in the
production line.
A disciplined engineering approach (Parameter Design) to
find the best combination of design parameters (control
factors) for making a system insensitive to outside
influences (noise factors)

2 steps in the optimization procedure:
1. Reduce effect of variability on design function
2. Improve the performances
Taguchi method
Introduced by Dr. Genichi Taguchi (1980)
Comparable in importance to Statistical Process Control (SPC),
the Deming approach and the Japanese concept of TQC
Unique aspects of the Taguchi method
The Taguchi definition of quality
The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (QLF)
The concept of Robust Design

The Taguchi definition of quality
Ideal quality refers to a target value for determining the quality
level
Ideal quality is delivered if a product or service tangible performs
its intended function throughout its projected life under reasonable
operating conditions without harmful side effects
Ideal quality is a function of customer perception and satisfaction
Service quality is measured in terms of loss to society
The traditional definition is conformance to specifications
Background of the Taguchi Method
What are Taguchis Contributions?
Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis
Taguchi focuses mostly on
Off-Line Quality Control
Off-Line Quality Control =
Improving Quality and Reducing Total Cost in the Design Stage
Total Cost means cost to society so it includes the cost of
problems in manufacturing and the cost of problems in the
field.
Taguchi Loss Function Definition
Taguchi defines Quality as the loss
imparted by the product to society from
the time the product is shipped.
LOSS = Cost to operate, Failure to
function, maintenance and repair cost,
customer satisfaction, poor design.
Product to be produced being within
specification
Taguchis vs. Traditional
Approach
Taguchs Traditional
When a product moves
from its Target will
cause the loss even if
the product lies or not
within Limits
There is Good or Bad
Products only as per
Limits
Taguchis Quadratic Quality Loss
Function
Quality Loss Occurs when a products
deviates from target or nominal value.
Deviation Grows, then Loss increases.
Taguchis U-shaped loss Function Curve.
The traditional model for quality losses
No losses within the specification limits!
The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (I)
The Taguchi loss function
the quality loss is zero only if we are on target
Scrap Cost
LSL USL
Target
Cost
Taguchis U-shaped Loss Function
Curve

LTL
Nominal
Measured
characteristic
UTL
Taguchi loss Fn
Scrap or Rework Cost.
Loss
L(y) = k(ym)
2
(k: constant) L(y) = ky
2
, y > 0 L(y) =k (1 / y
2
) , y > 0
Nominal-The-Best (NB) Smaller-The-Better (SB) Larger-The-Better (LB)
Three characteristics of Taguchis loss function
Expected loss
] m) y ( k[s E[L(y)]
2 2
+ = ] y k[s E[L(y)]
2 2
+ = )] y / (3s [1 ) y k(1/ E[L(y)]
2 2 2
+ + =
Define
k = The unit repair cost when the deviation from target equals the
maximum tolerance level
A = Tolerance interval (allowable parameter variation from target to SL)
m = Target value
y = The actual metric value for a specific product
L(y) = Economic penalty incurred by the customer as a result of quality
deviation from target (The quality loss)
Computing The Taguchi QLF
The Loss Function

L(y) = k(y/A)
2


Example: The repair cost for an engine shaft is $100. The shaft diameter is required
to be 101 mm. On average the produced shafts deviates 0.5 mm from target.
Determine the mean quality loss per shaft using the Taguchi QLF.
Solution: L(0.5) = k (y/A)
2
= 100 (0.5/1)
2
= 100 0.25 = $25 per unit


Solved Problem
Suppose that the specification on a part is 0.500 0.020 cm. A detailed
analysis of product returns and repairs has discovered that many failures
occur when the actual dimension is near the extreme of the tolerance
range (that is, when the dimensions are approximately 0.48 or 0.52) and
costs $50 for repair.

Thus, the deviation from the target, y m , is 0.02 and L(y) = $50.
Substituting these values, we have:
50 = k(0.02)2
or
k = 50/0.0004 = 125,000

Therefore, the loss function for a single part is L(y) = 125000(y m)
2
.

This means when the deviation is 0.10, the firm can still expect an average
loss per unit of:
L(0.10) = 125,000(0.10)
2
= $12.50 per part


Solved problem (continued)
Knowing the Taguchi loss function helps designers to
determine appropriate tolerances economically. For example,
suppose that a simple adjustment can be made at the
factory for only $2 to get this dimension very close to the
target.

If we set L(y) = $2 and solve for y m, we get:
2 = 125000(y m)
2
y m = 0.004

Therefore, if the dimension is more than 0.004 away from
the target, it is more economical to adjust it at the factory
and the specifications should be set as 0.500 0.004.

Taguchis Contributions
Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis
Robust Design?

Robust design is to improve
the quality of a product by
minimizing the effect of the
causes of variation without
eliminating the causes.
Goal: Introducing VARIABILITY (uncertainty) of
parameters in design optimization
Outcomes: better control of realistic product performances
Robust design
1. Performs consistently as intended (design)
2. Throughout its life cycle (manufacturing)
3. Under a wide range of user conditions (design)
4. Under a wide range of outside influences (design)
A product is said to be Robust
Products and services should be designed to be
inherently defect free and of high quality
Meet customers expectations also under non-ideal conditions
Disturbances are events that cause the design
performance to deviate from its target values
Taguchi divides disturbances (noise) into three
categories;
External noise: variations in the environment where the product
is used
Internal noise: ware and tare inside a specific unit
Unit-to-unit noise: deviation from target values
A three step method for achieving robust design:
1. Concept design
2. Parameter design
3. Tolerance design
The focus of Taguchi is on Parameter design
1. Concept Design

The process of examining competing technologies for
producing a product - Includes choices of technology
and process design
A prototype design that can be produced and meets
customers needs under ideal conditions without
disturbances
2. Parameter Design
The selection of control factors (parameters) and
their optimal levels
The objective is to make the design Robust!
Control factors are those process variables
management can influence.
Ex. the procedures used and the type and amount of
training
Often a complex (non-linear) relationship between the
control factors and product/design performance
The optimal parameter levels can be determined
through experimentation

3. Tolerance Design
Development of specification limits
Necessary because there will always be some variation in
the production process
Taguchi fiercely advocates aiming for the target value not
just settle for inside the specification limits!
Occurs after the parameter design
Often results in increased production costs
More expensive input material might have to be used to
meet specifications
Parameter Design
(Robust Design)
Optimize the settings of the design to minimize
its sensitivity to noise ROBUSTNESS.
Taguchi really opened a whole area that
previously had been talked about only by a few
people.
His methodology is heavily dependent on design
of experiments, but he wanted to look at not just
the mean but also the variance.
Classification of Factors

Control FactorsDesign factors that are
to be set at optimal levels to improve
quality and reduce sensitivity to noise
Dimensions of parts, type of
material, etc

Uncontrollable Factors-Noise Factors
that represent the noise that is expected
in production or in use
Dimensional variation
Operating Temperature
Process
x
1
Input
Output, y
x
2
x
n

z
1
z
2
z
m

Controllable input
parameters
Uncontrollable
factors (noise)
Process
x
1
Input
Output, y
x
2
x
n

z
1
z
2
z
m

Controllable input
parameters
Uncontrollable
factors (noise)
Typical Objectives of DOE
(i) Determine which input variables have the most influence on the output;

(ii) Determine what value of x
i
s will lead us closest to our desired value of y;

(iii) Determine where to set the most influential x
i
s so as to
reduce the variability of y;

(iv) Determine where to set the most influential x
i
s such that
the effects of the uncontrollable variables (z
i
s) are minimized.
Process
x
1
Input
Output, y
x
2
x
n

z
1
z
2
z
m

Controllable input
parameters
Uncontrollable
factors (noise)
Process
x
1
Input
Output, y
x
2
x
n

z
1
z
2
z
m

Controllable input
parameters
Uncontrollable
factors (noise)
Tool used:
ANalysis Of VAriance ANOVA
Taguchis Contributions
Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis
Many factors/inputs/variables must be taken into consideration
when making a product especially a brand new one
Ex. Baking a new cake without a recipe

The Taguchi method is a structured approach for determining
the best combination of inputs to produce a product or service
Based on a Design of Experiments (DOE) methodology for
determining parameter levels

DOE is an important tool for designing processes and products
A method for quantitatively identifying the right inputs and
parameter levels for making a high quality product or service

Taguchi approaches design from a robust design perspective
Taguchi Design of Experiments

Number of levels 2 3
Orthogonal arrays L2
m
(m = 2,3,...) L3
m
(m = 2,3,...)
Number of maximum factors 2
m
1 (3
m
1)/2
L4 orthogonal array
Experiment
number
Column number
Basic mark
Genichi Taguchi developed orthogonal arrays;
fractional factorial matrix
permits a balanced comparison of levels of any factor with a reduced
number of experiments.
each factor can be evaluated independently of each of the other factors.
Experimental Design
Orthogonal arrays
L4: three two-level factors
L9: four three level factors
Arrays from http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/maths/tables/orthogonal.htm
Common orthogonal arrays
Array Levels Equivalent
Full Factorial
L
4
3 x 2 8
L
8
7 x 2 128
L
9
4 x 3 81
L
12
11 x 2 2 048
L
16
15 x 2 32 768
L
25
6 x 5 15 625
L
27
13 x 3 1 594 323
Alternative Notation
Std. Fisher's Original Yate s Group The ory Taguchi
Order A B C A B C A B C
1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
2 + a 1 0 0 2 1 1
3 + b 0 1 0 1 2 1
4 + + ab 1 1 0 2 2 1
5 + c 0 0 1 1 1 2
6 + + ac 1 0 1 2 1 2
7 + + bc 0 1 1 1 2 2
8 + + + abc 1 1 1 2 2 2
X
1
X
2
X
3
X
1
X
2
X
3
L
8
array
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 2
1 2 2 2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 1 2 2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
2 2 1 2 1 1 2
C B -BC A -AC -AB -ABC
Linear Graphs for L
8
Array
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Main effects are assigned to columns at nodes in the plot.
Interactions are assigned to the columns on the lines.
Orthogonal Designs
Classical
(2-level Factorials)
Taguchi
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6-3
2
7-1

2
3-1
=L
4
2
7-4
=L
8
2
15-11
=L
16

L
12
L
18
L
27

Taguchi Designs
Notation
Total Number of Runs
( )
k
N
L 2
Number of Levels per Factor
Number of Factors
Taguchi Orthogonal Arrays
2-level (fractional factorial) arrays
L
4
(2
3
). L
8
(2
7
), L
16
(2
15
). L
32
(2
31
), L
64
(2
63
)
2-level array
L
12
(2
11
) (Plackett-Burman Design)
3-level arrays
L
9
(3
4
). L
27
(3
13
), L
81
(3
40
)
4-level arrays
L
16
(4
5
). L
64
(4
21
)
5-level array
L
25
(5
6
)
Mixed-level arrays
L
18
(2
1
x3
7
), L
32
(2
1
x4
9
), L
50
(2
1
x5
11
)
L
36
(2
11
x3
12
), L
36
(2
3
x3
13
), L
54
(2
1
x3
25
)


Taguchis Contributions
Quality Engineering Philosophy

Methodology

Experimental Design

Analysis
The Taguchi Process
1. Problem Identification
Locate the problem source not just the symptom
2. Brainstorming Session
Attended at least by project leader/facilitator and workers involved in the
process. Other participants may include managers and technical staff
The purpose is to identify critical variables for the quality of the product or
service in question (referred to as factors by Taguchi)
Control factors variables under management control
Signal factors uncontrollable variation
Define different factor levels (three or four) and identify possible
interaction between factors
Determine experiment objectives
1. Smaller-the-better keep the level of defectives as close to zero as
possible
2. Nominal-is-the-best Outcome as close to target as possible
3. Larger-the-better max number of units per time unit or lot without
defects
The Taguchi Process
3. Experimental Design
Using factor levels and objectives determined via brainstorming
Taguchi advocates off-line-experimentation as a contrast to
traditional on-line or in-process experimentation
Care should be taken to selecting number of trials, trial
conditions, how to measure performance etc.
4. Experimentation
Various rigorous analysis approaches like ANOVA and Multiple
Regression can be used but also simpler customized methods
are available
5. Analysis
The experimentation provides best levels for all factors
If interactions between factors are evident Either ignore or run a full
factorial experiment
6. Conforming Experiments
The results should be validated by running experiments with all factors
set to optimal levels
The Taguchi Process
Traditional Design of Experiments (DOE) focused on
how different design factors affect the average result
level
Taguchis perspective (robust design)
variation is more interesting to study than the average
Run experiments where controllable design factors and
disturbing (noise) factors take on 2 or three levels.
For each combination of the design variables a number
of experiments are run covering all possible
combinations of the signal variables.
Can estimate average effects and the variation different
design factor levels imply
choose factor levels that minimize the sensitivity against
disturbances
The Taguchi Approach to DOE
From every trial series we can obtain an average result level and
a measure of the variation, s
i
, i=1,2, ,9. These values can then
be used as a basis for choosing the combination of factor levels
that provides the most robust design.
The Taguchi Approach to DOE

Experiment
Factor
1 2 3 4
1 -1 -1 -1 -1
2 -1 0 0 0
- - - - -
- - - - -
- - - - -



9 1 1 0 -1
-1 -1 -1
-1 1 1
1 -1 1
1 1 -1
Levels of
disturbing factors
Y
11

Y
12
Y
13

Y
14
) s , Y (
1 1


-1 -1 -1
-1 1 1
1 -1 1
1 1 -1
Y
21

Y
22
Y
23

Y
24
) s , Y (
2 2


Individual results