   

A model defines the stages or tasks of a protocol as it prepares to send data OSI OPEN SYSTEM

Open meaning standards available to all. The model is divided into seven distinct layers Each subsequent layer should perform a welldefined function and the layer boundaries are designed to minimize the information flow across the interfaces.

OSI model


Application Layer
◦ Provides a user interface (examples: HTTP, SMTP) ◦ Includes file, print, database, app. Services

Presentation Layer
◦ Presents the data (example: JPEG) ◦ Includes encoding techniques,encryption, compression and translation services

Session Layer
◦ This provides a session between source & destination and decides the mode of communication(simplex, half duplex & full duplex)

Transport Layer
◦ Provides reliable delivery with alignment of packets
◦ Performs error detection ◦ Includes end to end connection

.OSI MODEL LAYERS  Network Layer ◦ Provides logical addressing and identifies the network ◦ Generates the Route to the destination  Data Link Layer ◦ Combines packets into bytes then into frames ◦ Performs error detection (not correction) ◦ Provides Media access addressing (point-to-point) and identifies the client system ◦ Media Access Control and Data Link Control  Physical Layer ◦ physical movement of bits between devices.

Tcp/Ip model .

This model sometimes called internet model . The TCP protocol exists on the Transport Layer of the OSI Model. The TCP/IP model is a description framework for computer network protocols and it is evolved from ARPANET which was the world's first wide area network and a predecessor of the Internet.TCP/IP MODEL • TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the main transport protocol utilized in IP networks. Internet protocol is the set of techniques used by many hosts for transmitting data over the Internet. • • • • . The TCP protocol is a connection-oriented protocol which provides end-toend reliability.

There are four layers in this model. IGMP.  Transport layer: Provides communication session management between host computers.SNMP.SMTP. RARP. ICMP.  Internet layer: Packages data into IP datagram's. which contain source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagram's between hosts and across networks. Protocols involved in this layer are TCP.UDP.TELNET. Performs routing of IP datagram's.  Physical layer: The physical movement of bits from source to destination. protocols regarding this layer are FTP. Defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data.  Application layer: Defines how TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network. .HTTP. Internet layer is also having some protocols ARP.

CHANNEL .Multiple Access Protocols  If multiple nodes tries to access the single channel for data transmission.

then if some other node also transmits then it leads to COLLISIONS   In this ALOHA. lot of chances to have more collisions collision probability increases: ◦ frame sent at t0 collides with other frames sent in [t0-1. when one node is transmitting data.ALOHA   Here every node is allowed to transmit its data packets in the same channel Then.t0+1] .

(1-p)N-1 = p .18 . (1-p)N-1 . P(no other node transmits in [t0.PURE ALOHA EFFICIENCY P(success by given node) = P(node transmits) .t0+1] = p . P(no other node transmits in [t0-1.t0] . (1-p)2(N-1) … choosing optimum p and then letting n ->  Efficiency = 1/(2e) = .

the node will transmit its data packets in that time slot . when its turn comes. . Here less chances to have collisions.SLOTTED ALOHA    Here every node is given an equal amount of time slot.

each transmits in slot with probability p prob that node 1 has success in a slot = p(1-p)N-1 prob that any node has a success = Np(1-p)N-1 .SLOTTED ALOHA EFFICIENCY     Efficiency is the long-run fraction of successful slots when there are many nodes. each with many frames to send Suppose N nodes with many frames to send.

defer transmission Human analogy: don‘t interrupt .CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS(CSMA)     Here the node listens to the channel before transmission If channel is idle: transmit entire frame If channel is busy.

which leads to collisions. then this protocol will take care by Blocking the nodes and minimise collisions.CSMA/CD (COLLISION DETECTION)   If two nodes simultaneously sense the channel and if the channel is idle and both will attempt to transmit. if any two or more nodes senses the channel and gets the Idle status. .

If a node has to transmit and no other node needs to do so. The basic problem with this protocol is its inefficiency during low load. This is done for all the nodes.   . No other node is allowed to transmit during this slot. In general node j may declare the fact that it has a frame to send by inserting ‗1‘ into slot j. it sets the bit ‗1‘ during the first slot and transmit the frame in first slot.COLLISION FREE PROTOCOLS Bit-Map Method:  In this method. If node0 has a frame to send. there will be N time slots. even then it has to wait for the bitmap to finish.

Bit-Map Method .

The arbitration is such that as soon as a node sees that a higher bit position that is 0 in its address has been overwritten with a 1. C 1010 .  The problem with this protocol is that the nodes with higher address always wins. The final result is the address of the node which is allowed to send. After the node has transmitted the whole process is repeated all over again. a node which wants to signal that it has a frame to send does so by writing its address into the header as a binary number. it gives up. B 0101 . Hence this creates a priority which is highly unfair and hence undesirable .Node C 1010 having higher priority gets to transmit. Given below is an example situation. D 1001 ---.Binary Countdown     In this protocol. Nodes Addresses A 0010 .

Binary Countdown .

If it was a wireless setup it would be called a WLAN.LAN Local area network . For example an office or home network. They are usually connected by Ethernet cables and have high speed connections.A group of computers that share a common connection and are usually in a small area or even in the same building. which would have a lower connection speed .


The MAN network usually exist to provide connectivity to local ISPs. For example a large university may have a network so large that it may be classified as a MAN. cable TV.This is a larger network that connects computer users in a particular geographic area or region.MAN Metropolitan area network . Australia have metropolitan area networks. or large corporations. Also large cities like London and Sydney. . It is far larger than a LAN and smaller than a WAN.


WAN Wide area network . . The Internet is an example of a worldwide public WAN. Most WANs exist to connect LANs that are not in the same geographical area.This is the largest network and can interconnect networks throughout the world and is not restricted to a geographical location.


ETHERNET     Dominant wired LAN technology cheap $20 for 100Mbs! first widely used LAN technology Simpler. cheaper than token LANs and ATM Kept up with speed race: 10 Mbps – 10 Gbps Ethernet sketch .

ETHERNET TOPOLOGIES Bus Topology: Shared All nodes connected to a wire Star Topology: All nodes connected to a central repeater .

Network Topologies

10Base5 – ThickNet < 500m

Controller Vampire Tap Bus Topology Transceiver


10Base2 – ThinNet < 200m

Controller Transceiver BNC T-Junction Bus Topology

ETHERNET CONNECTIVITY 10BaseT < 100m Controller Star Topology .

ETHERNET FRAME STRUCTURE Sending adapter encapsulates IP datagram (or other protocol packet) in Ethernet frame network layer Preamble:   7 bytes with pattern 10101010 followed by one byte with pattern 10101011 Used to synchronize receiver. sender clock rates (Manchester encoding) .

if error is detected. or with broadcast address (eg ARP packet). when ethernet frame arrives. kernel has to know it . CRC: checked at receiver. it passes data in frame to net-layer protocol ◦ otherwise. adapter discards frame   Type: multiple network layer protocols may be in use at the same time on the same machine. the frame is simply dropped .ETHERNET FRAME STRUCTURE  Addresses: 6 bytes ◦ if adapter receives frame with matching destination address.

5m apart Transceiver  Idle detection  Sends/Receives signal Repeater  Joins multiple Ethernet segments  < 5 repeaters between any two hosts < 1024 hosts .ETHERNET SPECIFICATIONS      Coaxial Cable  Up to 500m Taps  > 2.

ETHERNET MAC ALGORITHM  Sender/Transmitter  If line is idle (carrier sensed)  Send immediately  Send maximum of 1500B data (1527B total)  Wait 9.6 s before sending again  If line is busy (no carrier sense)  Wait until line becomes idle  Send immediately  If collision detected  Stop sending and jam signal  Try again later .

node A’s message has almost arrived Node B  Node A starts transmission at time 0 Node B starts transmission at time T How can we ensure that A knows about the collision? .ETHERNET MAC ALGORITHM Node A At time almost T.

• Each bit period is divided into two equal intervals.MANCHESTER ENCODING 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 • This is a return to zero (RTZ) signal. • Binary “0” -> Just opposite of the above. • Binary “1” -> High Voltage level in the first half and Low Voltage level in the second half. .

• If the bit value is “0” then there is a presence of a transition at the start of interval. . • One of the properties of this signal is that is self clocking.DIFFERENTIAL MANCHESTER ENCODING 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 • In each bit interval there is a transition of the level in the middle. • If the bit value is “1”. then there is absence of a transition at the start of interval.

.SWITCHED ETHERNET A simple example of switched Ethernet.

This type of network is sometimes called a desktop switched Ethernet. In the case of segments.    . the hub is replaced with a switching hub. Switched Ethernets are becoming very popular because they are an effective and convenient way to extend the bandwidth of existing Ethernets. In the case of individual hosts. the switch replaces the repeater and effectively gives the device full 10 Mbps bandwidth (or 100 Mbps for Fast Ethernet) to the rest of the network.Switched Ethernet  An Ethernet LAN that uses switches to connect individual hosts or segments.

How to achieve 100 Mbps capacity?


Data Link Layer

Convergence Sublayer


Media Independent Interface Media Dependent Sublayer

Physical Layer

Media Independent Interface provides three choices.


Fast ethernet uses fiber distributed data interface(FDDI)
   

100 Mbps data rate Distances of up to 200 km Up to 1000 hosts attached Based on fiber optic cabling


 

Provides speeds of 1000 Mbps (i.e., one billion bits per second capacity) for half-duplex and full-duplex operation. Uses Ethernet frame format and MAC technology
◦ CSMA/CD access method with support for one repeater per collision domain.

◦ Backward compatible with 10 BASE-T and 100 BASE-T.
  

Uses 802.3 full-duplex Ethernet technology. Uses 802.3x flow control. All Gigabit Ethernet configurations are point-to-point!

long wavelength copper .short wavelength fiber .shielded twisted pair copper .GIGABIT ETHERNET TECHNOLOGY Gigabit Ethernet cabling.unshielded twisted pair . 1000 BASE SX 1000 BASE LX 1000 BASE CX 1000 BASE T fiber .

GIGABIT ETHERNET (1000 BASE-T) LLC MAC Data Link Layer GMII Gigabit Media Independent Interface Physical Layer Media Dependent Interface Medium .

GIGABIT ETHERNET (a) A two-station Ethernet. . (b) A multistation Ethernet.

for wireless local area network.11 group of standards specify the technologies for wireless LANs.11 standards use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA (carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance) for path sharing and include an encryption method . The IEEE 802. 802. for local area wireless network) is one in which a mobile user can connect to a local area network (LAN) through a wireless(radio) connection. sometimes referred to as LAWN.WIRELESS LAN   A wireless LAN (or WLAN.

11 MAC Sub layer Protocol The 802.11 Frame Structure Services .11 Physical Layer The 802.WIRELESS LANS      The 802.11 Protocol Stack The 802.

11 protocol stack.THE 802. .11 PROTOCOL STACK Part of the 802.

speed upto 1-2 mbps – signal which is used in cordless telephones which does not require licensing. They are      Infrared . FHSS(frequency hopping spread spectrum) & DSSS(direct sequence spread spectrum) .Wireless LAN uses different parts of the spectrum. .another version of OFDM – speed upto 54 mbps at a different frequency band.speed upto 11 mbps OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) .signal which is used in TV remote control. HRDSSS(high rate DSSS) . OFDM(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) .speed upto 1 mbps .speed upto 54 mbps.

THE 802. (b) The exposed station problem.11 MAC SUBLAYER PROTOCOL (a) The hidden station problem. .

station C is transmitting to station B.  . it will not hear anything and falsely conclude that it may now start transmitting to B. it falsely concludes that it may not send to C. When it hears a transmission. B wants to send to C so it listens to the channel.THE 802. The exposed station problem – In fig(b).11 MAC SUBLAYER PROTOCOL  The hidden station problem – In fig(a).If A senses the channel. even though A may be transmitting to D(not shown).

requiring all stations to contend for the channel for each packet transmitted. Data frames are used for the transmission of data during the CP and CFP.control and data The management frames is used for station association and disassociation with the AP.11 three different types of frames: management . for positive acknowledgments during the CP. Control frames is used for handshaking during the CP. and authentication and deauthentication. and to end the CFP. frame formatting. error checking and fragmentation and reassembly The transmission mode can operate in the contention mode exclusively. protocol data unit(PDU) addressing. and can be combined with polling and acknowledgments during the CFP. The MAC sub layer is responsible for the channel allocation procedures. timing and synchronization.      . IEEE 802.


11 MAC SUBLAYER PROTOCOL Once A received CTS it A wants to transmit starts to send frame and to B starts an ACK timer B transmits ACK frame saying that frame arrived intact C in range of A D in range of B but not A The use of virtual channel sensing using CSMA/CA.THE 802. If A’s ACK timer times out before receipt of ACK frame from B the whole protocol needs to be repeated .

11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802.11 data frame. RTS etc .THE 802. Protocol version: Allows 2 versions of the protocol to operate in the same cell Frame Type: Data Control Management Subtype: CTS.

e. Ethernet Cell 1 Cell 3 Base stations Cell 2 Outside world .THE 802. I.11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802. To & From DS: Indicates if the frame is going to or coming from the intercell distribution systems.11 data frame.

Power management .11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802.THE 802. MF : More Fragments of a Frame to follow Marks the retransmission of an earlier frame Pwr: used by base station to send station into and out of sleep state: I.11 data frame.e.

THE 802.11 data frame. Sender has more frames to follow Specifies that frame body has been encrypted: WEP: Wired Equivalent Privacy Indicates if frames must be processed in ORDER .11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802.

Sequence: allows fragments to be numbered 12 bits identify frame 4 bits identify fragment How long the frame and acknowledgement will occupy the channel Source & destination addresses + CELL source & destination addresses .11 data frame.THE 802.11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802.

11 FRAME STRUCTURE The 802.THE 802.11 data frame Data payload: up to 2312 bytes Checksum .

11 SERVICES Distribution Services • • • • • Association Disassociation Reassociation Mobile stations OR base station breaks relationship Station: before shutting down or leaving Base station: going down for maintenance Allows mobile station to switch base stations i. from within cell from outside of cell Handles translation from 802.e.e.802. move from one cell to another Determines how to route frames sent to base station Distribution Integration i.11 format to format required for destination network .

802.11 SERVICES Single Cell Once accepted by Base station mobile station must authenticate itself – prove it belongs to the network Base station send a challenge frame: see if mobile station knows secret key (password) Mobile station returns the challenge frame encrypted using the key Intracell Services Authentication Deauthentication • • Privacy Data Delivery Mobile breaks connection and will need to authenticate again if it wants back into the network Encryption & Decryption RC4 algorithm Higher layers must deal with detecting and correcting errors .

Piconets contain a minimum of two and a maximum of eight Bluetooth peer devices.BLUETOOTH     Bluetooth is a specification for the use of low-power radio communications to wirelessly link phones. computers and other network devices over short distances. Bluetooth technology was designed primarily to support simple wireless networking of personal consumer devices and peripherals. PDAs. Wireless signals transmitted with Bluetooth cover short distances. and wireless headsets. Bluetooth networks feature a dynamic topology called a piconet or PAN. typically up to 30 feet (10 meters). Devices communicate using protocols that are part of the Bluetooth Specification. . including cell phones. Bluetooth devices generally communicate at less than 1 Mbps.

.BLUETOOTH ARCHITECTURE Two piconets can be connected to form a scatter net.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY  Radio Designation ◦ ◦ Connected radios can be master or slave Radios are symmetric (same radio can be master or slave) Master can connect to seven simultaneous or 200+ active slaves per piconet Each piconet has maximum capacity (1 MSPS)  Unique hopping pattern/ID S M sb P P M  Piconet ◦ S P sb S S ◦  Scatter net ◦ High capacity system  Minimal impact with up to 10 piconets within range Radios can share piconets! ◦ .

BLUETOOTH APPLICATIONS The Bluetooth profiles. .

15 version of the Bluetooth protocol architecture. .THE BLUETOOTH PROTOCOL STACK The 802.

Next. authentication & quality of service. telephony. Next. service discovery. physical radio layer deals with radio transmission and modulation. Link Manager handles the establishment of logical channels between devices including power management. . middleware layer is designed to deal with legacy devices such as Rfcomm.     In the above fig. Next. baseband layer deals with time slots and how these slots are grouped into frames. Last. is the application layer which make use of the protocols ij lower layers to get their work done.

.THE BLUETOOTH FRAME STRUCTURE A typical Bluetooth data frame.

Type means it tells the type of frame-ACL(asynchronous connectionless) or SCO(synchronous connection oriented) The flow bit is asserted by a slave when the buffer is full and cannot receive any more data. the format is the same except that data field is 240 bits. Within the header the Address field identifies which of the eight active devices the frame is intended for. The frame structure begins with an access code that usually identifies the master so that slaves within radio of two masters can tell which traffic is for them. The acknowledgment bit is used for piggyback an ACK onto a frame  The sequence bit is used for number the frames to detect retransmissions. The 54-bit header contains typical MAC sub layer fields       The data field which is up to 2744 bits for a single time slot. .

They understand volts.Repeaters do not understand frames.we find the ―repeaters‖.in the physical layer.A signal appearing on one of them is amplified and put out on the other.Network devices REPEATER: At the bottom.packets. .These are analog devices that are connected to two table segments.or headers.

HUBs differ from repeaters in that they do not usually amplify the incoming signals and are designed to hold multiple linecards each with multiple inputs.but the differences are slight. .Hub A HUB has number of input lines that it joins electrically.

Bridge We find bridges and switches in datalink layer. .When frame arrives.software in the bridge extracts the destination address from the frame header and looks it up in a table to see where to send the frame .A bridge connects two or more LANs .

Switch  A network switch is a computer networking device that connects network segments. .

Router  It is a device like a switch that connects more networks or computers and which has inbuilt software to find the routes & their shortest paths. .

Application gateways understand the format and contents of the data and translate messages from one format to another.Gateway These connect two computers that use different connection oriented transport protocols. .

Bridge .

Spanning tree Bridge .

Remote Bridge .

bridge acts as a mediator between two different networks 802. It takes the request from one network/segment and passes to other network/segment and performs the data transmission. In fig 4.3 and performs data transmission. PORTS A E B F BRIDGE C D G H .40.11 & 802.BRIDGE Bridge is a network device which is used to join two small & different networks or it is used to divide a big network into two segments.

there is no reason to forward the frame.the frame must be forwarded by the bridge. If A sends a frame to B .SELECTIVE FORWARDING A B BRIDGE E F C D G H   If A sends a frame to E . .

NETWORK LAYER • • • • • Network Layer Design Issues Store-and-Forward Packet Switching Services Provided to the Transport Layer Implementation of Connectionless Service Implementation of Connection-Oriented Service Comparison of Virtual-Circuit and Datagram Subnets .

A device when it gets a data packet from source. it stores and acquire the route and it forwards to the destination. .Store-and-Forward Packet Switching Switching refers to the transmission of packets from h1 to h2 passing through different network devices.

.IMPLEMENTATION OF CONNECTIONLESS SERVICE Here we will not have a dedicated channel from H1 to H2 . Data packets will be transmitted in the available & shortest routes.

. Data packets will be transmitted in the same dedicated channel.IMPLEMENTATION OF CONNECTION-ORIENTED SERVICE Here we will have a dedicated channel from H1 to H2 .


ROUTING ALGORITHMS • • • • • • • • • • The Optimality Principle Shortest Path Routing Flooding Distance Vector Routing Link State Routing Hierarchical Routing Broadcast Routing Multicast Routing Routing for Mobile Hosts Routing in Ad Hoc Networks .

(b) A sink tree for router B. then the optimal path from j to k also falls along the same route. . F->A->B best path =>A->B best path Optimal routes from all sources to a destination form a tree rooted at the destination a) A subnet.THE OPTIMALITY PRINCIPLE Optimality principle: if router j is on the optimal path from router I to router k.

FH) will be taken as it is lesser(shortest path). Here we can reach H from E through (EF.But the route (EF.H is the shortest route. Start from A and go to B as the AB is smaller than AB(2) and AG(6). go to E. then to G.GH).B. From B.E.F.SHORTEST PATH ROUTING (DİJKSTRA)     Here we need to find the shortest route from A to H. . FH) or (EG. Hence A.

FLOODING             Another static routing algorithm is flooding: Every incoming packet is sent out on every outgoing line except the one it arrived on. A packet is discarded when it contains a sequence number which is in the list. Selective flooding: an incoming packet is sent on those lines that are going approximately in the right direction. Measures for damming the flood: A hop counter is included in the header of each packet. Random walk: an incoming packet is sent on a line at random. Possible applications of flooding: In military applications. A packet is discarded when the counter reaches zero. to withstand large numbers of routers crashes at any instant. Each router maintains a list per source router telling which sequence numbers originating at that source have already been seen. . A sequence number is included in each packet. As a metric (always choose the shortest path) against which other routing algorithms can be compared. which is decremented at each hop.

H. and the new routing table for J. I. K. .DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING (a) A subnet. (b) Input from A.

from A to A .i.KG). Internet (RIP). Example – In fig(b). with one entry for each other router in the subnet.IG – 10+31). A to B -12.HG – 12+6) & (JK. Then at a particular moment of time the available routes are (JA.The delay vectors for (JA.IG). (JH. Each router maintains a routing table. and Cisco routers. queue length. Each router periodically exchanges explicit routing information with each of its neighbors. etc.HG) & (JK. and the estimation of the delay time (or number of hops.DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING    Used by ARPANET.AG).KG – 6+31). Novell (IPX).  .) to that destination. AppleTalk.     Now suppose we want to transmit packet from J to G. A to C . Each entry contains two parts: the preferred outgoing line for that destination. (JH. DECnet.(JI.(JI.HG -12+6) is the shortest path where we can transmit packet with less delay .AG . It shows the delay(time) vectors from station A to all other stations.0.8+18). distance.e. From the above we can say that (JH.25 etc. Each router knows the ―distance‖ to each of its neighbors and updates its routing table based on the routing information from its neighbors.

Then it thinks that it can reach A through C i.C.E are 1.D.2. Lastly if C to A is 4.4.e. . distance vectors from A to B.THE COUNT-TO-INFINITY PROBLEM A comes up: Good news spreads fast A goes down: Bad news spreads slow Example In fig(b). Then now C will modify its distance vector as (CB+CA = 1+3 = 4). Now AB is marked as the 3 which is the latest distance vector.3. (BC+CA – 1+2 = 3). B cannot reach A directly. suddenly if A fails. then B will modify it as (BC+CA = 1+4 = 5)… Like this the process goes on to infinity modifying the distance vectors.

LINK STATE ROUTING Distance vector routing was used in the ARPANET until 1979. Each router must do the following: Discover its neighbors. Construct a packet telling all it has just learned. 4. Compute the shortest path to every other router. 5. 1. learn their network address. Measure the delay or cost to each of its neighbors. 3. . 2. when it was replaced by link state routing. Send this packet to all other routers.

it sends a HELLO packet to each outgoing line and all the routers in the LAN respond back telling its system details.LEARNING ABOUT THE NEIGHBOURS When a router is booted. a Router can trace its neighbours. . Like this. (b) A graph model of (a). (a) Nine routers and a LAN.

even for better results. the test can be conducted several times and the average can be used. we can get the delay.MEASURING LINE COST The most direct way to determine this delay is to send over the line a special echo packet that the other side is required to send back immediately. By measuring the Round-trip time and dividing by two. . A subnet in which the East and West parts are connected by two lines.

(b) The link state packets for this subnet.BUILDING LINK STATE PACKETS Once the information needed for the exchange has been collected. (a) A subnet. the next step is for each router to build a packet containing all the data as below in fig(b). .

Run Dijkstra’s algorithm to know the shortest routes to all the destinations. than previous will be recorded. and decrement it per second. no.no.   Sequence numbers or router records of them can get corrupt. Flooding ◦ Each router records the (source. Once all the process is over. Lastly.DİSTRİBUTİNG THE LİNK STATE PACKETS  The link state packets of previous phase will be distributed in the network. ◦ Include age after seq. seq. Discard packets with age zero.) ◦ Only flood and record packets from a source with higher seq. Then the routers getting the first ones will change their routes. no. .


1B. for maintaining routing tables. some set of routers in the network are grouped as a Region. 1A router of region1 will not know about 2A router of region2.e. CPU time. all the routers will have the complete information about all the other routers and how to route their packets in the same region.HIERARCHICAL ROUTING To save the memory. i.e. hierarchical routing is used when the number of routers in the network is very large. In a region.i. But a router of region1 will not have any details about router of region2.1A. In the above fig(a). . and network bandwidth.1C of region1 will know about each other.

 Sink tree/spanning tree: Copy on all the spanning tree lines except the one packet arrived from. we know the list of destinations or by using bitmap.if any packet arrives.  Reverse path forwarding: From a router. Then we determine the list of output lines for the destinations. . • The last three methods are BW efficient. the packet is discarded as a likely duplicate. it will check whether packets are meant to be sent to the source.Each node copies the packet to all outgoing lines  Multidestination routing – first.BROADCAST ROUTİNG • Broadcasting packets can be done in five ways  Send a distinct packet to each destination  Flooding . Then. the broadcast packet arrived on a line other than the preferred one for reaching the source.

.MULTICAST ROUTİNG This process will be done in two ways The packet can be broadcast to all the nodes in the network though it is not required to send to unintended recipients. all the destinations can be formed as a group and the packet can be sent to the group which is nothing but multicasting. Next.


Otherwise. mobile host will send a request packet for any foreign agent. ◦ When foreign agent gets positive acknowledgement from home agent. ◦ Then foreign agent contacts home agent with the given security information by the mobile host.ROUTING FOR MOBILE HOSTS Mobile host is a Laptop carrying by a person and if he want to read an e-mail and some Network need to identify him and help in the data transmission. then it will make entry of this mobile host in its table and performs the data transmission. Foreign agent – Foreign network. . Home agent – Home network  This will be done in a systematic process as follows(see fig above)  ◦ Basically each Foreign agent broadcasts a packet telling its existence. ◦ Then mobile host requests foreign agent by giving its home agent details. then it will permit foreign agent to carry on the transmission. ◦ If home agent feels ok with the foreign agent. then mobile host can request it.

ROUTING IN ADHOC NETWORKS No fixed router (base station). – No infrastructure. 2. A fleet of ships at sea. – The infrastructure destroyed. . Possibilities when the routers are mobile: 1. – All moving all the time Emergency works at earthquake . 4. – In an area lacking 802. -Dynamic topology. A gathering of people with notebook computers. 3. router and host are on the same mobile machine and network is a set of machines that communicate with their neighbors.11. validity of paths change spontaneously. Military vehicles on battlefield.

H. (B and D reject each other‘s broadcast)(d) After E. Connected by a line only if two nodes communicate directly (not necessarily in each other’s range) •(a) Range of A's broadcast. and I have received A's broadcast. and G have received A's broadcast. Shaded nodes are new recipients. •(c) After C. Arrows show possible reverse routes.(b) After B and D have received A's broadcast.ON DEMAND ROUTE DISCOVERY (AODV) Graph of nodes (router+host). F. .

broadcast ROUTE REQUEST . #) to destination is known. . make an entry in reverse route table and start a timer.ON DEMAND ROUTE DISCOVERY (AODV) ROUTE REQUEST packet processing (broadcast): -if (Source address. send back ROUTE REPLY -else increment Hop count. Seq.else discard packet and stop -if a fresh route (assessed by Dest. record pair .Request ID) is new.

. or route exists. #). if no such route exists. but new route is shorter (Hop Count) -nodes not on the reverse path erase their reverse route table entry after timer expires. route exists. Seq. but is old (Dest.ON DEMAND ROUTE DISCOVERY (AODV) Lifetime: how long the route is valid Hop count: how far away the destination is ROUTE REPLY packet processing at each intermediate node on the way back (unicast): -make an entry into forward routing table for a route to destination.

.ON DEMAND ROUTE DISCOVERY (AODV)    In order to limit traffic due to many broadcasts ROUTE REQUEST is sent in areas inside of increasingly wider rings..3... Enabled by setting time to live to 1 at first attempt and 2. at further attempts and decreasing time to live by one at each hop.

Purge destinations reached over that neighbor that is now unavailable Inform those active neighbors (users) that reach any such destination over that unavailable neighbor.ROUTE MAINTENANCE Discover which neighbors are no longer available by either periodically polling them or when no reply comes back for a packet sent. (b) The graph after G has gone down. . (a) D's routing table before G goes down.

and 12.NODE LOOKUP IN PEER-TO-PEER NETWORKS A set of 32 node identifiers arranged in a circle. 4. The labels on the arcs are the table indices . The shaded ones correspond to actual machines. The arcs show the fingers from nodes 1.

Congestion mainly occurs due to Insufficient memory. .CONGESTION When too many packets are present in the subnet. performance degrades. low bandwidth lines. slow processors.This situation is called ―congestion‖.

.CONGESTION PREVENTION POLICIES Policies that affect congestion.

CONGESTION CONTROL IN VIRTUAL-CIRCUIT SUBNETS In fig(a). there are two areas where congestion has taken place. In fig(b). . construct a new sink tree by just avoiding the congested devices and find the new shortest routes for data transmission.

e) Jitter control: For applications such as audio and video streaming.of course.as long as the transit time is constant. . d) Load Shedding: When none of the methods make the congestion disappear.CONGESTION CONTROL IN DATAGRAM SUBNETS Let us now turn to some approaches that can be used in datagram subnets.The variation in the packet arrival times is called ―jitter‖. b) Choke Packets:The router sends a choke packet back to the source host.it does not matter much if the packets take 20 msec or 30 msec to be delivered .It must take into account the speed_of_light transit time and the minimum delay through the routers and perhaps leave a little stack for some inevitable delays.routers can bring out the heavy artillery:‖load shedding‖.they just throw them away. c) Hop-by-Hop Choke Packets(see fig below): Here it tells the congestion status to the previous Hop and requests to reduce or stop the transmission.giving it the destination found in the packet. Load shedding is a fancy way of saying that when routers are being inundated by packets that they cannot handle. a) Warning Bit:The old DECNET architecture signaled the warning state by setting a special bit in the packet‘s header.The range chosen must be feasible .

HOP-BY-HOP CHOKE PACKETS (a) A choke packet that affects only the source. . (b) A choke packet that affects each hop it passes through.

starts with 110.e.00000000.00000000 Which is equivalent to 192.IP ADDRESS(IPV4) Here it contains five classes of addresses i.0 Then maximum value for the above address in binary is 110 11111.0.C.D. class A.E. Example: take class C.e.0.255.11111111 Which is equivalent to 223.B. 255.255 .00000000. IP address is divided into 4 segments. each 8 bit size i. 4 byte length The Range of values for any class are as below. Then minimum value for that address in binary is 110 00000.11111111.11111111.

THE IP PROTOCOL The IPv4 (Internet Protocol) header. .


  

It is the advancement to IPV4. These are 16 byte length addresses. The Header is simplified to 7 fields.

 

The Header fields are optional too.
It is a big advance in security. More attention is given for the quality of service.


To allow users to access the transport service,the transport layer must provide some operations to application programs,that is,a trasport service interface. Each transport service has its own interface.

There are 5 trasport primitives. 1.LISTEN 2.CONNECT 3.SEND 4.RECEIVE 5.DISCONNECT












CONNECT 6.LISTEN 4.RECEIVE 8.BERKELEY SOCKETS These are another set of transport primitives. There are 8 primitives.SEND 7.The socket primitives used in Berkeley UNIX for TCP.SOCKET 2.BIND 3.These primitives are widely used for internet programming.CLOSE .ACCEPT 5. 1.

4.CONNECT: This primitive blocks the caller and actively starts the connection process.BIND: Network addresses are assigned using the BIND primitive. 2.SOCKET: It creates a new end point and allocates table space for it with in the transport entity.the connection is released. . 8.CLOSE: When both sides have executed a CLOSE primitive.LISTEN: It allocates space to queue incoming calls for the case that several clients try to connect at the same time. 5.the server executes an ACCEPT primitive.ACCEPT: To block waiting for an incoming connection.SEND &RECEIVE: Both sides can now use SEND and RECV to transmit and receive data over the full_dulpex connection. 6&7.THE SOCKET PRIMITIVES FOR TCP 1. 3.

Those elements are the following. 1.In some ways .FLOW CONTROL AND BUFFERING 5.transport protocolos resemble the data link protocols. Both have to deal with error control.sequencing.CRASH RECOVERY .ADDRESSING.ELEMENTS OF TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS The transport service is implemented by a ―transport protocol‖ used between the two transport entities.MULTIPLEXING 6.CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT 3.flow control among other issues. 2.To perform these operations transport layer have some elements.CONNECTION RELEASE 4.

In the internet these end points are called PORTS.1.The method normally used is to define transport addresses to which process can listen for connection requests.it must specify which one to connect to.The analogous end points in the network layer are then called NSAPs.We will use the generic term TSAP(transport service access point). .ADDRESSING When an application process wishes to set up a connection to a remote application process.


and put in each TPDU.e. chosen by the initiating party.. including the one requesting the connection. Method 2: Each connection is assigned a connection identifier (i. we can be sure that all traces of it are gone. If we wait a time after a packet has been sent. store. is protocol-dependent.     How to deal with the problem of delayed duplicated and establish connections in a reliable way ? Method 1: use throwaway TSAP addresses. and duplicate packets.CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT The problem with establishing a connection occurs when the subnet can lose. . a sequence number incremented for each connection established). Method 3:   Let be some small multiple of the true maximum packet lifetime.

CR ACK No data Delivered After a Disconnect request HOST 1 DATA DATA DR HOST2 . . as shown in Fig.Abrupt disconnection with loss of data. Asymmetric release is abrupt and may result in data loss.CONNECTION RELEASE Releasing a connection is easier than establishing one.

    One way to avoid data loss is to use symmetric release. A more sophisticated release protocol is required to avoid data loss. says:``I am done. in which each direction is released independently of the other one. Goodbye. Are you done too ?'' If responds:``I am done too.'' .

a sliding window is needed on each connection to keep a fast transmitter from overrunning a slow receiver (the same as the data link layer). Instead.FLOW CONTROL AND BUFFERING     How connections are managed while they are in use ? For flow control. The receiver may not dedicate specific buffers to specific connections. When a TPDU comes in. if there is a free buffer available. a single buffer pool may be maintained for all connections. . otherwise it is discarded. the TPDU is accepted. The sender should always buffer outgoing TPDUs until they are acknowledged.

to allow the data to flow at maximum speed. it is better if the receiver dedicate a full window of buffers.. How large the buffer size should be ? TPDU 1 TPDU2 CHAINED FIXED SIZE BUFFERS TPDU3 TPDU4 CHAINED VARIABLE SIZED BUFFERS TPDU5 ONE LARGE SIZED CIRCULAR BUFFER . file transfers). for high-bandwidth traffic (e.g.  However.

 .MULTIPLEXING The reasons for multiplexing:  To share the price of a virtual circuit connection: mapping multiple transport connections to a single network connection (upward multiplexing).  To provide a high bandwidth: mapping a single transport connection to multiple network connections (downward multiplexing).


No matter how the sender and receiver are programmed. .CRASH RECOVERY    In case of a router crash. there are always situations where the protocol fails to recover properly. The crash can be recovered by retransmitting the lost ones. It is very difficulty to recover from a host crash. the two transport entities must exchange information after the crash to determine which TPDUs were received and which were not.


TCP provides its user (application layer) with the ability to transmit reliably a byte stream to a destination and allows for multiplexing multiple TCP connections within a transmitting or receiving host computer. . TCP was specifically designed to provide a reliable endto-end byte stream over an unreliable internet work.TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL(TCP) TCP is a connection oriented transport protocol designed to work in conjunction with IP.

. Port numbers below 1024 are called ―well_known ports‖ and are reserved for standard services.TCP SERVICE MODEL     TCP service is obtained by creating end points called ―SOCKETS‖. Each socket consists of a socket number and port number. A single daemon (called the inetd in Unix) waits on multiple ports for an incoming connection.



Indicates a byte offset from the current sequence number at which urgent data are to be found. Following the Header Length is an unused 6 bit field URG is the urgent pointer (set to 1 if used). PSH indicates PUSHed data. RST is used to reset the connection. Note that each byte is marked with sequence number. a request to the receiver to deliver the received data to the application and not buffer it. ACK bit is set to1 to indicate that the acknowledgment number is valid.     Sequence number is used to mark the first byte. The value 0 means don‘t use the acknowledgement number. A connection request will typically have SYN=1 and ACK=0. SYN is used to establish connections. Typically not used. acknowledgement number is the next byte that is expected.e. Header Length tells how many 32-bit words are in the header. connection reply carries SYN=1 and ACK=1      . i.

The options are typically used for some other information not included in the standard header fields. Checksum is used for error detection. The window size tells how many bytes may be sent starting at the byte acknowledged. Primarily this is used for flow control.    . Recall that TCP uses sliding window protocol.  FIN is used to teardown a connection. Such as options may include information on how much TCP payload a host is willing to receive and how much to back track during retransmissions.

a random sequence number and the ACK value set Host A sends a reply packet in a similar fashion as B.TCP CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT       Connections are established in TCP by means of the three-way handshake “Three-way handshake‖ synchronies both ends of a connection by enabling both sides to agree upon initial sequence numbers. Example-Host A starts a connection to host B. creates its own packet with SN bit on. . A sends a packet with a random initial sequence number and SYN bit set. . without the SYN bit. Host B receives the packet.


To release a connection.When both directions have been shutdown. When the FIN is acknowledged.TCP CONNECTION RELEASE Although TCP connections are fullduplex.the connection is released.either party can send a TCP segment as no more data to transmit.that direction is shut down for new data. . Each simplex connection is released independently of its sibling.to understand how connections are released it is best to think of them as a pair of simplex connections.

.an error is reported. Each connection starts in the CLOSED state. In each state certain events are legal.If some other event happens.some action may be taken.Connection release can be initiated by either side.When a legal event happens.When it is complete the state returns to CLOSED.TCP CONNECTION MANAGEMENT MODELING The steps required to establish and release connections can be represented using 11 states.It leaves that state when it does either a passive open or an active open. A connection is established and the state becomes ESTABLISHED.


TCP TIMER MANAGEMENT      TCP uses multiple timers to do its work. denoted by M RTT = a*RTT + (1-a)*M. 􀂉 Estimating round trip time (RTT): Record time from segment sent to ACK receipt. . typically a = 7/8. 􀂉 Problem: how long should be the timeout interval of the retransmission timer? 􀂉 Solution: dynamically adjust the timeout interval based on continuous measurements of network performance.The most imporant of these is the ―retransmission timer‖.


‖ It uses a third parameter.TCP CONGESTION CONTROL When the load offered to any network is more than it can handle.the ―threshold‖.and the congestion window is reset to one maximum segment.The internet is no exception.the threshold is set to half of the current congestion window .When a timeout occurs. .congestion builds up.Now let us look at the ―Internet congestion control algorithm.initially 64 KB.in addition to the receiver and congestion windows.

Threshold 5 0 Round-trip times 150 .TCP CONGESTION CONTROL 20 Congestion avoidance Congestion occurs 15 Congestion window 10 Slow start Fast recovery would cause a change here.

When a packet is lost on a wired network. How to make the correct decision on a timeout when the path from sender to receiver is heterogeneous? . the sender should speed up. the sender should slow down. When a packet is lost on a wireless network.WIRELESS TCP    • TCP congestion control algorithm leads to poor performance on a wireless network.


USER DATAGRAM PROTOCOL It is also fast compared to the use of TCP. the protocol allows individual packets to be dropped (with no retries) and UDP packets to be received in a different order than they were sent as dictated by the application. . To achieve higher performance. Moreover. since there is no connection establishment phase. UDP is the main alternative to TCP and one of the oldest network protocols in existence. UDP is important since RTP (Real time Transport Protocol) is supported over UDP.   UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a simple OSI transport layer protocol for client/server network applications based on Internet Protocol (IP). introduced in 1980. UDP is often used in videoconferencing applications or computer games specially tuned for real-time performance.

UDP PACKET FORMAT Figure 20: UDP Packet Format .

UDP checksums protect message data from tampering. The checksum value represents an encoding of the datagram data calculated first by the sender and later by the receiver. therefore. checksumming is optional as opposed to TCP where checksums are mandatory. As the header length is a fixed size.   . The UDP datagram size is a count of the total number of bytes contained in header and data sections. UDP port headers are two bytes long. valid UDP port numbers range from 0 to 65535. In UDP. UDP port numbers allow different applications to maintain their own channels for data similar to TCP. The size of datagrams varies depending on the operating environment but has a maximum of 65535 bytes. the UDP protocol detects a checksum calculation mismatch. this field effectively tracks the length of the variablesized data portion (sometimes called payload). Should an individual datagram be tampered with or get corrupted during transmission.

A datagram comprises one message unit. A UDP datagram header consists of four (4) fields of two bytes each: source port number destination port number datagram size checksum .      UDP Datagrams UDP network traffic is organized in the form of datagrams. The first eight (8) bytes of a datagram contain header information and the remaining bytes contain message data.

 

DNS allows the use of 'friendly names': names that are easier to read and memorize for humans. It is able to do mappings between these Domain names and IP-addresses. For instance:
◦ www.ietf.org => ◦ www.ns.nl =>

  

Many applications use DNS for user convenience (e.g. your Web-Browser). DNS uses a (world-wide) distributed database based on hierarchically structured domains. DNS is specified in RFC 1034 and RFC 1035.

DNS Resource Record
The resource record will be in this format Domain_name time_to_live class type value Domain_name - it tells the domain name time_to_live - the existance of record for 1day/hr/min Class – it is generally IN(internet information) Type – it denotes a Host/name server/mail server etc..

Value – it can be a number/domain name/Ascii string
Eg: www.yahoo.com 86400 IN NS


86400 IN MX



edu com mil





… nl … be … uk …





www.ietf.org domain host




Web page Retrieval ISP server DNS server client server Yahoo Web server .

yahoo. if it is found then that request will be passed onto the yahoo web server and the yahoo server will act on the request. then from there the request will be passed onto the ISP(eg .BSNL) server and from there it will be passed onto the DNS server. If address is not found in DNS then it will come back with empty response. respond back with the requested web page in the same path. process it.   .Web page Retrieval  In the above figure. takes the request of user and pass it onto the local server. Then DNS will search for that address. Then soon HTTP comes into picture.com in the address bar of browser(internet explorer)in his client system.   Then for eg: user has given www. a user (client) of a particular network makes a request for a web page.

e. The message can then be read at a later time. using the computer) at the time you send your message. it is usually stored in an electronic mailbox for the recipient to read later. . Each user normally has their individual mailbox. Electronic mailboxes are usually special files on a computer which can be accessed using various commands. This procedure is analogous to sending and receiving a letter. These messages usually consist of individual pieces of text which you can send to another computer user even if the other user is not logged in (i.E-MAIL     E-mail means or system for transmitting messages electronically (as between computers on a network) messages sent and received electronically through an e-mail system. When mail is received on a computer system.

k. and replying to messages.User agent   A user agent is normally a program that accepts a variety of commands for composing. Outlook. editing. e.    composing. Qmail . ―mail reader‖.a. Postfix. receiving.g. COMMON EMAIL PROTOCOLS  Sending Mail: ◦ SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) Servers include Sendmail. reading mail messages.Netscape Messenger. Eudora. Qmail Receiving Mail ◦ IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) ◦ POP3 (Post Office Protocol v3) Servers Include Dovecot.. elm. Courier. incoming messages stored on server. Exim. outgoing. Agent • a.

and deleted from the server. Listens on Port 110 (with Secure POP generally on port 995).Listens on port 143 (IMAP/SSL on port 993) Mail stays on the server.Retrieves messages from a mail server. multiple machines. Mail Client caches information locally Extremely useful for multiple users. Webmail. try to separate these two types of services  Outgoing Mail Server ◦ Should have some kind of authentication ◦ Queue messages when receiving server is unavailable ◦ Sends bounce message to sender after retrying delivery  Incoming Mail Server (or MX server) ◦ Receives incoming messages from the Internet ◦ Delivers message to a mailbox ◦ (Should never send a bounce)     POP3 .     IMAP .If ever configuring a mail server. etc Searches are done on the server .SMTP . Designed for use with dial-up connections when people were intermittently connected. Typically. messages are downloaded to your mail client.

WORLD WIDE WEB Components of world wide web HTTP  HTML  INTERNET  BROWSER  URL  .


The responding server—which stores or creates resources such as HTML files and images—may be called the origin server. The server is an application running on the computer hosting the web site. spider etc) on the computer used by an end-user. The client is an application (e.HTTP       HTTP – Hyper text transfer protocol It is a software which is used across web to take the Request of a client and pass it to the web server and come back with the Response with some set of rules. web browser. HTTP is a request/response standard as is typical in client-server computing.g. The client which submits HTTP requests is also referred to as the user agent. .

HTML      HTML is a language for describing web pages. it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages . HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language.

most notably the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support. and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.  The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services.  . linked by hyperlinks and URLs. business. academic.  It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources.INTERNET It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public.

which appeared in 1993. . a Web browser is a client program that uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to make requests of Web servers throughout the Internet on behalf of the browser user. graphical motions etc.BROWSER     A browser is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web. Microsoft followed with its Internet Explorer (IE). The first Web browser with a graphical use interface was Mosaic. images. A browser converts HTML source code(markup tags) to beautiful text. Many of the user interface features in Mosaic went into Netscape Navigator. Technically.

A URL is a type of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier. and a pathname.) . a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet. formerly called Universal Resource Identifier. a hierarchical description that specifies the location of a file in that computer. The URL contains the name of the protocol to be used to access the file resource. any file within that Web site can also be specified with a URL. However.URL    A common way to get to a Web site is to enter the URL of its home page file in your Web browser's address line.

The category is based on the time the contents of the document are determined. Static Documents Dynamic Documents   . dynamic.WEB DOCUMENTS  The documents in the WWW can be grouped into different categories: static.


there will be a provision for I/O. . correspondingly there will be a change in the output of the web page. We will give some input to the web page. When the web page is running.e.DYNAMIC DOCUMENT In a dynamic web page. i.





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