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ANTENNAS
Linear Wire Antennas
Infinitesimal dipole
Small Dipole / Short Dipole
Radiated Power from short dipole
Radiation resistance of short dipole
Infinitesimal dipole
Hertzian dipole
Hertzian dipole is an infinitesimal current
element I dl which does not exist in real life.
OR
Hertzian dipole is a short linear antenna
which, when radiating, is assumed to carry
constant current along its length
For power to get to an antenna it must be connected to a
transmission line.
To prevent standing waves from occurring within the line
and for maximum power transfer, the resistance of the
transmission line must be equal to the resistance of the
antenna.
The antenna resistance is termed radiation resistance.
This is defined as a fictitious resistance which would
dissipate as much power as an antenna in question is
radiating if it were connected to the same transmission
line.
If an antenna is radiating 100 W when drawing a current
of 2 A then its radiation resistance will be 25 ohm. (P=I
2
R).
Antenna resistance
Not all energy absorbed by an antenna is radiated.
Losses can occur within the antenna (imperfect dielectrics,
eddy currents etc), as such antenna efficiency is defined
Rr is the resistance of the antenna
Rl is resistance due to losses
l r
r
input
d transmitte
R R
R
P
P
+
= = q
Antenna resistance
Small Dipole
The length of a short dipole
10 50
ì ì
< < l
Small Dipole  Current Distribution:
Small Antenna:
Vector Magnetic Potential
A of a small dipole is exactly half of A of an infinitesimal dipole.
Small Antenna:
Electric & Magnetic Fields in Far Field
Directivity of short dipole is the same as those of the
infinitesimal dipole, because the normalized patterns of
both dipoles are the same.
Directivity of
Infinitesimal Dipole and Short Dipole:
Comparison
Infinitesimally Small Dipole
The radiated power
The radiation resistance
Short dipole
The radiated power is
four times less than that
of an infinitesimal dipole
the radiation resistance is
also four times less
compared to that of the
infinitesimal dipole
2
2
80

.

\

=
ì
t
l
R
r
2
2
2
40
o T
I
l
P

.

\

=
ì
t
FAR FIELD APPROXIMATION
FAR FIELD APPROXIMATION
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Current Distribution:
Assumptions: Antenna is center fed.
Current is min at the ends.
Current in a centerfed wire antenna has sinusoidal form with
nulls at the endpoints
I
o
is constant
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Radiated Field:
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Radiated Field:
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Radiated Field:
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Radiated Field:
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE
Radiated Field:
The fullwavelength dipole antenna is more directional than the shorter
quarterwavelength dipole antenna.
Larger antenna in general have increased directivity
The 1.5wavelength dipole pattern is also plotted in Figure 3. Note that
this pattern is maximum at approximately +45 and 45 degrees.
The dipole antenna is symmetric when viewed azimuthally; as a result
the radiation pattern is not a function of the azimuthal angle ø.
Hence, the dipole antenna is an example of an omnidirectional
antenna.
the Efield only has one vector component and consequently the
fields are linearly polarized.
3D Pattern
Normalized 3d radiation pattern for the 1wavelength dipole antenna
3D Pattern
Normalized 3D radiation
pattern for the 1.5
wavelength dipole
antenna
Linear Wire Antennas
Infinitesimal dipole Small Dipole / Short Dipole Radiated Power from short dipole
Radiation resistance of short dipole
Infinitesimal dipole .
OR Hertzian dipole is a short linear antenna which.Hertzian dipole Hertzian dipole is an infinitesimal current element I dl which does not exist in real life. when radiating. is assumed to carry constant current along its length .
. (P=I2R). The antenna resistance is termed radiation resistance. the resistance of the transmission line must be equal to the resistance of the antenna. To prevent standing waves from occurring within the line and for maximum power transfer. If an antenna is radiating 100 W when drawing a current of 2 A then its radiation resistance will be 25 ohm.Antenna resistance For power to get to an antenna it must be connected to a transmission line. This is defined as a fictitious resistance which would dissipate as much power as an antenna in question is radiating if it were connected to the same transmission line.
Antenna resistance Not all energy absorbed by an antenna is radiated. eddy currents etc). Losses can occur within the antenna (imperfect dielectrics. as such antenna efficiency is defined Ptransmitte d Rr Pinput Rr Rl Rr is the resistance of the antenna Rl is resistance due to losses .
Small Dipole The length of a short dipole 50 l 10 .
Small Dipole .Current Distribution: .
Small Antenna: Vector Magnetic Potential A of a small dipole is exactly half of A of an infinitesimal dipole. .
Small Antenna: Electric & Magnetic Fields in Far Field .
because the normalized patterns of both dipoles are the same.Directivity of Infinitesimal Dipole and Short Dipole: Directivity of short dipole is the same as those of the infinitesimal dipole. .
.
Comparison Infinitesimally Small Dipole Short dipole The radiated power l 2 PT 40 I o 2 2 The radiated power is four times less than that of an infinitesimal dipole The radiation resistance l Rr 80 2 2 the radiation resistance is also four times less compared to that of the infinitesimal dipole .
FAR FIELD APPROXIMATION .
FAR FIELD APPROXIMATION .
Current is min at the ends.FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Current Distribution: Io is constant Assumptions: Antenna is center fed. Current in a centerfed wire antenna has sinusoidal form with nulls at the endpoints .
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Radiated Field: .
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Radiated Field: .
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Radiated Field: .
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Radiated Field: .
FINITE LENGTH DIPOLE Radiated Field: .
.
.
5wavelength dipole pattern is also plotted in Figure 3. the dipole antenna is an example of an omnidirectional antenna. as a result the radiation pattern is not a function of the azimuthal angle ø. . Note that this pattern is maximum at approximately +45 and 45 degrees. the Efield only has one vector component and consequently the fields are linearly polarized. The fullwavelength dipole antenna is more directional than the shorter quarterwavelength dipole antenna. The dipole antenna is symmetric when viewed azimuthally. Hence. Larger antenna in general have increased directivity The 1.
.
.
3D Pattern Normalized 3d radiation pattern for the 1wavelength dipole antenna .
3D Pattern Normalized 3D radiation pattern for the 1.5wavelength dipole antenna .
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