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S. Hari Prasath 2009102025 B.E. Civil Engg.

(VI sem) CEG, Anna University

Quality and performance of concrete plays a key role for most of infrastructure Concrete- single largest manufactured material in the worldaccounts for more than 6 billion metric tons of materials annually Numerous advances in all areas of concrete Utilization of innovations remain outside routine practice Use of waste materials in construction is an issue of great importance Combination of waste glass, rubber particles with cement offers economically viable technology

Development of chemical admixtures has revolutionized concrete technology in last fifty years Use of air entraining admixtures, accelerators, retarders etc are commonly used Shrinkage reducing admixtures are rarely used for bridges and pavements Supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are routinely used

Use of recycled materials generated from transportation, industrial, municipal and mining processes is a issue of great importance As the useable sources for natural aggregates for concrete are depleted, utilization of these products will increase Utilization of fly ash and GGBS in concrete addresses this issue Replacement of portland cement by fly ash or GGBS reduces the volume of cement utilized This results in the decrease of CO2 emission Silica fume is also added in smaller quantities in concrete mixture

Use of mixed colour glass aggregates architectural applications Glass aggregates reactive material Inevitably results in a long term durability problem called Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) ASR gel, a product of this reaction, swells with the absorption of moisture Pressure generated sufficient to induce the development and propagation of fractures in concrete Need to solve for utilization of glass aggregate in concrete and long term damage due to ASR expansion has to be reduced

Adding silica fumes and other additives conventional method Several other approaches are also available Particle size of glass aggregates found to have a major influence on ASR expansion ASR surface area dependent phenomenon Expansion increases monotonically with aggregate fineness There exists a size at which maximum expansion occurs pessimum size

Type of glass significant effect on ASR expansion Various types of glass aggregates were tested Including soda line glass ( used in most beverage containers), Pyrex glass and fused silica Maximum expansions mortar bars made with different glass aggregate types differ by almost one order of magnitude Window glass, plate glass and windshield glass were found to cause negligible expansion Colour of glass are also important for this expansion Clear glass - most reactive Green glass can reduce expansion

Advantages

Toughness and ductility of RMC usually higher than that of regular concrete Makes it suitable for many applications Density of RMC lower than the density of regular concrete Comparing with other recycling methods such as using waste tires as fuel in cement plants, RMC makes a fully use of the high energy absorption feature of the rubber particles

Disadvantages

Strength is usually low Durability is not well understood

Low water-cement ratio increases the strength of rubber modified mortars 8% silica fume pre-treatment on the surface of rubber particles improves the properties of RMM Bond between rubber particles and concrete can be enhanced by increasing the electrostatic interactions and/or facilitating chemical bonding Rubber particles pretreated by coupling agents very effective to improve the mechanical properties of RMC PAAM, PVA and silane are some of the coupling agents Use of proper coupling agents to treat the surface of rubber particles is a promising technique

Made from slag powder and alkali component as main constituents Slag powder may be one or a mix of the following: blast furnace slag, phosphorous slag, titanium-containing slag, manganese slag, nickel slag Common alkali components are NaOH, Na2CO3, KOH Ions with strong ionic force formed during dissociation of alkali metal compound, promote the disintegration of slag powder and hydration of the ions, and then, such ions take part in the structure formation of cement paste, so the cement has properties of rapid hardening and early strength gain

Due to perfect pore structure, small total pore volume, proper distribution of pore diameters, dense structure and good bond of interface between cement and aggregate, the concrete with the strength of 20-120 Mpa can be obtained The concrete mix has a good workability with slump of 0-22 cm without water reducing agents It has a high hardening rate with low heat of hydration Concrete prepared from pozzolanic slag activated by alkali has excellent mechanical properties and durability It can lower the environmental load and increase the utilization rate of the slag due to low energy consumption without emission of CO2

Significant advances have been made in concrete technology Many of the innovations have been incorporated in routine practices Some of the examples were discussed Delivery and full implementation is a long term process and require several years of effort Researchers and implementation team need to continue to be involved in the technology transfer efforts with enthusiasm and confidence for a sustained period