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Emergency Response Procedures for Buildings: Concept and Practice

NM Adam Faculty of Engineering UPM Serdang

IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Buildings of high rise type is a vertical society comprising of hotels, shopping complex, university, taxi stand, bus station etc. Emergency Response and Planning comprises of two parts to manage an incident i.e. the response and management part (active) and the planning part (passive). Since September 2001, there is a paradigm shift to encompass life safety and property safety. The need for business continuity and safeguard reputation.2
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Since 9 September 2001 collapse of World Trade Center the definition of life safety has not changed but its rules has. UBBL 1984 before practice 80% life protection 20% property protection Now fire safety professionals and building insurers include disaster recovery and business continuity plan.
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Example: Proton City

Structural protection was given equal emphasis where the whole building including the roof structure was fully protected. The lake was created for additional water supply. External help from Bomba is small (full team of 18 men and far away). Proton City has to develop its own ERT.
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Special Risks in Buildings

Car parks, plant rooms for boilers and air handling equipment, communications and exchange rooms, switch gear rooms, standby generator plant (>72h), lift shafts and motor rooms, escalator machinery spaces, water treatment and purification plant, refrigeration and temperature control rooms and incineration plants (Torrance, 1998)
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Organizational assets

People People People World Class organization has

IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

The more established the routines, the more difficult to plan and implement change To improve is to change but to be perfect is to change often

Sir Winston Churchill

IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Organization cannot control external environment, but can control and manage response to the changes by shifting the mind set Organization that refuse to change face risk of being left behind e.g. Nokia Change management is a process, but not the end result. Leader must see change management as essential part of growth and development
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


People (Clients and personnel) Image (reputation) Business disruption i.e. continuity of business during and after emergency Financial implication (Can we absorb the loss?)


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Emergency Response Planning Instruction and training on self protection Family preparedness information Workplace emergency response team Employee crisis information line or email Train un-train re-train


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Be Knowledgeable

Fire Services Act 1988: obligation of owner to provide safe place to occupants and tenants Implications to owners for performance based fire safety protection OSHA 1994: ever improving conditions for workers, new trend in diseases, revision of standards New types of buildings: green, LEO, sustainability, environmentally friendly
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


ERP Formula

Management has to protect its people, image, reduce disruption and business implication when preparing the plan. The ERP plan is to help you manage the incident To facilitate external help to help you


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Preparing ERP Plan

The designer (group) must think of worst scenario e.g. long public holiday, water shortage, fire, explosion think 26 December or 26 October. Then think of ways to prevent the routes to disaster


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Route to Disaster

Worst events considered Routes to those events Time scale to lesser events Size of lesser events if their development is halted Relative likelihood of events Consequence of each event Identify ALARP
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Plant RISK evaluation

Quantity of hazardous materials (OSHA 1984) Location, properties of materials (MSDS) Special fire fighting procedures Special handling requirements Risk assessment o possible events Amount of hazardous materials which could be released, rate of release and its effects
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Know thy neighbours

Mutual aid group, so you can plan and design refuge areas, wind socks Update contact listings: neighbours, hospital, police, plumber, electrician, emergency requirements inventory list suppliers Find out alternative routes, build a ring road if necessary
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


New Features

Smart buildings require smart people to implement intelligent entry into buildings for security, bomba Biometric identification Too many cards/keys Designate logical place of assembly, refuge area if necessary Consider duplication of vital resources
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Protection of Resources

Destroyed plant can be rebuilt if and only if skill and knowledge required have been protected from unforeseeable damage, back up services, confidential data ERP must work at any time in all weather conditions


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Types of Emergency for Buildings

Natural: landslides, flash floods, lightning, tremor Manmade: chemical spill, communications failure, radiological accident, terrorism, stampede, structural failure, building collapse, static electricity


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Why Plan?

Safety or security? Strategy is doing things right the first time Strategy should be comprehensive Tactics practical and reliable Like preparing for the Olympics Post disaster require counseling for trauma cases
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007



SOP Standard operating procedure IAP incident action plan (fire, flash floods etc) ICS incident command system ERP emergency response planning Basics is an overall strategic and tactical plan for saving lives, controlling hazards and managing risks
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


ERP Development: First

ERP must be correct response to the incident and not to the cause of the incident Plan must be simple, clear, flexible and regularly tested against specific circumstances. All involved must understand their roles and functions to be built on routine arrangement, incorporated and integrated into corporate culture
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


ERP Development: Second

Emergency plan must be built on routine arrangement; those required to respond to any emergency to be involved in the planning process Any emergency management arrangement must be integrated into the organizational and institutionalized as corporate culture
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


ERP Development: Third

Effective planning must integrate the activities of different departments within the organization in order to achieve an efficient and timely response in case of emergency


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

ERP Development: Fourth

It is vital to establish Interplant Mutual Assistance Scheme (IMAS) Must know members capabilities and constraints


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007





IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Minimum ERP Components

Objectives, responsibility & authority, distribution of plan, emergency equipment and supplies, location of data/information, assessment of hazards, general procedure, notification procedures, evacuation procedure, containment procedure, special procedure, plant shut down, return to normal operations, training, documentation
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Requirements of Leader

Be responsible for proper leadership for team. Must delegate responsibility and learn to trust the person in the front line facing the danger The overall strategic emergency plan must have a clear mission statement from top management to be incorporated at the beginning of the plan and during appointment of planning team
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


MKN Directive 20

Systematic approach for interdisciplinary management Covers a wide area on land and populated areas Designate scope of work for each organization


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

MKN 20 Objectives

To reduce casualties and minimize damage to properties To prevent disaster from spreading To coordinate relief and rehabilitation to victims To preserve environment To immediately bring back the situation to normalcy
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007



Setting up ERT to become ears, eyes and limbs of organization Get registered as Volunteer fire fighters- ERT Jacket Deputy President to lead Training Upgrading ERP Plan through drills and drills Make sure IC becomes part of ERT team during drills Upgrade maintenance
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Case Studies: Car Park

Car park 200,000 at Sungai Wang shopping complex CO level 20-25 ppm Some discos has fresh air intake from car park C) 35 ppm WHO 9ppm for 24 hour exposure or 25 ppm for 8 hour exposure
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Case Studies: Hospital

High risk: chemicals, temporary sleeping area, patients hooked to gadgets, ICU treatment, sanity cases Takes 5 people to move one patient, refuge area more appropriate Sloping floors, special beds


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007

Case Studies: hotel

Five star hotels are better equipped with committed staff and financial support. Some hotel car parks are fitted with CO detector. Pay as you leave may become a disaster itself. Relevant authorities should consider this matter seriously. Basement car park may become a hazard if maintenance not properly conducted. Fool proof labeling required.
IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007


Thank you for giving me an opportunity to share some experience with you


IFE /IMDEMM Seminar April 2007