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Chapter 3


What is Matter
All living and non-living things on Earth are made up of matter. All living and non-living things which are made up of matter have mass and occupies space. If does not have mass and does not occupy space, it is not matter. For example heat, light, and sound.

States of Matter
Matter is made up of very small particles. The particles is discrete because there are spaces between them. These particles are completely separated from one another and there are spaces between them. Three states of matter

Solid Liquid Gas

Arrangement of particles Solid

Particles are arranged close to one another in an orderly manner, are compact and follow a pattern. Fixed shape and a defined volume Small spaces between particles Force of attraction is strong.

Arrangement of particles - Liquid

Particles are arranged loosely and are not orderly. Particles often collide with one another and do not follow a pattern. Wide space between particles. Follow the shape of the container but have definite volume Force of attraction is not as strong as compared to particles in solid.

Arrangement of particles Gas

Particles are widely separated from one another. A lot of space between particles enabled to be compressed. Do not have a fixed pattern. Fill up the container so it have no definite volume and follow the shape of the container. Force of attraction is very weak and can be ignored.

Movement of particles - Solid

The particles of a solid are held together by a strong forces of attraction. They are only free to vibrate about fixed positions and cannot move about freely. Particles contain very low kinetic energy.

Movement of particles - Liquid

The particles of a liquid still have considerable attraction. They can move more freely than those of a solid. This explain why liquid loses its shape. Particles in liquid move at random and sometimes collide with one another.

Movement of particles - Gas

Force of attraction between the particles are negligible. They have a complete freedom of movement. The particles move at random in quick motion and very often collide with one another. Particles contain high kinetic energy.

Brownian Motion

Refers to the random movement of particles in matter. Take place in liquids and gases. The particles move in a zig-zag motion in all direction. Does not take place in solid.


Have fixed mass

Occupy space

Arrangement of Particles




Packed close to each other

Loosely arranged

Widely separated

Movement of particles

Vibrate about fixed position

Fixed Fixed No No Very strong Low

Move at random in a group and sometimes collide

Fixed Follows the container Yes Very difficult Moderate Average

Move quickly at random and often collide

Changes Fills the whole container Diffuses in all direction Easily compressed Very weak High

Volume Shape Ability to flow Ability to be compressed Forces of attraction Kinetic energy content