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DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

Introduction

Raw data - Data recorded in the sequence in which there are collected and before they are processed or ranked. Array data - Raw data that is arranged in ascending or descending order.

Example 1 Quantitative raw data

Example 1 Qualitative raw data

Organizing and Graphing Qualitative Data Frequency Distributions/ Table Relative Frequency and Percentage Distribution Graphical Presentation of Qualitative Data Frequency Distributions / Table A frequency distribution for qualitative data lists all categories and the number of elements that belong to each of the categories. It exhibits the frequencies are distributed over various categories Also called a frequency distribution table or simply a frequency table.

The number of students who belong to a certain category is called the frequency of that category.

Relative Frequency and Percentage Distribution A relative frequency distribution is a listing of all categories along with their relative frequencies (given as proportions or percentages). It is commonplace to give the frequency and relative frequency distribution together. Calculating relative frequency and percentage of a category

Relative Frequency of a category = Frequency of that category Sum of all frequencies Percentage = (Relative Frequency)* 100

Example 3 A sample of UUM staff-owned vehicles produced by Proton was identified and the make of each noted. The resulting sample follows (W = Wira, Is = Iswara, Wj = Waja, St = Satria, P = Perdana, Sv = Savvy):

W Is Wj Wj St W W Is Sv W P W Wj W W Is Wj Sv Is W Is Is W P W P W W Sv St Is W W Wj St W Is Wj Wj P St W St W Wj Wj Wj W W Sv

Construct a frequency distribution table for these data with their relative frequency and percentage.

Solution: Frequency 19 Relative Frequency Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy Total

Solution: Frequency 19 8 Relative Frequency Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy Total

Solution: Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 Total 50 Relative Frequency Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy

Solution: Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 Total 50 Relative Frequency 19/50 = 0.38 Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy

Solution: Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 Total 50 0.16 Relative Frequency 19/50 = 0.38 Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy

0.38*100 = 38

Solution: Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 Total 50 0.16 0.08 0.16*100 = 16 Relative Frequency 19/50 = 0.38 Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy

0.38*100 = 38

Solution: Frequency 19 8 4 10 5 4 Total 50 0.16 0.08 0.20 0.10 0.08 1.00 0.16*100 = 16 0.08*100 = 8 0.20*100 = 20 0.10*100 = 10 0.08*100 = 8 100 Relative Frequency 19/50 = 0.38 Percentage (%) Category Wira Iswara Perdana Waja Satria Savvy

0.38*100 = 38

Graphical Presentation of Qualitative Data Bar Graphs A graph made of bars whose heights represent the frequencies of respective categories. Such a graph is most helpful when you have many categories to represent. Notice that a gap is inserted between each of the bars. It has => simple/ vertical bar chart => horizontal bar chart => component bar chart => multiple bar chart

Simple/ Vertical Bar Chart To construct a vertical bar chart, mark the various categories on the horizontal axis and mark the frequencies on the vertical axis Refer to Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2,

Figur e 2.1

Figur e 2.2

Horizontal Bar Chart To construct a horizontal bar chart, mark the various categories on the vertical axis and mark the frequencies on the horizontal axis. Example 4: Refer Example 3,

Figure 2.3

U M Staff-ow U ned Vehicles Produced B y Proton

Types of Vehicle Sav y v Satria W aja Perdan a Isw ara W ira 0 5 10 Frequency 15 20

Another example of horizontal bar chart: Figure 2.4

Figure 2.4: Number of students at Diversity College who are immigrants, by last country of permanent residence

Component Bar Chart To construct a component bar chart, all categories is in one bar and every bar is divided into components. The height of components should be tally with representative frequencies. Example 5 Suppose we want to illustrate the information below, representing the number of people participating in the activities offered by an outdoor pursuits centre during Jun of three consecutive years.

2004 Climbing Caving Walking Sailing Total 21 10 75 36 142 2005 34 12 85 36 167 2006 36 21 100 40 191

Solution: Figure 2.5

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 Year 2006 Number of participants

Multiple Bar Chart To construct a multiple bar chart, each bars that representative any categories are gathered in groups. The height of the bar represented the frequencies of categories. Useful for making comparisons (two or more values). Example 6: Refer example 5,

Figure 2.6

120 Number of participants 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 Year 2006 Climbing Caving Walking Sailing

Another example of horizontal bar chart: Figure 2.7

Pie Chart

A circle divided into portions that represent the relative frequencies or percentages of a population or a sample belonging to different categories. An alternative to the bar chart and useful for summarizing a single categorical variable if there are not too many categories. The chart makes it easy to compare relative sizes of each class/category.

The whole pie represents the total sample or population. The pie is divided into different portions that represent the different categories. To construct a pie chart, we multiply 360o by the relative frequency for each category to obtain the degree measure or size of the angle for the corresponding categories. Example 7 (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.8):

Figure 2.8

Example 8 (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.9):

Movie Genres Comedy Action Romance Drama Horror Foreign Science Fiction Frequency 54 36 28 28 22 16 16

200

Relative Frequency

0.27 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 1.00

Angle Size

360o

Example 8 (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.9):

Movie Genres Comedy Action Romance Drama Horror Foreign Science Fiction Frequency 54 36 28 28 22 16 16

200

Relative Frequency

0.27 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 1.00

Angle Size

360*0.27=97.2O

Example 8 (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.9):

Movie Genres Comedy Action Romance Drama Horror Foreign Science Fiction Frequency 54 36 28 28 22 16 16

200

Relative Frequency

0.27 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 1.00

Angle Size

360*0.27=97.2O 360*0.18=64.8O

Example 8 (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.9):

Movie Genres Comedy Action Romance Drama Horror Foreign Science Fiction Frequency 54 36 28 28 22 16 16

200

Relative Frequency

0.27 0.18 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.08 0.08 1.00

Angle Size

360*0.27=97.2O 360*0.18=64.8O 360*0.14=50.4O 360*0.14=50.4O 360*0.11=39.6O 360*0.08=28.8O 360*0.08=28.8O 360o

Figure 2.9

Line Graph/Time Series Graph A graph represents data that occur over a specific period time of time. Line graphs are more popular than all other graphs combined because their visual characteristics reveal data trends clearly and these graphs are easy to create. When analyzing the graph, look for a trend or pattern that occurs over the time period.

Example is the line ascending (indicating an increase over time) or descending (indicating a decrease over time). Another thing to look for is the slope, or steepness, of the line. A line that is steep over a specific time period indicates a rapid increase or decrease over that period. Two data sets can be compared on the same graph (called a compound time series graph) if two lines are used. Data collected on the same element for the same variable at different points in time or for different periods of time are called time series data.

A line graph is a visual comparison of how two variables shown on the x- and y-axesare related or vary with each other. It shows related information by drawing a continuous line between all the points on a grid. Line graphs compare two variables: one is plotted along the x-axis (horizontal) and the other along the y-axis (vertical). The y-axis in a line graph usually indicates quantity (e.g., RM, numbers of sales litres) or percentage, while the horizontal x-axis often measures units of time. As a result, the line graph is often viewed as a time series graph

Example 9

A transit manager wishes to use the following data for a presentation showing how Port Authority Transit ridership has changed over the years. Draw a time series graph for the data and summarize the findings. Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Ridership (in millions) 88.0 85.0 75.7 76.6 75.4

Solution:

89 Ridership (in millions) 87 85 83 81 79 77 75 1990 1991 1992 Year 1993 1994

The graph shows a decline in ridership through 1992 and then leveling off for the years 1993 and 1994.

Exercise 1 1.The following data show the method of payment by 16 customers in a supermarket checkout line. Here, C = cash, CK = check, CC = credit card, D = debit and O = other.

C CK CK CC CK D C CC CC C D CK O CK C CC

a.Construct a frequency distribution table. b.Calculate the relative frequencies and percentages for all categories. c.Draw a pie chart for the percentage distribution.

1.a). Frequency distribution table, relative frequencies, percentages and angle sizes of all categories.

Method of payment Cash Check Credit Card Debit Other Total Frequency, f 4 5 4 2 1 16 Relative frequency

0.2500 0.3125 0.2500 0.1250 0.0625 1

25.00 31.25 25.00 12.50 6.25 100 90 112.5 90 45 22.5 360

b). Pie Chart

6% 13% 25% Cash Check Credit Card Debit 25% Other 31%

Exercise 2: The frequency distribution table represents the sale of certain product in ZeeZee Company. Each of the products was given the frequency of the sales in certain period. Find the relative frequency and the percentage of each product. Then, construct a pie chart using the obtained information

1.a). Frequency distribution table, relative frequencies, percentages and angle sizes of all categories.

Type of Frequency product A B C D E Total 13 12 5 9 11 50 Relative Frequency

0.26 0.24 0.10 0.18 0.22 1.00

26 24 10 18 22 100 93.6 86.4 36.0 64.8 79.2 360

2.3 ORGANIZING AND GRAPHING QUANTITATIVE DATA 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 Stem and Leaf Display Frequency Distribution Relative Frequency and Percentage Distributions. Graphing Grouped Data Shapes of Histogram Cumulative Frequency Distributions.

Stem-and-Leaf Display

In stem and leaf display of quantitative data, each value is divided into two portions a stem and a leaf. Then the leaves for each stem are shown separately in a display. Gives the information of data pattern. Can detect which value frequently repeated.

Example 10 25 36 14 12 13 41 9 11 38 10 12 44 5 31 13 12 28 22 23 37 18 7 6 19

Solution:

0 1 2 3 4 9 5 2 0 7 6 2 3 1 2 4 3 8 9 2 8

5 3 8 6 1 7 1 4

Exercise 3: Queen Bakery is the famous shop that sell cake in Town J. The operation manager of Queen Bakery is interested to study about the time that customers queue before serve at the cashier counter. Below is data (in minute) for 20 customers. Construct a stem and leaf table. 5 1 8 1 3

3 10 7 15 16 10 2 9 3 12 6 11 16 14 8

Solution:

0 1 5 1 5 2 8 1 3 3 2 9 6 7 3 8 6 0 6 4 0 1

0 1

1 1 0 0

2 3 3 3 5 6 7 8 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 6

Frequency Distributions A frequency distribution for quantitative data list all the classes and the number of values that belong to each class. Data presented in form of frequency distribution are called grouped data.

The class boundary is given by the midpoint of the upper limit of one class and the lower limit of the next class. Also called real class limit. To find the midpoint of the upper limit of the first class and the lower limit of the second class, we divide the sum of these two limits by 2.

e.g.:

400 + 401 = 400.5 2

class boundary

Class Width (class size) Class width = Upper boundary Lower boundary e.g. : Width of the first class = 600.5 400.5 = 200

Class Midpoint or Mark

class midpoint or mark = Lower limit + Upper limit 2

e.g:

Midpoint of the 1st class = 401 + 600 = 500.5 2

Constructing Frequency Distribution Tables 1. To decide the number of classes, we used Sturges formula, which is c = 1 + 3.3 log n where c is the no. of classes n is the no. of observations in the data set. 2. Class width, This class width is rounded to a convenient number.

Largest value - Smallest value Number of classes Range i> c i>

3. Lower Limit of the First Class or the Starting Point Use the smallest value in the data set.

Example 11 The following data give the total home runs hit by all players of each of the 30 Major League Baseball teams during 2004 season

Solution: i. number of classes, c = 1 + 3.3log 30 = 1 + 3.3(1.48) = 5.89 6 classes ii. Class width, i

i> 242 135 6 = 17.8 18

Table 2.10 Frequency Distribution for Data of Table 2.9 Total Home Runs 135 152 153 170 171 188 189 206 207 224 225 242 IIII IIII II IIII IIII I III IIII Tally f 10 2 5 6 3 4

f = 30

Exercise 4: The followings data shows the information of serving time (in minutes) for 40 customers in a post office: 2.0 4.5 2.5 2.9 4.2 2.9 3.5 2.8 3.2 2.1 4.6 2.7 2.9 3.1 2.8 3.9 4.0 3.6 5.1 2.9 3.0 4.3 2.7 2.9 3.8 4.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 4.4 3.7 2.3 4.1 3.5 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.0 2.4

Solution: i. number of classes, c = 1 + 3.3log 40 = 1 + 5.29 = 6.29 6 classes ii. Class width, i

i>

5. 1 2. 0 6 = 0.52 0.6

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII I Tally II IIII IIII II I f 7 15 7 6 4 1

= 40

Relative Frequency and Percentage Distribution

Frequency of that class Re lative frequency of a class = Sum of all frequency f = f Percentage = (Re lative Frequency) *100

Example 12 (Refer example 11) Table 2.11: Relative Frequency and Percentage Distributions

Total Home Runs 135 152 153 170 171 188 189 206 207 224 225 242 Class Boundaries 134.5 less than 152.5 152.5 less than 170.5 170.5 less than 188.5 188.5 less than 206.5 206.5 less than 224.5 224.5 less than 242.5 Sum freq 10 2 5 6 3 4 30 Relative Frequency 0.3333 0.0667 0.1667 0.2 0.1 0.1333 1.0 % 33.33 6.67 16.67 20 10 13.33 100%

Exercise 5: Refer to exercise 4, construct the relative frequency for the data. f Time class Relative frequency 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 7 15 7 6 4 1 0.175 0.375 0.175 0.150 0.100 0.025

total

= 40

1.000

Graphing Grouped Data

Histograms

A histogram is a graph in which the class boundaries are marked on the horizontal axis and either the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percentages are marked on the vertical axis. The frequencies, relative frequencies or percentages are represented by the heights of the bars. In histogram, the bars are drawn adjacent to each other and there is a space between y axis and the first bar.

Example 13 (Refer example 11)

12 10 Frequency 8 6 4 2 0

134.5 152.5 170.5 188.5 206.5 224.5 242.5

Polygon

A graph formed by joining the midpoints of the tops of successive bars in a histogram with straight lines is called a polygon. Example 13

12 10

Frequency

8 6 4 2 0

Total hom runs e

For a very large data set, as the number of classes is increased (and the width of classes is decreased), the frequency polygon eventually becomes a smooth curve called a frequency distribution curve or simply a frequency curve.

Shape of Histogram Same as polygon. For a very large data set, as the number of classes is increased (and the width of classes is decreased), the frequency polygon eventually becomes a smooth curve called a frequency distribution curve or simply a frequency curve.

The most common of shapes are: (i) Symmetric

(ii) Right skewed and (iii) Left skewed

Cumulative Frequency Distributions A cumulative frequency distribution gives the total number of values that fall below the upper boundary of each class. Example 14: Using the frequency distribution of table 2.11,

Total Home Runs 135 152 153 170 171 188 189 206 207 224 225 242 Class Boundaries 134.5 less than 152.5 152.5 less than 170.5 170.5 less than 188.5 188.5 less than 206.5 206.5 less than 224.5 224.5 less than 242.5 freq 10 2 5 6 3 4 Cumulative Frequency 10 10+2=12 10+2+5=17 10+2+5+6=23 10+2+5+6+3=26 10+2+5+6+3+4=30

Ogive An ogive is a curve drawn for the cumulative frequency distribution by joining with straight lines the dots marked above the upper boundaries of classes at heights equal to the cumulative frequencies of respective classes. Two type of ogive: (i) ogive less than (ii) ogive greater than

First, build a table of cumulative frequency. Example 15 (Ogive Less Than)

Earnings (RM) 30 39 40 49 50 59 60 - 69 70 79 80 - 89 Total Number of students (f) 5 6 6 3 3 7 30 Earnings (RM) Less than 29.5 Less than 39.5 Less than 49.5 Less than 59.5 Less than 69.5 Less than 79.5 Less than 89.5 Cumulative Frequency (F) 0 5 11 17 20 23 30

O giv e Le ss T han

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Les s thanLes s than s thanLes s thanLes s than s thanLes s than Les Les 29.5 39.5 49.5 59.5 69.5 79.5 89.5 Ea rning (RM )

Cummulative Freq

Example 16 (Ogive Greater Than)

Earnings (RM) 30 39 40 49 50 59 60 - 69 70 79 80 - 89 Total Number of students (f) 5 6 6 3 3 7 30 Earnings (RM) More than 29.5 More than 39.5 More than 49.5 More than 59.5 More than 69.5 More than 79.5 More than 89.5 Cumulative Frequency (F) 30 25 19 13 10 7 0

O give G reate r T han

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 M ore M ore M ore M ore M ore M ore M ore than 29.5 than 39.5 than 49.5 than 59.5 than 69.5 than 79.5 than 89.5

Cummulative Freq

Exercise 6: Using the frequency table that you construct in exercise 4 and 5, build an ogive less than and ogive greater than for the table.

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1

total

= 40

Solution:(ogive less than)

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Cummulative frequency

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Cummulative frequency

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Cummulative frequency

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Less than 3.75 Less than 4.35 Less than 4.95 Less than 5.55 Cummulative frequency

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Less than 3.75 Less than 4.35 Less than 4.95 Less than 5.55 Cummulative frequency 0

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Less than 3.75 Less than 4.35 Less than 4.95 Less than 5.55 Cummulative frequency 0 7

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Less than 3.75 Less than 4.35 Less than 4.95 Less than 5.55 Cummulative frequency 0 7 22

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries Less than 1.95 Less than 2.55 Less than 3.15 Less than 3.75 Less than 4.35 Less than 4.95 Less than 5.55 Cummulative frequency 0 7 22 29 35 39 40

Solution:(ogive greater than)

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries More than 1.95 Cummulative frequency 40

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries More than 1.95 More than 2.45 Cummulative frequency 40 33

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries More than 1.95 More than 2.45 More than 3.15 Cummulative frequency 40 33 18

Solution:

Time class 2.0 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.0 5.5 f 7 15 7 6 4 1 Class boundries More than 1.95 More than 2.45 More than 3.15 More than 3.75 More than 4.35 More than 4.95 More than 5.55 Cummulative frequency 40 33 18 11 5 1 0

Amount ($) Number of Responses Cumulative frequency 0 99 100 199 200 299 300 399 400 499 500 999 2 2 6 9 4 2 25 23 2

Solution

Amount ($) 0 99 100 199 200 299 300 399 400 499 500 999 f 2 2 6 9 4 2 Class Boundaries More than -0,5 More than 99.5 More than 199.5 More than 299.5 More than 399.5 More than 499.5 More than 999.5 Cumulative frequency 25 23 21 15 6 2 0

O g iv e M o r e T h a n

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 M o re M o re M o re th a n -0 ,5 a n 9 9 .5 th a n th 1 9 9 .5 M o re th a n 2 9 9 .5 M o re th a n 3 9 9 .5 M o re th a n 4 9 9 .5 M o re th a n 9 9 9 .5

Cumulative freq

C la ss B o u n d a rie s

Box-Plot Describe the analyze data graphically using 5 measurement: smallest value, first quartile (K1), second quartile (median or K2), third quartile (K3) and largest value.

For symmetry data

Smallest value

K1

Median

K3

Largest value

Smallest value

K1

Median

K3

Largest value

K1 Smallest value Median K3 Largest value

Measures of Central Tendency Ungrouped Data (1) Mean (2) Median (3) Mode Group Data (1) Mean (2) Median (3) Mode

Ungrouped Data Mean Mean for population data: Mean for sample data: where:

x =

N

x x=

n

x=

the sum of all values N = the population size n = the sample size, = the population mean x = the sample mean

Example 17 The following data give the prices (rounded to thousand RM) of five homes sold recently in Sekayang. 158 189 265 127 191 Find the mean sale price for these homes. Solution: x x= n 158 + 189 + 265 + 127 +191 = Thus, these five homes were sold 5 for an average price of RM186 930 thousand @ RM186 000. = 5 = 186

Median Median is the value of the middle term in a data set that has been ranked in increasing order. Procedure for finding the Median Step 1: Rank the data set in increasing order. Step 2: Determine the depth (position or location) of the median.

D p o M d n= e th f e ia n+ 1 2

Example 19 Find the median for the following data: 10 5 19 8 3 Solution: (1)

(2)

Depth of M edian = = = n +1 2 5+ 1 2 3

19

(3)

Determine the value of the median Therefore the median is located in third position of the data set. 3 5 8 10 19 Hence, the Median for above data = 8

Example 20 Find the median for the following data: 10 5 19 8 Solution: (1) Rank the data in increasing order 3 5 8 10 15 (2) Determine the depth of the Median

D epth of M edian = = = n +1 2 6+ 1 2 3.5

3 19

15

Determine the value of the Median Therefore the median is located in the middle of 3rd position and 4th position of the data set.

8 +10 Median = = 9 2

Hence, the Median for the above data = 9 -The median gives the center of a histogram, with half of the data values to the left of (or, less than) the median and half to the right of (or, more than) the median. -The advantage of using the median is that it is not influenced by outliers.

Mode Mode is the value that occurs with the highest frequency in a data set. Example 21 1. What is the mode for given data? 77 69 74 81 71 68

74

73

2. What is the mode for given data? 77 69 68 74 81 71 68 74 73 Mode = 68 and 74: Bimodal A major shortcoming of the mode is that a data set may have none or may have more than one mode. One advantage of the mode is that it can be calculated for both kinds of data, quantitative and qualitative.

Grouped Data

1.Mean Mean for population data:

fx

N

fx n

Where

x=

the frequency of a class.

Example 22 The following table gives the frequency distribution of the number of orders received each day during the past 50 days at the office of a mail-order company. Calculate the mean. Number of order 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 f 4 12 20 14 n = 50

Solution: Because the data set includes only 50 days, it represents a sample. The value of fx is calculated in the following table: Number of order 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 f 4 12 20 14 n = 50 x 11 14 17 20 fx 44 168 340 280

fx

= 832

The value of mean sample is:

x= fx = n 832 =16.64 50

Thus, this mail-order company received an average of 16.64 orders per day during these 50 days

Exercise 8: A survey research company asks 100 people how many times they have been to the dentist in the last five years. Their grouped responses appear below.

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 What is the mean of the data? 16 25 48 11

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x fx

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 fx

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 12 fx

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 12 17 fx

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 12 17 fx 36

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 12 17 fx 36 175

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 x 2 7 12 17 fx 36 175 576 187

Solution:

Number of Visits 04 59 10 14 15 19 Total x 2 7 12 17 Number of Responses, f 16 25 48 11 100 fx 32 175 576 187 970

The value of mean sample is:

fx = fx x= n f

974 = 100 = 9.74

Thus, an average of times the people have been to the dentist in the last five years is 9.74

Median Step 1: Construct the cumulative frequency distribution. Step 2: Decide the class that contain the median. Class Median is the first class with the value of cumulative frequency is at least n/2. Step 3: Find the median by using the following formula:

Md n e ia =L + m n 2 -F i fm

Where: n = the total frequency F = the total frequency before class median i = the class width

fm

Lm

= the frequency of the class median = the lower boundary of the class median

Example 23 Based on the grouped data below, find the median: Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Solution: 1st Step: Construct the cumulative frequency distribution Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 Cumulative Frequency 8 22 34 43 50

n 50 = = 25 2 2 So, F = 22, Therefore,

fm

= 12,

Thus, 25 persons take less than 23 minutes to travel to work and another 25 persons take more than 23 minutes to travel to work.

n F i Median = Lm + 2 fm 50 22 10 = 20.5 + 2 12 = 23

Exercise 9: A survey research company asks 100 people how many times they have been to the dentist in the last five years. Their grouped responses appear below.

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 What is the median of the data? 16 25 48 11

Solution:

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 16 25 48 11 Cumulative frequency 16

Solution:

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 16 25 48 11 Cumulative frequency 16 41

Solution:

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 16 25 48 11 Cumulative frequency 16 41 89

Solution:

Number of Visits Number of Responses 04 59 10 14 15 19 16 25 48 11 Cumulative frequency 16 41 89 100

n 100 = = 50 2 2 Class median is the 3rd class

n F i Median = Lm + 2 fm 100 41 5 = 9.5 + 2 48 = 10.4375

Thus, 50 people take less than 10.4375 times to see the dentist and another 50 people take more than 10.4375 times to see the dentist in the last five years

Mode Mode is the value that has the highest frequency in a data set. For grouped data, class mode (or, modal class) is the class with the highest frequency. To find mode for grouped data, use the following formula

1 M ode =L mo + i 1+2

Where:

mode and the frequency of the class before the class mode

mode and the frequency of the class after the class mode i is the class width Lmo is the lower boundary of class mode

Example 24 Based on the grouped data below, find the mode Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Solution: Based on the table,

Lmo

= 10.5,

i

and i = 10

1 Mode = Lmo + 1 + 2

We can also obtain the mode by using the histogram;

Figure 2.19

Exercise 10: The following table gives the distribution of the shares price for ABC Company which was listed in BSKL in 2005. Price (RM) Frequency 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 5 14 25 7 6 3 Find the mode for this data using formula and histogram.

1 Mode = Lmo + + i 2 1 11 = 17.5 + 3 11 + 18 = 18.64

frequency

2 5 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 1 9 1 8 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 .5 1 1 .5 4 1 .5 7 2 .5 0 2 .5 3 2 .5 6 2 .5 9 c s bud s la s o n rie m d =1 .5 oe 8

Relationship among mean, median & mode

As discussed in previous topic, histogram or a frequency distribution curve can assume either skewed shape or symmetrical shape. Knowing the value of mean, median and mode can give us some idea about the shape of frequency curve.

Figure 2.20: Mean, median, and mode for a symmetric histogram and frequency distribution curve

Figure 2.21: Mean, median, and mode for a histogram and frequency distribution curve skewed to the right

Figure 2.22: Mean, median, and mode for a histogram and frequency distribution curve skewed to the left

Exercise 11: For the following situations, state whether it is symmetry, skewed to the right or skewed to the left.

Mean = 10, median = 15, mode = 20 Mean = 15, median = 10, mode = 7 Mean = 10, median = 10, mode = 11 Mean = 11, median = 12, mode = 12

Left skewed Right skewed Approx Symmetry Approx Symmetry

Dispersion Measurement The measures of central tendency such as mean, median and mode do not reveal the whole picture of the distribution of a data set. Two data sets with the same mean may have a completely different spreads. The variation among the values of observations for one data set may be much larger or smaller than for the other data set.

Ungrouped Data 1.Range RANGE = Largest value Smallest value Example 25: Find the range of production for this data set,

Solution: Range = Largest value Smallest value = 267 277 49 651 = 217 626 Disadvantages:

being influenced by outliers. Based on two values only. All other values in a data set are ignored.

Variance and Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is the most used measure of dispersion. A Standard Deviation value tells how closely the values of a data set clustered around the mean. Lower value of standard deviation indicates that the data set value are spread over relatively smaller range around the mean. Larger value of data set indicates that the data set value are spread over relatively larger around the mean (far from mean).

Standard deviation is obtained the positive root of the variance: Variance Standard Deviation

2

Population

=

2

( x)

N

2

=

s= s

2

Sample

s =

2

( x) x

2

n1

Example 26 Let x denote the total production (in unit) of company Company A B C D E Production 62 93 126 75 34

Solution: Company A B C D E Production (x) 62 93 126 75 34 1156 x2 3844 8649 15 876 5625 1156

=35150

s2 =

( x) n n -1 5

35150=

( 390 )

5 1 = 1182 . 50

s = 1182.50 = 34.3875

The properties of variance and standard deviation: The standard deviation is a measure of variation of all values from the mean. The value of the variance and the standard deviation are never negative. Also, larger values of variance or standard deviation indicate greater amounts of variation. The value of s can increase dramatically with the inclusion of one or more outliers.

Grouped Data Range = Upper bound of last class Lower bound of first class Class 41 50 51 60 61 70 71 80 81 90 91 - 100 Total Frequency 1 3 7 13 10 6 40

Upper bound of last class = 100.5 Lower bound of first class = 40.5 Range = 100.5 40.5 = 60

Variance and Standard Deviation Variance Standard Deviation

2

Population

2 =

fx

( fx )

N

=

2

Sample

s2 =

fx

( fx )

n

s= s

n 1

Example 27 Find the variance and standard deviation for the following data: No. of order 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 Total f 4 12 20 14 n = 50

Solutio n: No. of order 10 12 13 15 16 18 19 21 Total f 4 12 20 14 n = 50 x 11 14 17 20 fx 44 168 340 280 857 fx2 484 2352 5780 5600 14216

Variance, Standard Deviation,

s2 =

fx

( fx )

n

2

s = s 2 = 7.5820 = 2.75

50 50 1 = 7.5820 =

( 832 ) 14216

n 1

Thus, the standard deviation of the number of orders received at the office of this mail-order company during the past 50 days is 2.75.

Exercise 13: Refer to exercise 10, find the variance and standard deviation for the data.

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 224 x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 224 475 154 150 84 x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 224 475 154 150 84 1152 x2 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 224 475 154 150 84 1152 x2 169 256 361 484 625 784 fx2

Solution

Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Total f 5 14 25 7 6 3 60 x 13 16 19 22 25 28 fx 65 224 475 154 150 84 1152 x2 169 256 361 484 625 784 fx2 845 3584 9025 3388 3750 2352 22944

Variance

s =

2

fx 2

( fx )

n

s = s2 = 13.9932 = 3.7407

Relative Dispersion Measurement To compare two or more distribution that has different unit based on their dispersion OR To compare two or more distribution that has same unit but big different in their value of mean.

FORMULA

Exampl e 26

Given mean and standard deviation of monthly salary for two groups of worker who are working in ABC company- Group 1: 700 & 20 and Group 2 :1070 & 20. Find the CV for every group and determine which group is more dispersed.

Solution:

The monthly salary for group 1 worker is more dispersed compared to group 2.

MEASURE OF POSITION

QUARTILE INTERQUARTILE RANGE

Determines the position of a single value in relation to other values in a sample or a population data set. Quartiles Quartiles are three summary measures that divide ranked data set into four equal parts.

oThe 1st quartiles denoted as Q1

FORMULA

Depth of Q1 =

n +1 4

oThe 2nd quartiles median of a data set or Q2 oThe 3rd quartiles denoted as Q3

FORMULA

3( n + 1) Depth of Q 3 = 4

Exampl e 27 Table below lists the total revenue for the 11 top tourism company in Malaysia 109.7 79.4 79.9 89.3 121.2 76.4 80.2 98.0 103.5 86.8 82.1

Solution: Step 1: Arrange the data in increasing order 76.4 79.4 79.9 80.2 82.1 86.8 89.3 98.0 103.5 109.7 121.2 Step 2: Determine the depth for Q1 and Q3

Depth of Q1 = n + 1 11 + 1 = =3 4 4

3 ( 11 +1 ) 3( n + 1) Depth of Q 3 = = = 9 4 4

Step 3: Determine the Q1 and Q3 76.4 79.4 79.9 80.2 82.1 89.3 98.0 103.5 109.7 121.2 Q1 = 79.9 ; Q3 = 103.5 86.8

Interquartile Range The difference between the third quartile and the first quartile for a data set.

FORMULA

IQR = Q3

Q1

Exampl e 28 Table below list the total revenue for the 12 top tourism company in Malaysia 109.7 82.1 79.9 79.4 74.1 121.2 89.3 98.0 76.4 103.5 80.2 86.8

Solution: Step 1: Arrange the data in increasing order 74.1 76.4 79.4 79.9 80.2 82.1 86.8 89.3 98.0 103.5 109.7 121.2 Step 2: Determine the depth for Q1 and Q3

Depth of Q = 1

Depth of Q = 3

n +1 12 1 + = = 3. 25 4 4 3 (12 + ) 1 3(n +) 1 = = 4 4

975 .

Step 3: Determine the Q1 and Q3 74.1 76.4 79.4 79.9 80.2 98.0 103.5 109.7 121.2 82.1 86.8 89.3

Q1 = 79.4 + 0.25 (79.9 79.4) = 79.525 Q3 = 98.0 + 0.75 (103.5 98.0) = 102.125 Therefore, IQR = Q3 Q1 = 102.125 79.525 = 22.6

Quartile For Group Data

From Median, we can get Q1 and Q3 equation as follows:

FORMULA

n 4 - F Q1 = L Q1 + i f Q1

3n 4 -F Q3 = LQ 3+ i f Q3

Example: Find Q1 and Q3 for the following data Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency Cumulative Frequency 8 14 12 9 7

Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency Cumulative Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 8

Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency Cumulative Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 8 22

Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency Cumulative Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 8 22 34

Time to travel to work 1 10 11 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 Frequency Cumulative Frequency 8 14 12 9 7 8 22 34 43 50

Class Q

1

Therefore,

n 50 = = = 5 12 4 4

3n 3 ( 50 ) Class Q 3 = = = 37 5. 4 4 Class Q3 is the 4th class Therefore,

Exercise: Find Q1 and Q3 for the following data Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3

Answer: Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3 Cumulative freq

Answer: Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3 Cumulative freq 5

Answer: Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3 Cumulative freq 5 19

Answer: Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3 Cumulative freq 5 19 44

Answer: Price (RM) 12 14 15 17 18 20 21 23 24 26 27 - 29 Frequency 5 14 25 7 6 3 Cumulative freq 5 19 44 51 57 60

n 60 Class Q1 = = = 15 , Class Q1 is the 2nd class 4 4

Therefore,

3n 3(60) Class Q3 = = = 45 , Class Q3 is the 4th class 4 4

Therefore,

3n F i Q3 = Lq 3 + 4 f q3 45 44 = 20.5 + 3 7 = 20.9286

MEASURE OF SKEWNESS

To determine the skewness of data (symmetry, left skewed, right skewed) Also called Skewness Coefficient or Pearson Coefficient of Skewness

FORMULA

If Sk +ve right skewed If Sk -ve left skewed If Sk = 0 symmetry

The duration of cancer patient warded in Hospital Seberang Jaya recorded in a frequency distribution. From the record, the mean is 28 days, median is 25 days and mode is 23 days. Given the standard deviation is 4.2 days.

What is the type of distribution? Find the skewness coefficient

Example 32

Solution: This distribution is right skewed because the mean is the largest value

Sk = Mean - Mode 28 23 = = 11905 . s 4.2 OR 3 ( Mean - Median ) s = 3 ( 28 25 ) 4.2 = 21429 .

Sk =

EXERCISE

1. A student want to study a level of satisfaction toward a price of a product at Queen supermarket. She take a simple random of 100 customers and asked them whether they very satisfied, satisfied, not sure, not satisfied, or very not satisfied. State:

Population: All customers at Queen Supermarket Sample 100 customers at Queen Supermarket Variable satisfaction Type of variable Qualitative variable Data value

Very satisfied / satisfied / not sure, not satisfied / very not satisfied

Face tot face

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