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A. Matter - takes up space. 1. Elements
Pure chemical substances composed of atoms. 3 Examples? 3 109 elements named thus far
Periodic Table of Elements
Composed of 3 subatomic particles: 3 Protons 3 Neutrons 3 Electrons
Characteristics of Subatomic Particles
# protons in nucleus of an atom
(establishes identity of the atom)
Since most atoms are electrically neutral, atomic number indicates # of electrons as well.
# protons plus # neutrons in nucleus of an atom
How can we determine the number of neutrons in an atom? # neutrons = atomic mass - atomic # V Determine # neutrons in a carbon atom (atomic mass = 12; atomic # = 6). # neutrons = 12 - 6 = 6 Do all carbon atoms have the same number of protons? Do all carbon atoms have the same number of neutrons?
Atoms having the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Ex. Carbon isotopes 3 carbon 12 (12C) → 6 neutrons 3 carbon 13 (13C) → 7 neutrons 3 carbon 14 (14C) → 8 neutrons
Periodic table information on carbon:
Atomic mass given in table is average mass of all the element’s isotopes.
5. Chemical Bonds
Type of bond formed is determined by the number of valence electrons in the interacting atoms [octet rule]. a) Covalent bonds - atoms share electron pairs. 3 strongest type of bond 3 tend to form when atoms have 3, 4 or 5 valence electrons 3 can be nonpolar or polar
Nonpolar covalent bonds - electrons are shared equally between atoms. Ex. methane
Polar covalent bonds - electrons are drawn more strongly to 1 atom’s nucleus than the other. Form when less electronegative atoms bond with more highly electronegative atoms. Ex. water
b) Ionic bonds - form when oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other. 3 weaker than covalent bonds 3 atoms with 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons give up electrons to atoms with 7, 6 or 5 valence electrons 3 form salts Ex. NaCl
c) Hydrogen bonds - form when opposite charges on two molecules are attracted to each other. 3 weakest type of bond* Ex. DNA H 2O
3. Acids & Bases
Acids - add H+ to a solution. V Bases - remove H+ from solution. pH scale is measure of acidity/alkalinity based on H+ concentration.
C. Major Organic Molecules
Molecules that contain carbon in combination with hydrogen.
C, H & O [# C ≅ # O] 3 function to store energy & provide support 3 building blocks (monomers) are monosaccharides
sugars containing 3 - 7 carbons. 3 C, H, O ratio is 1:2:1
sugars composed of 2 monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis.
Other common disaccharides: maltose (seed sugar) & lactose (milk sugar).
carbohydrates made up of hundreds of monomers linked by dehydration synthesis.
C, H, O [# C >> # O] 3 do not dissolve in water Triglycerides (fats) 3 composed of glycerol linked to 3 fatty acid chains 3 function to cushion organs, as insulation & in long-term energy storage (adipose tissue).
bonded to a phosphate group 3 major component of cell membranes
Ex. Vitamin D, cortisone, estrogen & cholesterol
that have 4 interconnected carbon rings
acids combined with hydrocarbons 3 help waterproof fur, feathers, leaves & fruits
C, H, O, N, (S) 3 monomers are amino acids
Proteins have a 3-dimensional shape (conformation): V primary (1o) structure - amino acid
sequence of polypeptide chain
V V V
secondary (2o) structure - coiling &
folding produced by hydrogen bonds by interactions between R groups
tertiary (3o) structure - shape created quarternary (4o) structure - shape
created by interactions between two or more polypeptides
Examples: 3 antibodies 3 hemoglobin 3 insulin & glucagon 3 keratin 3 fibrin & thrombin 3 spider silk (strongest natural fiber known) 3 enzymes (maltase, pepsin, lipase)
4. Nucleic Acids
C, H, O, N, P 3 monomers are nucleotides
acid) 3 5-carbon sugar is deoxyribose 3 nitrogenous bases are A, G, C & T 3 double-stranded helix held together by hydrogen bonds 3 is the genetic material
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
ribose 3 nitrogenous bases are A, G, C & U 3 single-stranded 3 enables information in DNA to be expressed