Chapter 2

A. Matter - takes up space. 1. Elements
Pure chemical substances composed of atoms. 3 Examples? 3 109 elements named thus far

Periodic Table of Elements

2. Atom
Composed of 3 subatomic particles: 3 Protons 3 Neutrons 3 Electrons

Characteristics of Subatomic Particles

Atomic number
# protons in nucleus of an atom
(establishes identity of the atom)

Since most atoms are electrically neutral, atomic number indicates # of electrons as well.

Atomic mass
# protons plus # neutrons in nucleus of an atom

How can we determine the number of neutrons in an atom? # neutrons = atomic mass - atomic # V Determine # neutrons in a carbon atom (atomic mass = 12; atomic # = 6). # neutrons = 12 - 6 = 6 Do all carbon atoms have the same number of protons? Do all carbon atoms have the same number of neutrons?

Atoms having the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Ex. Carbon isotopes 3 carbon 12 (12C) → 6 neutrons 3 carbon 13 (13C) → 7 neutrons 3 carbon 14 (14C) → 8 neutrons

Periodic table information on carbon:

Atomic mass given in table is average mass of all the element’s isotopes.

5. Chemical Bonds
Type of bond formed is determined by the number of valence electrons in the interacting atoms [octet rule]. a) Covalent bonds - atoms share electron pairs. 3 strongest type of bond 3 tend to form when atoms have 3, 4 or 5 valence electrons 3 can be nonpolar or polar

Nonpolar covalent bonds - electrons are shared equally between atoms. Ex. methane

Polar covalent bonds - electrons are drawn more strongly to 1 atom’s nucleus than the other. Form when less electronegative atoms bond with more highly electronegative atoms. Ex. water

b) Ionic bonds - form when oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other. 3 weaker than covalent bonds 3 atoms with 1, 2 or 3 valence electrons give up electrons to atoms with 7, 6 or 5 valence electrons 3 form salts Ex. NaCl

c) Hydrogen bonds - form when opposite charges on two molecules are attracted to each other. 3 weakest type of bond* Ex. DNA H 2O

3. Acids & Bases
Acids - add H+ to a solution. V Bases - remove H+ from solution. pH scale is measure of acidity/alkalinity based on H+ concentration.

C. Major Organic Molecules
Molecules that contain carbon in combination with hydrogen.

1. Carbohydrates
3 contain

C, H & O [# C ≅ # O] 3 function to store energy & provide support 3 building blocks (monomers) are monosaccharides

3 simple

sugars containing 3 - 7 carbons. 3 C, H, O ratio is 1:2:1

3 simple

sugars composed of 2 monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis.

Other common disaccharides: maltose (seed sugar) & lactose (milk sugar).

3 complex

carbohydrates made up of hundreds of monomers linked by dehydration synthesis.

2. Lipids

C, H, O [# C >> # O] 3 do not dissolve in water Triglycerides (fats) 3 composed of glycerol linked to 3 fatty acid chains 3 function to cushion organs, as insulation & in long-term energy storage (adipose tissue).

3 contain

3 lipid

bonded to a phosphate group 3 major component of cell membranes


3 lipids

Ex. Vitamin D, cortisone, estrogen & cholesterol

that have 4 interconnected carbon rings

3 fatty

acids combined with hydrocarbons 3 help waterproof fur, feathers, leaves & fruits

3. Proteins
3 contain

C, H, O, N, (S) 3 monomers are amino acids

Proteins have a 3-dimensional shape (conformation): V primary (1o) structure - amino acid
sequence of polypeptide chain

secondary (2o) structure - coiling &
folding produced by hydrogen bonds by interactions between R groups

tertiary (3o) structure - shape created quarternary (4o) structure - shape
created by interactions between two or more polypeptides

Examples: 3 antibodies 3 hemoglobin 3 insulin & glucagon 3 keratin 3 fibrin & thrombin 3 spider silk (strongest natural fiber known) 3 enzymes (maltase, pepsin, lipase)

4. Nucleic Acids
3 contain

C, H, O, N, P 3 monomers are nucleotides

DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) 3 5-carbon sugar is deoxyribose 3 nitrogenous bases are A, G, C & T 3 double-stranded helix held together by hydrogen bonds 3 is the genetic material

RNA (ribonucleic acid)
3 5-carbon

ribose 3 nitrogenous bases are A, G, C & U 3 single-stranded 3 enables information in DNA to be expressed

sugar is