This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Section C1: Mammalian Reproduction
1. Human reproduction involves intricate anatomy and complex behavior 2. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis both involve meiosis but differ in three significant ways
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Human reproduction involves intricate anatomy and complex behavior
Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male. The mammalian male reproductive system includes the external genitalia and the internal reproductive organs
The scrotum and the penis are the external components of the reproductive system. The internal reproductive organs consist of the gonads (testes) that produce gametes (sperm cells) and hormones accessory sex glands that secrete products essential to sperm movement A set of ducts that carry the sperm and glandular secretion.
Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Male
Fig. Inc. 46.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .8 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education.
The scrotum is a fold of the body wall which aids the reproductive process in different ways: Testes develop in the abdomen and descend into the scrotum just before birth. . such as monotremes. and sperm maturation is interrupted between breeding seasons. This is important since sperms can not develop at normal body temperature. Some mammals whose body temperature is low enough to allow sperm maturation. the temperature is 2° C lower and sperm production can occur In many rodents. By having the testes hanging outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum. whales and elephants retain the testes within the abdominal cavity permanently. the testes are drawn back into the abdominal cavity.
Sperm pass from the seminiferous tubules into the tubules of the epididymis. Sperm form in seminiferous tubules. It takes 20 days for sperms to pass through the 6-m long tubules of each epididymis of a human male During this passage the sperm become motile and gain the ability to fertilize. . These tubules are the seminiferous tubules.Internal male reproductive organs are: The gonads or Testes (singular testis) are the male gonads. Leydig cells. highly coiled tubules surrounded by layers of connective tissue. scattered between seminiferous tubules produce testesterone and other androgens (male sex hormones).
Inc. 46.Fig..11 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .
through the vas deference which is a muscular duct running from epididymis and out of the scrotum around and behind the urinary bladder to the ejaculatory duct. The two ejaculatory ducts opens into the urethra. sperm are forced from the epididymis. Each ejaculatory duct forms by the joining of the vas deferens duct with the duct from the seminal vesicle. At ejaculation. . The urethra is the tube that: Drains both the excretory and reproductive systems Runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the tip of the penis.
fructose (provides energy for sperm) and prostaglandins (stimulates female uterine contractions to help move semen to the uterus Seminal vesicle secretion make up about 60% of the total semen volume. . These glands add their secretions to the semen (the fluid that is ejaculated): (1) A pair of seminal vesicle is located below and behind the bladder and empty into the ejaculatory duct Their secretion is thick.There are three sets of accessory glands associated with the male system. yellow and alkaline They secrete a fluid containing mucous. a coagulating enzyme (causes semen to coagulate after deposited in female).
resulting in reduced prostate activity and size. It secretes a thin. . milky fluid that contains anticoagulating enzymes. it is treated surgically or with drugs that inhibit gonadotropins.(2) The prostate gland is the largest of the semen-secreting glands: Surrounds the upper portion of the urethra and empties directly into it. Benign (noncancerous) enlargement of the prostate occurs in more than half of all men over the age of 40 and in virtually all men over 70. citrate (a sperm nutrient) and is slightly acidic. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer in men.
(3) The bulbourethral glands are a pair of small glands below the prostate that empty into the urethra at the base of the penis: It secretes a clear mucous before ejaculation The fluid neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the urethra. which help move the sperm up the uterus. prostaglandins in the semen stimulate contractions of the uterine muscles. • A man usually ejaculates about 2 – 5 ml of semen containing about 50–130 million sperm/ml. . •Once in the female reproductive tract. protecting the sperm and increasing their motility. •The semen is slightly alkaline and this neutralizes the acidic environment of the vagina. making it easier for uterine contractions to move it along. •When first ejaculated the semen coagulates. then anticoagulants liquefy the semen and the sperm begins swimming through the female tract.
.Viagra® ) and penile implant devices are available for men with nonreversible impotence due to nervous system. The penis of some mammals (rodents. The glans is covered by the prepuce which may be removed by circumcision.the glans penis is covered by thinner skin. and emotional problems: Several drugs (e.g. External structure of the penis is covered by a thick skin: The head of the penis. a reversible inability to achieve an erection can result from the consumption of alcohol and certain drugs.The human penis is composed of three layers of spongy erectile tissue. Temporary impotence. During sexual arousal the erectile tissue fills with blood from arteries. or circulatory problems. raccoons walruses ) possesses a baculum. a bone that helps stiffen the penis.
Inc. Reproductive Anatomy of the Human Female. Internal reproductive organs consist of a pair of gonads (ovaries) and a system of ducts and chambers. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. External reproductive structures consists of two sets of labia surrounding the clitoris and vaginal opening.. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . The role of the ducts and chambers are involved with gamete movement and embryo development .
. Inc.9 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. 46.Fig. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .
. . Each ovary contains follicles. the uterus. Attached by mesentery to. Located in the abdominal cavity and enclosed in a tough protective capsule.Fig.9 Ovaries are the female gonads. 46.
Follicles produce the primary female sex hormones: estrogens.. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. one follicle matures and releases its egg cell during each menstrual cycle. Starting at puberty and continuing to menopause. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . A woman is born with about 400. Follicle cells nourish and protect the developing egg cell. Inc.000 follicles. Each follicle consists of one egg cell surrounded by one or more layers of follicle cells. Only several hundred of which will release eggs during a female’s reproductive years.
. Inc. the egg is expelled from the follicle. 46. If the egg is not fertilized (pregnancy does not occur) the corpus luteum degenerates and a new follicle matures during the next cycle. Fig. Maintain the uterine lining during pregnancy. Secretes estrogens and progesterone. During ovulation. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . After ovulation the remaining follicular tissue develops into the corpus luteum.10 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education.
The uterus (or Womb) is a thick muscular organ that can expend during pregnancy to accommodate a 4 kg fetus. At ovulation the egg is expelled into the abdominal cavity near the funnel-shaped opening of the oviduct or fallopian tube. The cilia-lining the oviduct draws in the egg. Cilia convey the egg through the oviduct to the uterus. the Endometrium is richly supplied with blood vessels . The inner uterine lining .
the opens into the vagina. Vagina: thin-walled chamber that forms the birth canal and is the repository for sperm during copulation. .The remaining female reproductive structures are: Cervix: neck of the uterus.
Vestibule: Chamber-like area bordered by the 2 pairs of skin folds covering vaginal opening and the separate urethral opening. Bartholin’s glands are small glands located near the vaginal opening that secrete mucous into the vestibule during sexual arousal. Labia minora: The slender skin folds bordering the vestibule. Clitoris: bulb of erectile tissue found at the front edge of the vestibule. It is richly supplied with nerve endings and is one of the most sensitive points of sexual stimulation. It is covered by a prepuce. usually covers the vaginal opening from birth until ruptured by vigorous physical activity or sexual intercourse. Hymen: A vascularized membrane. The mucous facilitates intercourse by lubricating the vagina . Labia majora: A pair of thick . fatty ridges enclosing and protecting the labia minora and vestibule.
Consist of small sacs of epithelial tissue that secrete milk. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. and nipples are not connected to ducts. Are present in both males and females but normally function only in women. They are important to mammalian reproduction. the mammary glands are composed primarily of fatty (adipose) tissue. the low level of estrogen prevents the development of both the secretory apparatus and the fat deposits. In males. Inc. In nonlactating female mammal. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .. although not actually a part of the reproductive system. so male breasts remain small. Milk drains into a series of ducts opening at the nipple.Mammary glands.
A continuous and process in the adult male.Spermatogenesis and oogenesis both involve meiosis but differ in three significant ways Spermatogenesis is the production of mature sperm cells in adult males. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . spermatogonia begin to differentiate into primary spermatocyte which are diploid. Each ejaculation contains 100 – 650 million sperm. When the male matures. Both types of cells are diploid. Occurs in seminiferous tubules. Primary spermatocyte will pass through several stages before giving rise to mature spermatozoa: Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education. Inc.. Begins with the differentiation of primordial germ cells into spermatogonia in embryonic testes. The spermatogonia are located near the outer wall of the seminiferous tubules. They increase in number through repeated mitosis throughout development and early life.
Each primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis I to produce two haploid secondary spermatocytes. Thus. takes 65 to 75 days in the human male. During spermatogenesis. where they acquire motility. The process. the developing sperm are gradually pushed toward the center of the seminiferous tubule and make their way to epididymis. Each secondary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis II to form two spermatids. All spermatids differentiate into mature spermatozoa. . each primary spermatocyte forms four haploid spermatids through meiotic division. from spermatogonia to motile sperm. Each spermatid becomes associated with a large Sertoli cell from which it receives nutrients.
46. Fig. Behind the head the sperm contains many mitochondria that provide ATP for movement of the tail (flagellum).Spermatozoon (Sperm) structure: The thick head contains the haploid nucleus is tipped with an acrosome which contains enzymes to aid in egg penetration. Mammalian sperm shape varies from species to species.12 .
unfertilized egg cell). Between birth and puberty. resulting in all potential ova being present in the ovaries at birth. Each oogonium will develop into primary oocyte by the time of birth of the female. FSH stimulates a follicle to enlarge and the primary oocyte completes meiosis I. Begins in the embryo when primordial germ cells undergo mitotic divisions to produce diploid oogonia. primary oocytes enlarge and their surrounding follicles grow: They replicate their DNA and enter Prophase and remain there until activated by hormones (Puberty) After puberty during each ovarian cycle. .Oogenesis is the development of ova (mature.
meiosis II will occur and the small secondary polar body will separate from the ovum. this completes oogenesis. . If the sperm cell penetrates the secondary oocytes membrane.Meiosis in oogenesis involves unequal cytokinesis Meiosis I produces a haploid secondary oocyte (large) and the first polar body (much smaller) Meiosis then stops again LH triggers ovulation and the secondary oocyte is released from the follicle.
(2) Spermatogenesis is a continuous process throughout the reproductive life of the male as spermatogonia continue to divide by mitosis. In spermatogeneis all four products of meiosis I and II become mature spermatozoa. in oogenesis long “resting” periods occur between the formation of the initial steps and final production of the ovum. At the time of the female’s birth an ovary contains all of the primary oocytes it will ever have.The three important differences between spermatogeneis and oogenesis. (1) In oogenesis the unequal cytokinesis during meiosis results in most of the cytoplasm being in one daughter cell which will form the single ovum the other cells (polar bodies) will degenerate.. (3) Spermatogenesis occurs as an uninterrupted sequence. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education.
Inc. 46..13 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education.Fig. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .