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Colorimetric Determination of pH

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Bausa, D.M. Uy, A.R.

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objectives
1)

Determine colorimetrically the pH of an unknown solution. Calculate the ionization constant of a Click to edit Master subtitle style weak acid.

1)

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introduction
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Colorimetry
The basis for colorimetric analysis is the variation in the intensity of the colour of a solution with changes in concentration (or pH). The concentration of an unknown solution Click to edit Master subtitle style may be determined by comparing the intensity of its color with the intensities of the standard solutions of known concentrations (or pH).
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pH
The term pHstands for potential of Hydrogen. It is the amount of hydrogen ions in a particular solution. The more ions, the more acidic the solution. The fewer ions the more basic the solution. pH= -log[H+] pOH= -log[OH-] pH+pOH=14

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Acid-base Indicators
Acid-base indicators are weak acids/bases that have different colors in their ionized and unionized forms. The color change in the indicatortooccurs over astyle Click edit Master subtitle range of hydrogen ion concentrations. This range is termed thecolor change interval and is expressed as a pH range.
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Acid-base Indicators
The pH of the solution at its turning point is called the pKlnand is the pH at which half of the indicator is in its acid form and the other half in the form of its conjugate base.
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Buffer solutions
This are solutions consisting of weak conjugate acid-base pairs that prevent drastic pH changes by maintaining a steady acidity level even when a strong acid or strong base is added through neutralization by the acidic & basic species.

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McIlvaine Buffer
A buffer system which uses a citrate and a phosphate usually citric acid and Na2HPO4 to volumetrically set for pH in a wide range

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Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
An equation used for measuring the pH of buffered solutions

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Experimental
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Part A.

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Thymol blue (pH range: 1.2-2.8)


pH 0.2 M Na2HPO4 0.1 M Citric Acid

2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8

0.20 0.62 1.06 1.58

9.80 9.38 8.91 8.42

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pK= 1.65

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Bromophenol blue (pH range: 3.04.6)


pH 0.2 M Na2HPO4 0.1 M Citric Acid

3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0


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2.05 2.47 2.85 3.22 3.55 3.25 4.14 4.41 4.67

7.95 7.53 7.15 6.78 6.45 6.15 5.86 5.59 5.33

4.4
pK= 4.10

4.6

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Chlorophenol red (pH range: 4.86.4)


pH 0.2 M Na2HPO4 0.1 M Citric Acid

4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4

4.93 5.15 5.20 5.58 5.80 6.05 6.61 6.92

5.07 4.85 4.80 4.42 4.20 3.95 3.39 3.08


pK= 6.25

Click to edit Master subtitle style 6.31 3.69

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Bromothymol blue (pH range: 6.07.6)


pH 0.2 M Na2HPO4 0.1 M Citric Acid

6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 Click to edit Master subtitle style 7.2 7.4 pK= 7.30 7.6

6.31 6.61 6.92


7.34 7.72 8.24 8.69 9.08 9.37

3.69 3.39 3.08


2.66 2.28 1.76 1.31 0.92 0.63

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Phenol red (pH range: 6.8-8.4)


pH 0.2 M Na2HPO4 0.1 M Citric Acid

6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0

7.72 8.24 8.69 9.08 9.37 9.57

2.28 1.76 1.31 0.92 0.63 0.43

Click to edit Master subtitle style 9.72 0.28

pK= 8.00

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Part b.
0.01 M HOAc

Prepare the following solutions in 10-mL test tubes

[Solution A] 1 mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1 mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8 mL H20

[Solution B] 1 mL 0.1 M HOAc + 0.1 mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H20

[Solution C] 0.1 mL 0.1 M HOAc + 1 mL 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 mL H20

Click to edit Master subtitle style Add 2 drops of the pH indicator designated to the solution. Compare the color of the solution to the previously made McIlave buffers and note the observed pH.

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Part b.

Results

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Part b. SOLUTION
0.01 M HOAc 1ml 0.1 M HOAc + 1 ml 0.1 M NaOAc + 8 ml H20 1ml 0.1 M HOAc + 0.1 ml 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 ml H20

Results
OBSERVED pH CALCULATED pH

3.38 4.8 4.0

xxxxxxx 4.74 3.74 5.74

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0.1ml 0.1 M HOAc + 1 ml 0.1 M NaOAc + 8.9 ml H20

5.8

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Part b. As the ratio of the [NaOAc]/[HOAc] increased, the pH level also

increased, making the solution less acidic. Solution C was the least acidic because it had the highest ratio of NaOAc to HOAc, while solution B was the most acidic because it had the lowest ratio of NaOAc to HOAc.

Solution: HOAc NaOAc

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H2O

<>

H3O + Oac OAc

<> Na +

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Part b. Solution:
HOAc NaOAc + H2O <> H3O + OAc OAc

The presence of a OAc caused a common ion effect. The production Click to of moreedit Master subtitle stylea reverse shift OAc caused which resulted to a decrease in the concentration of H3O ions. This decrease caused the increase in pH level.
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<> Na +

Results
1. Calculate the Ionizaiton Constant of Acetic Acid. pH of 0.01 M HOAc [H3O+] of 0.01 M HOAc Calculated Ka of HOAc pH= -log [H3O +] 3.38=-log [H3O +] [H3O +]= 4.17 x 10-4 3.38 4.17x 10^-4 1.8 x 10^ -5

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Results
1. Calculate the Ionizaiton Constant of Acetic Acid.

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Ka= (4.17 x 10-4)2 0.00958 Ka = 1.8x 10 -5

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Results
2. Calculate the pH of the 3 mistures of HOAc & NaOAc.

erson Hasselbach equation:

1.8 x 10^-5 -log Ka = 4.74 Master subtitle style Click to edit

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Results
2. Calculate the pH of the 3 mistures of HOAc & NaOAc. SOLUTION A

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Results
2. Calculate the pH of the 3 mistures of HOAc & NaOAc. SOLUTION B

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Results
2. Calculate the pH of the 3 mistures of HOAc & NaOAc. SOLUTION C

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Conclusion
The pH of any solution may be determined through colorimetry and pH indicators though the pH meter will give the most accurate pH. The pH range of specific indicators must be known before they are used to be accurate in the colometric analysis.

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Conclusion
Buffer solutions are able to resist drastic changes in pH but a small change may be observed because of common ion effect. The ratio of strong to weak electrolyte affects the resulting pH because it determines the decrease or increase in H+ ions in the solution. The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is used in determining the pH of a buffer solution. Click to edit Master subtitle style

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Recommendation
the buffer solutions should be correctly and accurately prepared to achieve the accurate pH needed in the colorimetric determination of pH

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Sources:

http://chemistry.about.com/od/acidsbases/a/Ac id-Base-Indicators.htm http://www.frequencyrising.com/pH.htm http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/vchemlib/course/indi/ind icator.html http://www.chembuddy.com/?left=pHcalculation&right=pH-buffers-hendersonhasselbalch Click to edit Master subtitle style http://www.inc.bme.hu/en/subjects/genchem/p hdet2.pdf http://www.docbrown.info/page07/equilibria6a. htm

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