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dating.Domestic violence. also known as : • domestic abuse • spousal abuse • family violence • intimate partner violence (IPV) Domestic violence can be broadly defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage. family. friends or cohabitation .

Physical aggression: • hitting •Kicking • biting • shoving • restraining • slapping • throwing objects Threatening: • sexual abuse • emotional abuse • controlling or domineering • intimidation • Stalking. passive/covert abuse • economic deprivation • Alcohol consumption and mental illness can be co-related with abuse. . and present additional challenges when present alongside patterns of abuse.

Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation. pain. . injury. or other physical suffering or bodily harm.

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Sexual abuse is any situation in which force is used to obtain participation in unwanted sexual activity .

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•Yelling at the survivor •Blaming the survivor for everything •Threatening to hurt/kill the survivor and/or the children .

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Verbal abuse is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language. .

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Psychological Behavioral Social theories Social stress Social learning theory Power and control Mental illness Gender aspects of abuse Marital conflict disorder .

poor impulse control. Various theories suggest that psychopathology and other personality disorders are factors. and that abuse experienced as a child leads some people to be more violent as adults.Psychological behavior Personality traits include sudden bursts of anger. and poor self-esteem. Studies have found high incidence of psychopathy among abusers .

. due to increased stress and conflicts about finances and other aspects. due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions.Behavioral Stress may be increased when a person is living in a family situation. Social stresses. Families and couples in poverty may be more likely to experience domestic violence. with increased pressures.

genetic tendencies and sociocultural influences. among other possible causative factors. Mental illness Psychiatric disorders are sometimes associated with domestic violence. like Borderline personality disorder. the stress of poverty. Schizophrenia. personality disorders. unresolved childhood conflicts. Drug abuse and Alcoholism .Power and control Abusers' efforts to dominate their partners have been attributed to low self-esteem or feelings of inadequacy. hostility and resentment toward women (misogyny). Antisocial personality disorder.Bipolar disorder. hostility and resentment toward men (misandry).

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broken bones. pelvic pain. chronic pain. ulcers.Physical Physical Bruises. and migraines. irritable bowel syndrome. Some chronic health conditions that have been linked to victims of domestic violence are arthritis. head injuries. lacerations. . and internal bleeding are some of the acute effects of a domestic violence incident that require medical attention and hospitalization.

Psychological It is reported that 60% of victims meet the diagnostic criteria for depression. nightmares. and avoidance of triggers that are associated with the abuse. PTSD (as experienced by victims) is characterized by flashbacks. and have a greatly increased risk of suicidality. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). intrusive images. either during or after termination of the relationship.[These symptoms are generally experienced for a long span of time after the victim has left the dangerous situation. exaggerated startle response. .

Major consequences of domestic violence victimization include psychological/mental health issues and chronic physical health problems. all of which are very relevant for any professional working with a victim.Long term effects Domestic violence can trigger many different responses in victims. A victim’s overwhelming lack of resources can lead to homelessness and poverty. .

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Volunteer at a local domestic violence shelter or another organization helping survivors or working to prevent violence. Teach your children to respect others and to treat others as they would like to be treated. .Call the police if you see or hear evidence of domestic violence. Lead by example. Raise your children to respect others. Support a friend or family member who may be in an abusive relationship.

Become an activist.Protect yourself. Or tell your congressional representatives that you expect their support for the funding of domestic violence survivor services and prevention programs. Take a self-defense class. a yearly march held in most major cities to raise awareness about violence against women. . Participate in a Take Back the Night march.

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