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Guidance and counseling

MRS. Jyoti Srivastava.

More people hope for a better life, there is simultaneously a feeling of frustration and anxiety that they themselves may not be able to experience this better life which they feel should be available to them. They search for new anchors, for plans of action that hold promise for realizing some of their dreams and aspirations.

To Seek To Show a Way To Point Out


To Lead

To Direct

Definition of Guidance
Jones (1971), Guidance

is the help given by one person to another in making choices and adjustments in solving problems, further it aims at aiding the recipient to grow in his independence and ability to be responsible for himself.

Concept and Process

As a concept, guidance is concerned with the optimal development of the individual, educational, vocational, personal, social, moral, and physical both for his own satisfaction and for the benefit of the society. As a process, it includes the gathering of process substantive knowledge for the developmental characteristics of an individual.

Definition of Counseling
Counseling is a specialized service of guidance and basically an enabling process, designed to help an individual come to terms with his/her life and grow to greater maturity through learning to take responsibility and to make decisions for him/her.

Rogers, ( 1942) Effective counseling consist of a definitely structured permissive relationship which allows the clients to gain an understanding of him self to a degree which enables him to take positive steps in light of his new orientation. Cormier and Hackney, (1987)"Counseling is the helping relationship, that includes some one seeking help, some one willing to give help who is capable or trained to help, in a setting that permits help to be given and received.

Factors contributing to Emergence

Technological changes Industrialization Guidance movement Educational movement Economic change and challenge Mental Hygiene Movement Social change Individual Differences Conservation of Human Energy


Behavior of effective process

Not giving information, though information may be present. Not giving an advice, advising refers to academic consultation often given to student by the teacher, who may not be trained counselor. Not the influencing of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors by persuading, admonishing, threatening or compelling without the use of physical force.


Counseling is not the selection and assignment of individuals to jobs. Counseling is not interviewing, though interviewing is involved. Bringing about desired changes in the individual for self-realizations. Providing assistance to solve problems through an intimate personal relationship.

Objectives of Services
Enable the student: To achieve positive mental health. To resolve their problems To improve personal effectiveness To maximize individual freedom to choose and act within the conditions imposed by the environment.

Scope of Guidance and Counseling

In Education: Assisting students to draw up their own plans if academic and non-academic pursuits and arrive at right decisions. To help the individual to realize his potentialities and to make optimum contribution to the growth. To solve his own problems and make proper choice and adjustment. Providing assistance to teachers in their efforts to understand their students.


Enabling students to acquire abilities which promote self-direction and self-realization. Developing in students qualities such as perseverance, dedication, sincerity, devotion, positive outlook, respect for views of others, temperament which are essential to them for making significant contributions. Centered on the needs and aspirations of students.

Principles of Guidance and Counseling

Unique to an individual Concerned with the Total individual Always goal oriented and goal directed Professional activity Based on a thorough knowledge Meant all those who need help It is well known Continuous process Based a reliable data Have a flexible approach

Types of Guidance& Counseling

Educational Vocational Personal Social Health Guidance Implies Leisure Activity Emotional Moral

Phases of Counseling
Establishing relationship Assessment Setting goals Interventions Termination and follow-up

Approaches to Counseling
Directive counseling. Non-directive counseling. Electric counseling and Group counseling.

Directive Counseling
Starting the counseling session. Collect the relevant data of the problems Analyze the problems Synthesize the problem Diagnosis Prognosis Prescribe remedial measure Follow-up

Non-Directive Counseling
Opening the session Establishing rapport Exploration of the problem Exploration of the causes of the problem Discovering alternative solutions Termination of the session Follow-up

Eclectic Counseling
Based on the fact that all individuals differ from one another, and so do their problems. Eclecticism refers to selection and orderly combination of best features from diverse sources into a harmonious whole. The counselor believes that past events and experiences influences the present behaviors.

Group Counseling
Phase of activities followed
Selection of participants. Starting the session Orientation towards discussion Checking the unwarranted behavior Assisting in self-disclosure. Assisting in decision making process Closure of the session Follow-up

Types of Counseling Services

Orientation Service Appraisal Service Information Service Counseling Service
Developmental counseling Preventive counseling Facilitative counseling Crisis counseling

Tools for Collecting Information

Non Testing Tools
Interview Observation Anecdotal records Cumulative record card Problem / interest checklist Rating scale Socieometry

Psychological test Intelligence Aptitudes Interests Abilities Personalities

Counselor's functions
Pupil appraisal using appropriate test and non-testing devices. Pupil orientation involving tutors, wardens, librarians, doctors and other resources. Helping emotionally techniques Helping pupil

Skilled Required of a Counselor

Pre Training Attributes
Self-awareness and understanding Good psychological health Sensitivity Open-mindedness Objectivity Trust-worthiness Approachability

Inter-Training Attributes
Interview setting and getting started. Problem focus Identifying an important theme Focusing on a theme Directing the theme towards a goal Managing interaction with the individual

Problems in Guiding and Counseling

* * * * * Resistance to counseling Counseling individuals of different cultures. Counseling individuals with strong emotions. Counselor burn-out lack of awareness of value of counseling. Inadequate administrative support .

Current Student Need

Study Habits &Skill Career choice Knowledge of aptitudes &Abilities Sex Education Family Relationship Mental Hygiene Adult Personality& Development Social Awareness Occupational Awareness Intellectual & Functional policies Discipline Confidence

Good Citizenship