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Li-ion Battery Capacity Detection

Author: Arul Prabahar A.

ASCNT 2012

Introduction
Project Titled Design and Development of low cost real-time monitoring system for harmful gas detection funded by Department of Information and Technology (DIT).

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Li ion Battery
Rechargeable batteries Fuel gauge IC BQ27510 Focus on steps involved in capacity detection using TIs Impedance Track Algorithm

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Presentation Flow
Basic aspects of capacity detection Steps involved in single cell capacity detection Multi cell capacity detection

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Capacity detection
Capacity: The battery capacity represents the maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the battery (Ah, Wh) Importance of determining Remaining Capacity Rechargeable batteries Strong Correlation between the battery open circuit voltage and residual capacity- Temperature dependence More reliable when load current is low Discharge curve for known load current- low accuracy

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Capacity detection contd.


Discharge curve is affected by battery chemistry, ageing, anode used ,temperature and load current Fuel Gauge chips-Capture parameters, Algorithms

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Battery Under Test


Li ion battery with capacity approximately 1500mAh Discharge curve method Use of Fuel gauge

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Steps Involved
Step 1 Chemistry Cycle Step 2 Learning Cycle Tools Used BQEasy TI Tool for data capture Math Cad - mapping

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Step 1-Chemistry cycle


Battery Chemistry TI Data Base ADCs Calibration rel-dis-rel cycle o/p log file from BQEasy Mathcad Tool Matches with TI database

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Chemistry cycle
load current battery voltage time elapsed time stamp temperature different flag status

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Voltage vs Time plot of logged data

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Step 2: Battery learning cycle


The Chemistry information as input Learn the battery capacity and impedance of the battery at different stages Generate Image using BQEasy tool This image can be used to program any BQ27510 chipset to determine the capacity of a given Li-Ion battery model

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Results
I2C interface O/P Remaining time, Current drawn, Battery voltage , SOC etc. Battery Capacity 1439mAh @ 2.9V cutoff

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Multi cell in series Application


Assumption - all the multi-cells are made of identical cells with same characteristics Multi-cell treated as single cell High precision voltage divider

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Battery Under Test


Li ion battery with capacity approximately 11.1V , 6600mAh (3 cell series 3 cell parallel) Voltage divider (1:3 ratio) compensate for 3 cell series 3 cell parallel handled in learning curve

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Voltage vs Time plot

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Results
Battery Capacity 6461mAh @ 9V cutoff

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Hardware Implementation
Battery good flag to enable power regulators Kelvin connection for the current sense LDO (3V) to supply power to fuel gauge

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Conclusion
Developed a technique to use TIs BQ27510 Single cell System side Fuel gauge IC for multi cell applications. Future work Temperature compensation to increase the accuracy

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Thank You

ASCNT 2012