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• Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job. • According to Edwin Flippo, "Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibility of a specific job." • According to David A. DeCenzo and Stephen P. Robbins,“ Job Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountability of a job."
Types of Information Collected Human Behaviours Machines.equipment.tool s.a nd work aids Job Context Information Collected Via Job Analysis Performance Standards Human Requirements Work Activities .
Nature of job analysis Job Tasks Job Analysis Job Duties Job Responsibilities .
Use of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and Selection Training Discovering Unassigned Duties Information Collected Via Job Analysis Performance Appraisal Legal Compliance Compensation .
Uses of Job Analysis Information .
M u l t i f a c e t e d N a t u re of Jo b A n a l y s i s Recruitment Employee Safety Selection Performance Appraisal Placement Nature of job analysis Job Design and Re design Counselling Job Evaluation Human Resource Planning .
It refers to a summary of the personal characteristics required for performing a certain job.Components of Job Analysis • Job Description: According to Edwin Flippo.“ an organised factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job."Job description means describing the details of the job to be performed. how it is done and why. Job Specification: According to Edwin Flippo Job Specification is. It should tell what is to be done. Job Description is. "a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly. • .
Who should conduct job analysis? • Job incumbents themselves • Supervisors • External analysts .
• Review relevant background information.(Organizational Analysis) • Select representative positions • Actually analyze the job.Steps in Job Analysis • Steps in doing a job analysis • Decide how you’ll use the information. • Develop a job description and job specification . (Data Collection and Analysis) • Verify the job analysis information.
Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data • Job performance: the analyst actually performs the job in question and collects the needed information • Personal observation: the analyst observes others doing the job and writes a summary • Critical incidents: job incumbents describe several incidents relating to work. analyses and classifies data. the analyst collects. based on past experience.• Seven general techniques are generally used to collect job analysis data. • Interview: job incumbents and supervisors are interviewed to get the most essential information about a job .
Questionnaire method: job incumbents approached through a properly designed questionnaire and asked to provide details. The Position Analysis Questionnaire: it is a standardised form used to collect specific information about job tasks and worker traits. Diary method: job incumbents asked to maintain diaries or logs of their daily job activities and record the time spent and nature of work carried out. Functional job analysis: it is a systematic process of finding what is done on a job by examining and analysing the fundamental components of data.• Panel of experts: experienced people such as job incumbents and • • • • Methods Of Collecting Job Analysis Data supervisors with good knowledge of the job asked to provide the information. people and things .
Be patient and considerate to the worker. Consider the relationship of the present job to other jobs in thedepartment. Conduct the interview in plain. Help the worker to think and talk according to the logical sequence of the duties performed. Summarise the information obtained before closing the interview. Ask the worker only one question at a time. Control the time and subject matter of the interview. Phrase questions carefully so that the answers will be more than just“yes” or “no”.Guidelines for conducting job analysis interviews • • Put the worker at ease. • • • • • • • • Avoid asking leading questions. establish rapport. • • • • Encourage the worker to talk by using empathy creativity. Secure specified and complete information pertaining to the workperformed and the worker’s traits. Close the interview promptly. . easy language. Make the purpose of the interview clear.
S.Department of Labor (DOL)Procedures .Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques Quantitative Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire Functional Job Analysis The U.
Near-visual differentiation. Physical activities : What physical activities does the employee perform and what tools or devices does he/she use ? Examples:Use of Keyboard devices. Assembling/disassembling. Examples: Use of written materials . planning and information.processing activities are involved in performing the job? Examples : Levels of reasoning in problem solving.Employee activities in PAQ • 1. Information Input: Where and how does the employee get the information he/she uses in performing his/her job. Coding/decoding • 3. • 2. Mental Processes: What reasoning. decision making. .
customers. • 6. Relationships with other people: What relationships with other people are required in performing the job? Examples : Instructing . Amount of job structure. . conditions. or characteristics other than those described above are relevant to the job? Examples : Specified work pace .Employee activities in PAQ • 4. Other Job characteristics: What activities. Interpersonal conflict situations. Job context: In what physical and social context is the work performed? Examples: High temperature . • 5. Contacts with public.
. • Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics(knowledge. skills and abilities)needed by a person for doing a job.Job Description And Job Specification • The end products of job analysis are: • Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder does. under what conditions it is done and why it is done. how it is done.
Writing Job Descriptions Job Identification Job Specifications Job Summary Working Conditions Sections of a Typical Job Description Responsibilities and Duties Standards of Performance Authority of the Incumbent .
The Job Description • Job Identification– • • • Job title Preparation date Preparer • Job Summary • • General nature of the job Major functions/activities • Relationships • • • • Reports to: Supervises: Works with: Outside the company: .
• Responsibilities and Duties • • • • Major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Decision-making authority Direct supervision Budgetary limitations • Standards of Performance and Working Conditions • What it takes to do the job successfully .
Writing Job Specifications What traits and experience are required to do this job well?” Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis Specifications Based on Judgment Specification for Trained Versus Untrained Personnel .
Measure the candidates’ subsequent job performance.Test candidates for these traits .Select personal traits that you believe should predict successful performance. . . .Analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance.Statistically analyze the relationship between the human traits and job performance .Writing Job Specifications • Steps in the Statistical Approach .
Job Analysis in a “Jobless”World Job Design : Specialization and Efficiency? Job Enlargement Job Rotation Job Enrichment .
Knowledge. . in conducting job analysis interviews. of compensation survey techniques. of job analysis procedures. • • Work Orientation Factors : The position may require upto 15 per cent travel. A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable. of performance appraisal systems. in making group presentations. • • Experience Skill. Skill in writing job descriptions. to plan and prioritisework. Abilities : Knowledge of compensation practices in competing industries. in performing statistical computations Ability to conduct meetings. Age : Preferably below 30 years. : At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large manufacturing company.Specimen of job specification • Education : MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology.
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