Keshav Singh
Amity School of Engineering & Technology
New Delhi
CDMA
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access):
CDMA uses spread spectrum techniques.
CDMA has been likened to a party: When everyone talks at once, no one can be
understood, however, if everyone speaks a different language, then they can be
understood.
CDMA systems have no channels, but instead encodes each call as a coded sequence
across the entire frequency spectrum.
Each conversation is modulated, in the digital domain, with a unique code (called a
pseudonoise code) that makes it distinguishable from the other calls in the frequency
spectrum. Using a correlation calculation and the code the call was encoded with, the
digital audio signal can be extracted from the other signals being broadcast by other
phones on the network.
Since CDMA offers far greater capacity and variable data rates depending on the audio
activity, many more users can be fit into a given frequency spectrum and higher audio
quality can be provide.
The current CDMA systems boast at least three times the capacity of TDMA systems.
CDMA technology also allows lower cell phone power levels (200 miliwatts) since the
modulation techniques expect to deal with noise and are well suited to weaker signals.
The downside to CDMA is the complexity of deciphering and extracting the received
signals.
Cellular PHY/MAC: Multiple
Access Methods
User 1
User 2
User 3
Guard Band
Guard Band
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User
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User
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User
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User
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time time
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FDMA TDMA
CDMA (FH)
Code Division Multiple Access
Principles
Many voice channels
share the same
frequency band
No timeslots; all
channel uses the same
frequency
simultaneously all the
time
Channels are
differentiated by its
code
Signaling uses a
dedicated frequency
band
CDMA Chips
CDMA is based on coding theory.
Each station is assigned a code, which is a
sequence of numbers called chips.
Suppose we have four stations; each has a
sequence of chips which we designate as A,
B, C, and D.
Encoding Rules
We follow these rules for encoding:
If a station needs to send a 0 bit, it sends a 1;
If it needs to send a 1 bit, it sends a +1.
When a station is idle, it sends no signal, which
is represented by a 0.
These are shown in Figure.
Multiplexer
As a simple example, we show how
four stations share the link during 1
bit interval.
The procedure can easily be repeated
for additional intervals.
We assume that stations 1 and 2 are
sending a 0 bit and channel 4 is
sending a 1 bit. Station 3 is silent.
Multiplexer
The steps are as follows:
The multiplexer receives one encoded number from
each station (1, 1, 0, and +1).
The encoded number sent by station 1 is multiplied
by each chip in sequence A. A new sequence is
the result (1, 1,1, 1). Likewise, the encoded
number sent by station 2 is multiplied by each chip
in sequence B. The same is true for the remaining
two encoded numbers. The result is four new
sequences.
All first chips are added, as are all second, third,
and fourth chips. The result is one new sequence.
The sequence is transmitted through the link.
Multiplexer
Following figure shows the situation at the
multiplexer.
Demultiplexer
The steps are as follows
The demultiplexer receives the sequence sent
across the link.
It multiplies the sequence by the code for each
receiver. The multiplication is done chip by chip.
The chips in each sequence are added. The result is
always +4, 4, or 0.
The result of step 3 is divided by 4 to get 1, +1, or
0.
The number in step 4 is decoded to 0, 1, or silence
by the receiver.
Orthogonal Sequences
Orthogonal Sequences Let us return
to the chip sequences.
The sequences are not chosen
randomly; they were carefully
selected.
The sequences are called orthogonal
sequences.
Sequence Generation
To generate sequences, we use a Walsh
table, a twodimensional table with an
equal number of rows and columns.
Each row is a sequence of chips. The Walsh
table W
1
for a onechip sequence has one
row and one column.
We can choose 1 or +1 for the chip.
According to Walsh, if we know the table
for N sequences W
N
, we can create the
table for 2N sequences W
2N
,
Walsh Table
The W
N
with the overhead bar stands for the
complement of W
N
, where each +1 is changed to
1 and vice versa,.
Properties of Orthogonal
Sequences
Orthogonal sequences have properties that are
suitable for CDMA. They are as follows:
If we multiply a sequence by 1. every element in the
sequence is complemented (+1 becomes 1 and 1
becomes +1). We can see that when a station is
sending 1 (bit 0), it is sending its complement.
If we multiply two sequences, element by element,
and add the results, we get a number called the
inner product. If the two sequences are the same,
we get A', where N is the nurnber of sequences; if
they are different, we get 0. Theinner prod uct uses a
dot as the operator. So A.A is N, but A.B is 0. ""
The inner product of a sequence by its complement is
N. So A .(A) is N.
Code Division Multiple Access 
CDMA
Multiple users occupying the same band by having
different codes is known as CDMA  Code Division
Multiple Access system
Let
W  spread bandwidth in Hz
R = 1/T
b
= Date Rate
S  received power of the desired signal in W
J  received power for undesired signals like multiple
access users, multipath, jammers etc in W
E
b
 received energy per bit for the desired signal in W
N
0
 equivalent noise spectral density in W/Hz
CDMA (contd)
0 0
0
N E
R W
N E
WT
T E
W N
S
J
b b
b
b b
= = =
( )
min
0 max
N E
R W
S
J
b
=

.

\

What is the tolerable interference over desired signal power?
) ( ) ( (db) margin Jamming
min
0 max
db
N
E
db
R
W
S
J
b


.

\

= =

.

\

CDMA (contd)
In conventional systems W/R ~ 1 which means, for
satisfactory operation J/S < 1
Example Let R = 9600; W = 1.2288 MHz
(E
b
/N
0
)
min
= 6 dB (values taken from IS95)
Jamming margin (JM) = 10log
10
(1.2288*10
6
/9.6*10
3
)  6
= 15.1 dB 32
This antijam margin or JM arises from Processing Gain
(PG) = W/R = 128
If (E
b
/N
0
)
min
is further decreased or PG is increased, JM
can be further increased
CDMA (contd)
JM can be used to accommodate
multiple users in the same band
If (E
b
/N
0
)
min
and PG is fixed, number of
users is maximized if perfect power
control is employed.
Capacity of a CDMA system is
proportional to PG.
PN Sequences
A deterministically generated sequence that
nearly satisfies these properties is referred to
as a Pseudorandom Sequence (PN)
Periodic binary sequences can be conveniently
generated using linear feedback shift registers
(LFSR)
If the number of stages in the LFSR is r, P s 2
r

1 where P is the period of the sequence
PN Sequences (contd)
However, if the feedback connections satisfy
a specific property, P = 2
r
 1. Then the
sequence is called a Maximal Length Shift
Register (MLSR) or a PN sequence.
Thus if r=15, P=32767.
MLSR satisfies the randomness properties
stated before
Randomness Properties of PN
Sequences
Balance property  Of the 2
r
 1 terms, 2
r1
are one and 2
r1
1 are zero. Thus the
unbalance is 1/P. For r=50; 1/P~10
15
Run length property  Relative frequency
of run length n (zero or ones) is 1/ 2
n
for n s
r1 and 1/(2
r
 1) for n = r
One run length each of r1 zeros and r ones
occurs. There are no run lengths for n > r
Autocorrelation property  The number of
disagreements exceeds the number of
agreements by unity. Thus again the
discrepancy is 1/p
Comparison
Advantages of CDMA over TDMA
and FDMA
Greater capacity
TDMA and FDMA have a fixed number
of slots
Frequencies can be reused in all the
cells in CDMA.
No hard limit to the number of users.
Resistance to multipath fading.