THE EXTENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND PARTICIPATION OF THE STAFF NURSES ON THE VISUAL INFUSION PHLEBITIS PROGRAM OF SAINT ANTHONY

COLLEGE HOSPITAL

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Statement of the Problem

The main concern of this study is to determine the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis at Saint. Anthony College Hospital during the year 2012.

this study will seek to answer the following questions: .Specifically.

Anthony Hospital in terms of age. . length of service. highest educational attainment. What is Visual Infusion Phlebitis Program? 1.What is the demographic profile of the staff nurses of St. sex. and position? 2.

What is the extent of participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis program? . What is the extent of knowledge of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis program? 4.3.

length of service. sex.significant difference in the extent of knowledge of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis program when grouped according to age. highest educational attainment. and position? .

highest educational attainment. length of service.significant difference in the extent of participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis program when grouped according to age. and position? . sex.

7. Is there a significant relationship between the extent of knowledge and extent of participation of the staff nurses towards the visual infusion phlebitis program? .

Hypotheses of the Study .

Not all studies have hypotheses. It describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. .specific statement of prediction.

. and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research.is no formal hypothesis.

A single study may have one or many hypotheses. .

highest educational attainment. and position. sex.1. There is no significant difference in the extent of knowledge of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis when grouped according to age. . length of service.

highest educational attainment. .2. sex. There is no significant difference in the extent of participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis when grouped according to age. length of service. and position.

There is no significant relationship between the extent of knowledge and extent of participation of the staff nurses towards the visual infusion program? .3.

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES .

literature. from which this particular study is premised. studies and synthesis.  This will certainly help in giving the reader a better understanding of what visual infusion phlebitis program is. .of information culled from related legal basis.

Related Legal Basis .

.control are essential to ensure that people who use health and social care services receive safe and effective care. Effective prevention and control of infection must be part of everyday practice and be applied consistently by everyone.

.Good management and organisational processes are crucial to make sure that high standards of infection prevention and control are developed and maintained.

It will apply to registered providers of all healthcare and adult social care in England.prevention and control of infections. . which is set out in regulations. The Code of Practice (Part 2) sets out the 10 criteria against which the Care Quality Commission (CQC) will judge a registered provider on how it complies with the cleanliness and infection control requirement. under The Health and Social Care Act 2008.

1 Not all criteria will apply to every regulated activity but to ensure that consistently high levels of infection prevention and control are developed and maintained, it is essential that all providers of health and social care read and consider the whole document and not just selective parts.

interpret the criteria and develop their own risk assessments. The appendices provide examples of how a proportionate approach could be applied to the criteria in all sectors and it is important to read the examples given in the appendices, alongside the guidance under each criterion in Part 3 of this document. The bibliography lists a range of supporting national guidance.

Synthesis of the Study

Of 300 patients, 145 (48.3%) were male and 155 (51.7%) were female. Mean (± standard deviation) age of patients was 51.8 (± 22.5) years. 56.3% were younger than 60 years old. Catheters were inserted for reasons such as administration of fluids, intravenous drugs and blood products.

Phlebitis occurred in 26% (95% CI 21–31). and 22 in one patient.190 patients. Catheter insertion was urgent in 140 patients and elective in 160 patients. 287 catheters were inserted in the upper extremities and 13in the lower extremities. . 18 in 109 patients.

4% of non-diabetics developed phlebitis. size of catheter. 57.7%. . site and type of catheter insertion. infectious diseases and burns. The incidence of phlebitis in females and males was 31% and 20. Independent risk factors associated with phlebitis were gender. trauma and phlebitis (Table Ι). diabetes mellitus.There was no significant relationship between age.7% of diabetic patients and 7. respectively.

Twelve patients in the control group out of 48 (25%) and 11 out of the 44 (25%)patients in the case group were excluded because their IV cannula were removed in less than 24 hours or the patients were discharged before the investigator was able to assess the IV site. .The control group and 33 in the case group were included in the evaluation.

the locations of the IV insertions had almost similar distribution and most were done in the hand. Final result had shown that 8 out of the 36 (22%) subjects in the control group developed phlebitis as compared to the case group in whom 4 out of the 33 (12%) subjects had phlebitis. .sex although there in terms of age. there were more subjects in the 1 to 12 months age group among the control. For both control and case group.

8 hours (SD 30. If subjects whom IV cannula were electively removed or those whom cannulation where removed because they were no longer need for were excluded.4). .9) for the control and 65 hours (SD 27.7 hours (SD 29.6) for the case group.the average dwell time became 62. The average dwell time for subjects in the control group is 62.Dwell time.9 hours (SD 30.3 hours) as compared to the case group with average dwell time of 62.

Of the total of 12 patients who had phlebitis. 8 were given IV fluids while 4 had heparin lock. 2 for 73-96 hours while 2 had their cannula in place for 145-168 hours. Of the 12 patients in the control group who developed phlebitis. 3 of them for 49-72 hours. 5 had their cannula in place for 24-48 hours. .

while 3 were given blood products. Seven out of 51 of those who developed phlebitis had the IV cannula used only once in an attempt. Majority of IV insertion fortunately was successful on first . There could be several attempts in IV insertion in a subject and a cannula could be used several times by the intern or the residents before a successful cannulation. .

was used 4 times but did not developed phlebitis. thus 70% (36/53) of the IV insertion were performed by the interns while the rest were done by the residents. the interns were the first in line who should perform the IV insertion. Seven out of the 36 insertions done by the interns developed phlebitis while 4 out of the 18 insertions done by the residents had phlebitis. in PGH pediatric wards and emergency room. Type of Personnel performing the cannulation. .

CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY .

research instruments. statistical analysis of data. . validity of the questionnaire. respondents of the study.locale. reliability of the questionnaire. statistical tool.

Research Design .

It involves the collection of data in order to test hypotheses or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subjects under study. According to David (2005). According to Travers (1984). this particular design is appropriate for collecting descriptive information about a population or subjects of the study. this research design describes the present existing conditions.will be employed in this study. .

This research design is deemed appropriate for this particular study because the main concern was to determine the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis at St. . Anthony College Hospital.

Research Locale .

Roxas City. The study covered 171 staff nurses as respondents during the year 2012-2013.. Capiz.The study was conducted at Saint Anthony College (Hospital) at San Roque Ext.   . Philippines.

Respondents of the Study .

.This study will utilize 171 staff nurses of St. This is a population study. Anthony College Hospital as respondents.

The distribution of the staff nurses-respondents is presented in table 1. .

33 0.5 7.03 11.09 7.5 7.6 5.26 2.09 4. Joseph Mother Baby Friendly Nino De Praga Medical Emergency Room Intensive Care Unit Operating Room /Delivery Room Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Dialysis Dots Opd Floater Special Care Population 18 13 13 7 7 13 4 8 13 12 24 20 9 4 1 1 4 1 Percent 10.58 .52 7. Catherine Laboure Rosalie Rendu Surgical Service St.67 7.33 0.58 2. Respondents of the Study Ward Immaculate Heart Of Mary St.58 0.5 2.5 4.01 14.33 4.Table 1.

Research Instrument .

The data needed for the study will be gathered with the use of the Selfadministered nurserespondents questionnaire. . The questionnaire for the respondents will be made up of three parts.

part II is on the extent of knowledge of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis.Part I is on the demographic profile of the respondents. The part II and III of the questionnaire will be made up of 25 statements each. and part III is on the extent of participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis. .

This will be subjected to pivotal or trial run to thirty (30) staff nurses of Capiz Doctor’s Hospital to check flaws in the items and in the instructions.The research instrument will be subjected to the content validity and reliability testing. The pretest respondents will not be included in the actual survey. .

Validity of the Questionnaire .

The validators are members of the faculty of Saint Anthony College of Roxas City who are considered experts.   .will be subjected to face validation zeroing on its content.

Reliability of the Questionnaire .

Only thirty (30) staff nurses will be used in the reliability testing because according to Garrett. It will be administered to thirty (30) staff nurses of Capiz Doctor’s Hospital who will be chosen at convenience and will not participate in the actual survey. this will be subjected to a pre-test.questionnaire. this number is adequate enough. .

The items in every part of the questionnaire will be split into odd and even numbers. . The results of the odd-numbered items are correlated with that of the even-numbered items.Data from the pre-test will be tabulated and the reliability coefficient will be computed using the split-half method.

The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient will be used to determine the reliability coefficient of one half of the questionnaire: (Downie. 1984) .

6 ΣD2 ρ = 1N (N2-1) ρ= one-half of the ΣD2 =questionnaire sum of the squares of the difference N = number of paired scorer Wher e: of Is the reliability coefficient .

  To get the reliability coefficient of the whole questionnaire. the Spearman Brown Prophecy formula will be used: (Garrett. 1971) .

r 2 r ll = 1+ r½ / 1 ½ /11 1 11 .

Where: r ll = reliability coefficient of the whole questionnaire questionnaire r ½ 1/11 = reliability coefficient of one-half of the .

. Cronbach Alpha measures how well a set of items or variables measures a single unidimensional latent construct.As recommended by our statistician. the reliability coefficient will again be computed using the Cronbach Alpha. to counter-check the reliability of the questionnaire.

(SPSS FAQ.edu/stat/spss/module s/default. Cronbach Alpha is a coefficient of reliability or consistency. Technically. .ucla. http://www.htm).ats. Cronbach Alpha is usually low.When data have a multidimensional structure.

r 1+(N–1).Cronbach Alpha can be written as a function of the number of test items and the average intercorrelation among the items: a= N.r .

.Where: N = number of items r = average inter-item correlation among the items.

.According to Milton Smith. a reliability coefficient of 0.80 or more but not more than 1.0 is necessary for the whole questionnaire to be reliable.

Statistical Analysis of Data .

the raw data will be scored using the following scoring guide as basis: .The data gathered will be processed manually because its bulk is manually manageable. To facilitate analysis.

The items in the instrument on the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis will be scored as follows: .

Extent of Knowledge: .

00 Positive Item 5 Negative Item 1 Score Interval 4.0 – 1.45 – Least Knowledgeable Strongly Disagree 1 5 1.45 – Knowledgeable 3 3 2.Response Category Strongly agree 5.45 – Moderately Knowledgeable Disagree 2.44 2 4 1.44 4 2 3.44 Uncertain 3.45 – Verbal Interpretation Very Knowledgeable Agree 4.44 Not Knowledgeable .

Extent of Participation: .

45 – 3.45 – 4.45 – 5.44 Knowledgeable Uncertain 3 3 2.0 – 1.00 Verbal Interpretation Very Knowledgeable Agree 4 2 3.44 Moderately Knowledgeable Disagree 2 4 1.Response Category Strongly agree Positive Item 5 Negative Item 1 Score Interval 4.44 Not Knowledgeable .45 – 2.44 Least Knowledgeable Strongly Disagree 1 5 1.

Statistical Tools .

and pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. . F-test. percentage. mean.The gathered data will be analyzed with the use of the following statistical tools: frequency count. t-test.

The researchers will use the frequency count and the mean to know the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis. The mean formula is: (Downie. 1984) .

∑X X = N Where: X = is the mean ∑X = sum of scores N = number of respondents .

To find out whether or not there is a significant difference in the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis when grouped according to sex. The formula is: (Downie. 1984) . the t-test will be used.

X2 . X X1 .t = S.D.E.

D.E.Where: t = is the t-value X1 = mean of the first variable X2 = mean of the secondvariable S.X = standard error of the difference between raw means .

the F-test will be used. and position. highest educational attainment. length of service.To determine whether or not there is significant difference in the extent of knowledge and participation of the staff nurses towards visual infusion phlebitis when grouped according to age. 1984) . The formula is: (Downie.

Mean square within F= Mean square between .

1984) .To determine the significant relationship between the extent of knowledge and extent of participation of the staff nurses towards the visual infusion program. The formula is: (Downie. the researchers used the Pearson Product – Moment Correlation Coefficient.

Sd 2 S2 2 2√ 2 S1 √ .r= 2 S1 + 2 S2 .

r value S = variance of the first variable 2 1 where : S22= variance of the second variable between two variables Sd2 = variance of the difference .r Pearson .

Result of the computation will be interpreted using the following scales with their corresponding Interpretations: .

20 to + 0.70 to + 1.0.70 denotes marked or substantial relationship. + 0.00 to + 0. + 0. + 0.40 to + 0.40 denotes low relationship presents but slight. .20 denotes indifferent or negligible relationship.00 denotes high to very high relationship.

r r .The significance of the relationship will be determined by comparing the computed value of “ “ with the tabular value of ” “ for N-2 degrees of freedom and 5 percent level of significance.

.END….

By: ARIENNE A. ASTROLOGIA DISYME D. BERGANTINOS WINGIE D. AZURES AERIEL FAYE V. BUDAY   .

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