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By, PRIYA PURI M.

Tech I Year - II Sem COMPTER SCIENCE 17112004

INTRODUCTION
In today's information age it is not difficult to collect data about an individual and use that information to exercise control over the individual. Earlier there were two ways for identifying a person.
a. Possession-based: using one specific "token" such as a security tag. b. Knowledge-based: the use of a code or password. Conventional methods of identification based on possession of ID cards or exclusive knowledge like social security number or a password are not altogether reliable. ID cards can be almost lost, forged or misplaced and passwords can be forgotten. In computer security, biometrics refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical, behavioral characteristics that can be automatically checked.

Three Basic Identification Possession Methods (something I have)


Keys Passport Smart Card

Knowledge (something I know)

Password PIN

Biometrics (something I am)


Face Fingerprint Iris

BIOMETRICS
Biometrics deals with the study of measurable biological characteristics. Biometrics (ancient Greek: bios ="life", metron ="measure) refers to very different fields of study and application. This includes both the physiological and behavioral characteristics of a human being by which they differ from one another.

IRIS RECOGNITIOIN
Iris recognition is a method of biometric authentication that uses pattern recognition techniques based on high resolution images of the irides of an individual's eyes.

Anatomy of the Human Eye


Eye = Camera Cornea bends, refracts, and focuses light.

Retina = Film for image projection (converts image into electrical signals).
Optical nerve transmits signals to the brain.

Individuality of Iris

Left and right eye irises have distinctive pattern

IRIS
1) The iris is a Protective internal organ of the eye. It is easily visible from yards away as a colored disk 2) It is the only internal organ of the body normally visible externally. 3) The iris is called the LIVING PASSWORD because of its unique, random features. 4) It is always with you and can not be stolen or faked. The iris of each eye is absolutely unique. 5)No two irises are alike in their details, even among identical twins. Even the left and right irises of a single person seem to be highly distinct. It can be used for identification purposes, and not just verification.

IRIS SCAN
A biometric iris recognition system can be divided into two stages:
1. Enrollment module 2. Identification module.

ENROLLMENT MODULE:
The Enrollment module is responsible for training the system to identity a given person. During an enrolment stage, a biometric sensor scans the person's physiognomy to create a digital representation.

The iris enrollment system


1)Iris acquisition 2)Preprocessing Module 3)Establish Coordinate System Module 4) Mask Generation Module 5)Adaptive Threshold Module 6) Iris Pattern Generation Module 7) Enrollment Module 8)Iris Pattern Database

ENROLLMENT MODULE
Acquire iris image

Preprocessing
Establish coordinate system

Mask generation Adaptive threshold

Iris signature

db

Image acquisition
Acquisition

Image

Distance up to 1 meter

Near-infrared camera

PREPROCESSING

a) Original iris image

b) size iris image

c) Edges of the iris image

ESTABLISH COORDINATE SYSTEM


a) Rectangular to polar transformation

b) After boundary detection

c)Iris image in polar coordinates

MASK GENERATION

ADAPTIVE THRESHOLD

IDENTIFICATION MODULE:
The iris identification system is somewhat similar to the Enrollment Module, but has two additional modules: The Hamming Distance Module and Iris Signature

IDENTIFICATION MODULE
Acquire iris image

Preprocessing
Establish coordinate system

Mask generation Adaptive threshold

Iris signature
Hamming distance

db

Display result

Iris Signature:
It takes multiple iris images of the same iris to register and generate the enrollment iris signature.

Hamming Distance:
When a live iris is presented for comparison, the iris pattern is processed and encoded into 512 byte Iris Code. The Iris Code derived from this process is compared with previously generated Iris Code. This process is called pattern matching. Pattern matching evaluates the goodness of match between the newly acquired iris pattern and the candidates data base entry. Pattern matching is performed as follows: Using integer XOR logic in a single clock cycle, a long vector of each to iris code can be XORed to generate a new integer. Each of whose bits represent mismatch between the vectors being compared. The total number of 1s represents the total number of mismatches between the two binary codes. The difference between the two recodes is expressed as a fraction of mismatched bits termed as hamming distance. For two identical Iris Codes, the hamming distance is Zero. For perfectly unmatched Iris Codes, the hamming distance is 1.

HAMMING DISTANCE
ENROLLMENT IDENTIFICATION XOR

00100100 00100001 00000101

HAMMING DISTANCE=2

APPLICATIONS:
1. In Berkshire County, the technology is used in the newly built Berkshire Country Jail as a security check for employees. 2. The Charlotte/Douglas International Airport in North Carolina and the Flughafen Frankfort Airport in Germany allow frequent passengers to register their iris scans in an effort to streamline boarding procedures 3. Birth certificates, tracking missing or wanted person 4. Credit-card authentication. 5. Anti-terrorism (e.g.: suspect Screening at airports)
6. INDIA: Adhar yojna 7. Google : to access data centers

cons
1)Costly 2)fraudulent use 3)security 4)legal concideration 5)users with differential abilities

Pros
1)Accuracy 2)Uniqueness 3)Robustness 4)Ease of use 5)Security 6)Speed 7)Iris on the move (IOM)

Future of Iris

http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s982770.htm

National Geographic: 1984 and 2002

Sharbat Gula

The remarkable story of Sharbat Gula, first photographed in 1984 aged 12 in a refugee camp in Pakistan by National Geographic (NG) photographer Steve McCurry, and traced 18 years later to a remote part of Afghanistan where she was again photographed by McCurry. So the NG turned to the inventor of automatic iris recognition, John Daugman at the University of Cambridge. The numbers Daugman got left no question in his mind that the eyes of the young Afghan refugee and the eyes of the adult Sharbat Gula belong to the same person.

Comparison
Method Iris Fingerprint Coded Pattern Iris pattern fingerprints MisIdentific-ation rate Security Applications high-security

1/1,200,0 00
1/1,000 1/30 1/100

High Medium Low Low

Universal Telephone service Low-security

voice
Signature

Voice characteristics Shape of letters, writing


Order, pen pressure Outline, shape & distribution of eyes, nose size, length, & thickness hands

Face

1/100

Low

Low-security

Palm

1/700

Low

Low-security

CONCLUSION:
The technical performance capability of the iris recognition process far surpasses that of any biometric technology now available. Iridian process is defined for rapid exhaustive search for very large databases: distinctive capability required for authentication today. The extremely low probabilities of getting a false match enable the iris recognition algorithms to search through extremely large databases, even of a national or planetary scale. Iris-based biometric technology has always been an exceptionally accurate one, and it may soon grow much more prominent.

REFRENCES
1)Handbook of Biometric by Anil K Jain 2)www.wikipedia.org 3)www.biometrics.gov 4)www.iris-recognition.org 5) Biometrics, Iris Scanning: A Literature Review was written as part of a group collaboration with Barry Feehily and Eric Nichols

THANK YOU