# Hardy cross method

• Assuming flow distribution in
network and balancing resulting
• hf=K Qn
pipe,internal conditions,units);
Q=discharge;n=1.85(H-W eq.
used)

Hardy-Cross Method (Procedure)
1. Divide network into number of
closed loops.
2. For each loop:
a) Assume discharge Qa and
direction for each pipe. Apply
Continuity at each node, Total
inflow = Total Outflow.
Clockwise positive.
b) Calculate hf=K Qan for each
pipe. Retain sign from step (a)
and
c) compute sum of total head
loss in pipes having clockwise
& anticlockwise direction of
flow,call it S hf.

f) Calculate hf / Qa for each
pipe and sum for loop
Shf/ Qa.
g) Calculate correction
q =-S hf /(1.85Shf/Qa).
NOTE: For common members
between 2 loops both
As loop 1 member, q= q1 - q2.
As loop 2 member, q= q2 – q1
h) Apply correction to Qa,
Qnew=Qa +q.
i) Repeat the procedure till
q<0.2m3/min or
q<10% of flow in that pipe

5 m3/min 200mmf.500m D 1.Problem 1 12 m3/min A 350mmf.330m 10m3/min 200mmf.5 m3/min . 330m C 200mmf.500m B 0.

500m B 0.5m3/min 10m3/min 1m3/min 200mmf.5 m3/min .5 m3/min 1m3/min 350mmf.Problem 1 12 m3/min A 200mmf.330m 11m3/min 0.500m D 1. 330m C 200mmf.

.0167 0.01667 100 100 q1= H (m3/s) (m3/m in) -S hf /(1.5 0.Solution 1(trial 1) Line Dia D Length Assumed flow Q1 C (mm) (m) m3/min) (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) AB 200 BD 200 500 330 1 0.00833 100 100 AC 350 CD 200 330 500 11 1 0.85Shf/Qa).18333 0.

85Shf/Qa).842 q1= q =-S hf /(1.01666667 100 5. (m3/s) 0.049505 27.5 0.9612 223.382686 82.3769 AC CD 350 200 330 500 11 1 -0.5428 1.011582 (m3/min) 0.253141 30.Solution 1(trial 1) Line Dia D Length Assumed flow Q1 C (mm) (m) m3/min) (m3/sec) H H/Q (m of water) AB BD 200 200 500 330 1 0.382686 82.18333333 100 -0.01666667 0.694944 .9612 0.00833333 100 100 1.

2431 249.915 -0.629027 30.7026 0.153776 4.93852 4.00067 -0.01667+0.669862 129.01158 100 2=0.04016 26.00508467 100 H2= (m3/s) q2= (m3/mi n) 3.1717513 0.02824867 0.913 1.268658 4.0566 .Solution 1(trial2) Line Dia D (mm) Length Assumed flow Q2 C (m) AB 200 500 BD 200 330 AC 350 330 CD 200 500 (m3/sec) H H/Q (m of water) 0.01991533 100 H1= -0.011582= 0.1833+ 100 0.475251 63.

8 L/s D 1 305m 150mm 2 305m 150mm 3 610m 200mm 4 457m 150mm 5 153m 200mm 5 25.2 L/s .Problem 2 Solve the following pipe network using Hazen William Method CHW =100 63 L/s 1 3 pipe L 4 2 37.

Problem 2 Solve the following pipe network using Hazen William Method CHW =100 63 L/s 24 3 pipe L 11.2 L/s .8 L/s D 1 305m 150mm 2 305m 150mm 3 610m 200mm 4 457m 150mm 5 153m 200mm 5 25.4 1 4 2 37.

024 0.3 .trial1) Line Dia Length Assumed flow C D Q1 (mm) (m) L/sec) H (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) 1 2 150 305 150 305 24 11.01458 637.721649 280.286595 -0.13079 208.00024 -0.069 100 1.Solution 2(loop1.0114 100 6.749 3 200 610 39 0.695739 148.039 100 -8.482 Hf= q1= (m3/s) (m3/min) 0.4 0.

90911 36.2 0.000573 (m3/min) 0.0758 H2= 0.034352 .0114 25.Solution 2(loop2.452796 427.4 0.67 100 -1.749 100 -0.057644 242.69574 148.495 (m3/s) 0.0126 2 5 150 200 305 153 11.6 0.trial 1) Line Dia D (mm) Length Assumed C flow Q1 (m) m3/min) (m3/sec) 4 150 457 12.0252 q1= H H/Q (m of water) 100 3.

Pip Dia Len 1st adj e gth st Q hf (m m) (m) adj adj he 3rd st ad 2n st d hf/ Q hf hf/ Q hf hf/ (m) Q Q Q .

Problem 3 Calculate the flows in various pipes of the circuit and the residual pressures at all points of the network • Input pressure A=23m.C=100 .

660m B 200mmf.085m3/s 300mmf.660m 150mmf.660m F 0.004m3/s 0.A Q=0.330m C D 0.330m 0.330m E 0.025m3/s 200mmf.025m3/s 200mmf.008m3/s 150mmf.023m3/s . 330m 150mmf.

021 m3/s 0.028 m3/s C 0.660m 150mmf.023m3/s .002m3/s E 0.085m3/s 300mmf.330m 0.014m3/s 0.032 m3/s 200mmf.004m3/s 0.660m 0.330m D 0.057m3/s 200mmf. 330m 0.A Q=0.008m3/s 150mmf.025m3/s B 0.01 m3/s 150mmf.330m 0.660m F 0.025m3/s 200mmf.

464232 3.00308 q1= .086 (m3/s) -0.382812 -1.2321 95.329 AC 200 CD 200 330 660 -0.014 100 100 -2.028 -0.057 0.Solution 3(loop 1 trial 1) Line Dia D Length Assumed flow C Q1 (mm) (m) H (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) AB 300 BD 200 660 330 0.032 100 100 2.1004 94.321948 85.4248 318.050527 43.

trial 1) Line Dia D Length Assumed C flow Q1 (mm) (m) H (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) CD 200 DF 150 660 330 0.Solution 3(loop 2.014 0.146634 144 73.01 -0.680739 94.002 100 -1.3 582 q1= (m3/s) -0.321948 100 5.021 100 1.43979 100 -0.4 271 CE 150 EF 150 330 660 -0.00503 .

223567 2.0140.05392 0.9943 83.02892 100 100 2.03108 -0.826 q2= (m3/s) -0.890263 -1.00308+0.4714 AC CD 200 200 330 660 -0.01205 100 100 -2.00153 .1221 304.529673 41.Solution 3(loop 1 trial 2) Line Dia D Length Assumed flow Q2 C (mm) (m) H (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) AB BD 300 200 660 330 0.001621 92.005= -0.2383 87.

00703 100 100 -3.0140.01597 100 3.000102 .Solution 3(loop 2 trial 2) Line Dia D (mm) Leng th (m) CD 200 660 DF 150 CE EF 150 150 Assumed C flow Q2 H (m3/sec) H/Q (m of water) 100 330 0.01205 0.1 0.500363 204 213 714 q2= (m3/s) 1.001621 83.01503 -0.00308= 0.00503 +0.42305 214 330 660 -0.05966 -1.

90 l/s A 55 600 m B 45 254 mm 10 35 600 m 152 mm 600 m 254 mm C +ve 600 152 mm C 15 15 60l/s 66600 E 600 m 152 mm 5 D 600 m 152 mm .Class problem 1 Example: Obtain the flow rates in the network shown below.

Correct the flows as shown below: 90 l/s A 63 B 49 27 C 14 60 //s 11 E 30 l/s 3 D .

Correct flows again for the third trial 90 l/s 65 A B 52 25 13 C 60 l/s 8 E 30 l/s 5 D .

Final Water Flows Final Water Flows 90 l/s 66 l/s 53 l/s 24 l/s 13 l/s 60 l/s 7 30 l/s 6 l/s .

.

Problem 1 .