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# CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

1.1 Definition 1.2 Types of Statistics 1.3 Important Statistical Terminologies 1.4 Types of Variables and Data 1.5 Sources of Data

Objectives
At the end of this chapter, you will be able to:  Define statistics and basic statistical terminologies correctly  Classify statistics into two types with examples  Differentiate and classify types of data in terms of measurement level, form, and representation.  Identify data sources and data collection methods used in research. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH

M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH .1 What is statistics? Statistics is the science of collecting summarizing analyzing interpreting organizing displaying numerical data for the purpose of making a more informed conclusion and decision.1.

Inferential Statistics Is the type of statistics used to make statements and draw conclusions about a population using information obtained from a sample and based on probability theory.2 Types of Statistics  2 types Types of Statistics Descriptive Statistics Is the type of statistics used to describe data numerically (mean. pie chart) in forms that easily understood and used.1. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . standard deviation) or graphically (line graph.

x  n Mode = value that occurs most frequently in a data set.1. 6. Standard deviation.2..1 Descriptive Statistics x1  x2  x3  . 7. 7. 6. xn  Mean. 12. 6. 17] the mode is 6. 6.. For example. 3.  = shows how much the set of data varies from the "average” (mean) M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . 12. for the sample [1.

2. Kruskal-Wallis test. factor analysis and etc. and Spearman. Mann-Whitney U test. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . r. t-test to compare two means. etc) test of relationship between two variables (correlation – Pearson. ) prediction test (regression) Others which you will not be learning in this course include multiple regression. Chi square test.1. Z test.2 Inferential Statistics Examples of statistical tests such as: • • • • hypothesis testing (standard normal test. ANOVA to compare 3 or or more means.

s a  n=10 Sample B 6 Statistic  xb . selected and representative of the population). weight.e. taste. aroma.3 A smallgroup of people selected from the population Entire group which is or objects which is being Characteristic or attribute of a population being of interest (aof all measurement of interest). equal chance of being all random voters.Sample: Population Variable: : 1. Statistic X38 X39 X40 X11 X12 X 14 X13  xa . X37 X35 X36 Sampling Unit: Each population unit that may be sampled. sc  n=10 X32 X33 Parameter (µ. studied is aregisteredsample (fair i. gender. Example: studied Example: height. A good sample Statistical Terminologieslength. (set subset of the population). colour etc. all students in a college. 2). sb  n=10 Statistic X19 X21 X 23 X X X22 Sample A X28 X24 X X26 25 X27 X30 X29 X31 18 20 X15 X16 X17 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X X34 Sample C X7 X8 X9 X10 xc . N=40 M4003 INTRODUCTION Population HELEN TEH Sampling unit .

1.3 Statistical Terminologies Also known as respondents/ elements. Variable Height (cm) 160 162 157 155 Population characteristic/ attribute being studied Element Ali Guna Unit/ Case Swee Lin Aida Observation Prakash 167 Value obtained from a variable M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . They are objects or sources Unit/ Case/ of information.

all students in a college. Variable: Characteristic or attribute of a population that is being studied Example: height.1. Sampling Unit: Each population unit that may be sampled. length. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH .3 Statistical Terminologies Population : Entire group of people or objects which is being studied (set of all measurement of interest). taste. Example: all registered voters. colour etc. aroma. A good sample is a random sample (fair and representative of the population). Sample: A small group which is selected from the population (a subset of the population). weight. gender.

. A research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of a new teaching approach (Outcome-based education.. A sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the best formulation for chicken nuggets.00 – 2. Identify the population. OBE) introduced in 2009 for all diploma programs in Malaysian polytechnics. A panel of 30 consumers were chosen randomly from among those who visited Carrefour at East Coast Mall between 12.00 pm on Sunday. The perspectives of 450 students and 85 lecturers were obtained through surveys. sample and variable in the research statements below: 1. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . 2.Think and do .

OBE) introduced in 2009 for all diploma programs in Malaysian polytechnics.Identify the population. A research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of a new teaching approach (Outcome-based education. sample and variable in the research statements below: variabl e 1. The perspectives of 450 students and 85 lecturers were obtained through surveys. sample populatio n All students and all lecturers in Malaysian polytechnics who followed or taught using the OBE approach HELEN TEH M4003 INTRODUCTION .

and overall acceptance of the product.00 – 2.Identify the population. variables sample populatio n HELEN TEH M4003 INTRODUCTION . An untrained panel of 30 consumers were chosen randomly from among those who visited Carrefour at East Coast Mall between 12.00 pm on Sunday. sample and variable in the research statements below: 2. aroma. texture and colour. A sensory evaluation using hedonic testing was conducted to determine the best formulation for chicken nuggets based on four attributes – taste.

etc.  Can be coded to appear numeric but values are meaningless. grade of cocoa.1. M4003 INTRODUCTION Quantitative  Can be measured on a numeric scale  Numerically meaningful  Examples: number of children in a family. weight of chillies in kilogram.4 Variable Qualitative  Expresses quality or category. hair colour. favourite singer. ethnic background etc. height. also called categorical variable  Nominal scale (name)  Examples: gender. HELEN TEH . amount of bacteria in a culture (cfu). state of birth. religious affiliation.

1 Qualitative Variable The variable Gender Female = F or 1 Male = M or 2 Suppose you add the values from a qualitative variable.4.1. Would the value be meaningful? Numerically meaningless! + ≠ 1 M4003 INTRODUCTION + HELEN TEH 1 = 2 .

Would the value obtained be meaningful? + = 1 2 1 M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH .1 Qualitative Variable The variable number of babies in a nursery Numerically meaningful! Suppose you add values from a quantitative variable.1.4.

Give 5 examples for quantitative variables and qualitative variables. Quantitative Qualitative M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH .Exercise 1.1: 1.

g.Exercise 1. b.1: 2. h. List whether the following is quantitative variable or qualitative variable: a. c. e. d. f. Lifetime of a light bulb in hours Final results from the judges Religion of an individual The concentration of sugar in a fruit juice Aroma of flowers Monthly telephone bill Dividend paid to investment with Amanah Saham Bumiputera Temperature of a region M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH .

4. M4003 INTRODUCTION Continuous quantitative variable  Infinite number of possible values  Usually obtained by measurement  Example: the weight of potatoes in a bag. etc. temperature. HELEN TEH . etc. Brix. number of apples in the basket. duration taken to bake a cake.2 Quantitative Variable Discrete quantitative variable  Finite or countable number (whole numbers)  Counts/ frequencies  Example: the number of bedrooms in a house.1.

h.Exercise 1. Height of a student. Number of seeds in an orange. e. k. Weight of a letter. Time needed to run 100 meters. c. M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . g. Number of children in a family. Lifetime of a light bulb. Number of phone calls every 2 hours. j. d. f. Number of passengers in a plane. Number of goals that scored by a player in a tournament The amount of petrol used by a car in 4 days. b. l. Speed of a car. State whether the following statement is either discrete variable or continuous variable: a.1: 3. i. Volume of fruit juice in a bottle.

Why do researchers use statistics?  To describe the population or phenomenon being studied  To determine the right statistical methods or procedures to analyze and understand the data better (and more accurately)  To help confirm or reject a hypothesis and to make informed and more valid decisions  Gathering information (data) from a sample is cheaper and HELEN TEH moreM4003 INTRODUCTION manageable (feasible) .5 Statistics and Research Researchers and scientists frequently use statistics to analyze their results. Researchers and scientists frequently use statistics to analyze their results.1.

S. The student experience: Quality never dies. there were 16.116 returns. King. In Proceedings of the Australian Universities Quality Forum 2006. M.Of the 47.1%. & Nair. (2006). AUQA: 96–100 M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH . resulting in an overall response rate of 34. C.263 students eligible to participate in Monash Experience Questionnaire 2005.

F A questionnaire with a 9-point hedonic scale or a 10-interval scoring test used in sensory Pearson. frequency counts and percentages are some descriptive statistics often used. a “yes” or “no” questionnaire produces categorical data. As the number of intervals used is more than 5. y = mx + c Comparison of formulations would use statistical procedures M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH such as t-tests and ANOVA. For such data.Design → type of test For example.  ANOVA. t Spearman. the data is often analysed as interval data. T-test. r . evaluation produce ordinal data.

001 M4003 INTRODUCTION HELEN TEH ..1016/j.ifset. (2008). Yang. L. Y. However further research on the structural properties of collagen is . The optimal conditions to obtain the highest yield of acidsoluble collagen from the skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were . X.3 ±0. Optimization of conditions for extraction of acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by response surface methodology. Du. J..2008... Yang. 9(4): 604–607 DOI: 10. Journal of Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. B..5% which was in agreement with the actual value (p<... and Liu..05)..03. This finding supports the production of acid-soluble collagen from the skin of grass carp.. Wang. The predicted yield of acid-soluble collagen was 19..