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an intellectual and cultural movement that began in Italy in the 1300s and spread throughout Northern Europe.  a revival of classical learning, art, and architecture - and the concept of the dignity of man.  Disability becomes a medical issue requiring the services of trained professionals. Persons with disabilities assumed the on-going role of patient, needing to be cured.

The disabled became objects of pity and curiosity. However, in most villages, almshouses, or poorhouses, were present to take care of those who did not have family, or members of the family were unable to care for them Being disabled was thought of as a natural outcome of being poor. Families rarely expelled physically disabled members, but found ways for them to contribute to the family. The physicians of the Renaissance period had no formal education, taught themselves, and were unskilled compared to today's physicians. In the Renaissance, there was a much lower rate of survival. The average person lived almost 30 years less than those in the 20th century


Physicians were thought to be learned men who had gone through schooling and had studied standard educational programs followed by a deep study of philosophy. Their diagnoses were usually based on a thorough examination of the body and the urine.

the dentist. These came in two varieties: an apothecary or an herbalist.  -An apothecary could only give out medications that had been prescribed by a physician or surgeon. the surgeon. In most cases.SECOND OPTION:  Find a surgeon. . and the barber were all one in the same person.  -The herbalist used interesting homemade concoctions to try to relieve anything from pain to fighting diseases. Final option was to try one of the "physicians cookes".

or internal bleeding. . nearly anyone who was shot in battle died from loss of blood.AMBROISE PARE      -Army surgeon -Famous for discovering that hot irons should be used to cauterize bullet or metal-tipped arrow wounds. -He devised appliances such as artificial limbs and trusses. -Also recognized the necessity of keeping wounds clean. .Pare also discovered ways of "tying off" the arteries when he amputated a limb. infection. Until his discovery.

physicians must learn about and study the human body.LEONARDO DA VINCI -first to realize to successfully treat most diseases.  -a strong supporter of "human dissections"  .

despite the efforts of medical practitioners and public and religious institutions to institute regulations. leading to a vast array of health problems. Medical knowledge was limited and. .WHAT IS REALLY LIKE TO LIVE IN MIDDLE AGES? As the populations of medieval towns and cities increased. hygienic conditions worsened. medieval Europe did not have an adequate health care system.

feces. or urine. it could be disposed of through sweat. tears. When there was a build-up of any one humor. .HUMORS  Natural functions. such as sneezing. were thought to be the best way of maintaining health. or body fluid.

hemorrhoids. as well as tuberculosis of the lymph glands in the neck (scrofula).SURGERY  Performed as a last resort. it was meant to restore the balance of fluids in the body. gangrene. The most common form of surgery was bloodletting. fistula. and cataracts. . surgery was known to be successful in cases of breast cancer.

XRays were not discovered until 1895 and the use of them in medicine developed almost immediately to provide one of the first true diagnostic tools. Doctors in 1800 did not have Xrays to help them see inside the body. .19TH CENTURY HEALTHCARE  Practitioners of health care in the 19th Century focused on providing care that was generally based on a minimum of causative information.

In fact. as was going into the hospital. 19th Century health care was a hit or miss adventure. ―curing‖ a patient did not always mean making them better. hospitals were very unsanitary until Joseph Lister discovered that the use of carbolic acid aided in reducing the number of infections during operations. .DOCTORS AND HOSPITALS IN 1800  Disinfectant was not used in hospitals until the 1870s. In early hospitals.

 Joseph Lister  .discovered that the use of carbolic acid aided in reducing the number of infections during operations. -discovered penicillin by chance.   Sir Alexander Fleming  William Thomas Green -American dentist  -used ether on a patient while extracting a tooth 19th  -new idea of putting the patient to sleep during the operation really caught on.  .

 .MEDICINE Today all medicine is supposed to be focused on maintaining.  By the end of the century the practices of 19th Century health care had modernized and the practicing and trained doctor was now at the center of the provision of good care. or improving the bodies’ functions and improving the general well-being of the body and all of its complex systems.

regardless of how much they earn.  . Such a system will ensure that patients have access to the safest and highest-quality care. Patients must be the first priority and the focus of the transformed system.21ST CENTURY Patient-Centered Health Care  The focus of the 21st-century health care system must be the patient. or the color of their skin. where they live. how sick they are.

Most health care today is paid for and controlled by third parties. such as the government.CONSUMER-DRIVEN HEALTH CARE  The new system also must be responsive primarily to individual consumers. insurers. . rather than to third-party payers. A consumer-driven system will empower all people — if they so choose — to make decisions that will directly affect the most fundamental and intimate aspect of their life — their own health. and employers.

and clinics. This patient-centered. providerfriendly model will be energized and driven by three fundamental forces: information. Health care is delivered by doctors. competing and retooling to provide the highest possible level of care for patients. We must recognize that empowered providers. . consumer-driven. nurses. and control. hospitals. we must reestablish and promote the value of the doctor–patient relationship. choice. are the cornerstones of this new vision.PROVIDER-FRIENDLY HEALTH CARE  In a transformed health care system.

 -Health Transformation is about the total betterment of Health.  .HEALTH TRANSFORMATION Means of facilitating health transformation:  -Ways through which Health Transformation or Health Modification is achieved.

. Clients are now more likely to be treated in the community. today. utilizing resources. most cataract removals are performed on an outpatient basis in outpatient surgery centers. a person having cataract surgery had to remain in bed in the hospital for ten days. *Modern medical discoveries have changed the profile of the clients. thereby preventing the condition from worsening. ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY  -Improved diagnostic procedures and sophisticated equipments permit early recognition of diseases that might otherwise have remained undetected. technology and treatments outside the hospital. Years ago.1. Eg.

Standardization of care practices. CLINICAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENT  -Coordinating clinical improvement activities across multiple hospitals and other sites of care in a complex integrated delivery system serves important purposes in addition to improving patient care.2. . policies. and procedures is considerably enhanced by coordinating these activities across the entire system. These projects were an important cultural change agent to transform the individual components of the system into one that is capable of delivering care continuously across multiple sites.

In managed care. health care providers and agencies collaborate to render the most appropriate. REDUCING THE COST OF HEALTH CARE THRU MANAGED CARE  -provides cost-effective. health promotion and preventive services. . customer satisfaction. quality care that focuses on decreased costs and improved outcomes for groups of clients. Managed care denotes an emphasis on cost controls.3. HMOs and preferred provider orgs are examples of provider systems to managed care. fiscally responsible care possible.

ESSENTIAL HEALTH SERVICES OFFERED TO SPECIFIC POPULATION FOR BETTER HEALTH STATUS  a. Safe Motherhood. Elderly: Services rendered towards reduction of Chronic degenerative diseases e. Women: Maternal and Child Health. Infant and Children: Fully Immunized Child. Target Food Assistance Program. Safe work place . victims of calamitites. Micronutrient Supplementation b.4. disaster and victims of armed conflicts f. Responsible Parenthood d. Workers: Safety. Special Communities: indigenous communities. Adolescent: Nat’l Program of Youth and Adolescence c.

*The term ambulatory care center has replaced the term clinic in many places. they free costly hospital beds for seriously ill clients.5. ADVENT OF AMBULATORY CARE CENTERS  -They permit the client to live at home while obtaining necessary health care. .

Consistent and Efficient Provision of Health Services b. Health Care Financing . OTHERS:  a.6. Favorable responsiveness of to the expectations of the population c.


They work in health care teams to make the health care system function by providing a range of diagnostic. . who have direct contact with patients in a clinical setting. . therapeutic and direct patient care and support services that are critical to the other health professionals they work with and the patients they serve. technical.Allied Medical Professionals are generally classified as any medical professionals.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… . other than medical doctors or nurses.

Restore maximum function lost through injury. muscle and bone experts who treat injury or illness that affect how you move and function in life. Physiatrists: . not just the problem. illness or disabling conditions. . .Provide non-surgical treatments relying heavily on therapy to restore or improve function.also called as rehabilitation physician. .Treat the whole person. . . THE PHYSIATRIST .Are nerve. .Are experts in diagnosing and treating pain. are medical doctors that have special training in functioning and mobility.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… a medical doctor who has specialized in the area of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

. functional limitations. psychological. symptoms. treatment/intervention and rehabilitation. diagnosis. Physical therapists: . and progression of impairments. THE PHYSICAL THERAPIST . . is concerned with identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion. This encompasses physical.or physiotherapist. and disabilities that may result from diseases. conditions. disorders. and promote not only optimal physical function but optimal wellness and fitness and optimal quality of life as it relates to movement and health.Diagnose and manage movement dysfunction and enhance physical and functional abilities. and social well being.Prevent the onset. emotional. maintain.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 2. or injuries.Restore. prevention. .

Occupational therapists: -Customized treatment programs aimed at improving abilities to carry out the activities of daily living. or maintain daily living and work skills. . -Recommendations and training in the use of adaptive equipment. -Comprehensive evaluation of home and job environments and recommendations on necessary adaptation. physically.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 3. recover. or emotionally disabling.Guidance to family members and caregivers. Occupational therapy gives people the "skills for the job of living" that are needed for independent and satisfying lives. Occupational therapists assist individuals to develop. OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST . developmentally.Occupational therapy is skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. . .Assessments and treatment for performance skills. .Occupational therapists work with individuals who have conditions that are mentally.

stress and anxiety. or therapeutic recreation specialists.Recreational therapists.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 4. mental and emotional well-being and help reduce depression. Treatments may incorporate arts and crafts. . games. build confidence and socialize more effectively. -Recreational therapies help patients recover basic motor functioning and reasoning abilities. drama. provide treatments and recreation activities to individuals with illnesses or disabling conditions to improve or maintain physical. sports. dance and movement. RECREATIONAL THERAPIST . animals. music and community outings.

A variety of qualitative and quantitative assessment methods are utilized including standardized tests. language. language. diagnose. SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST . fluency and other related disorders. from infancy to the elderly. and other special instruments.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 5. treat and help prevent speech. cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders in individuals of all levels. . Speech Pathologists: -Evaluate and diagnose speech.Treat speech. swallowing.A specialist sometimes called a speech therapist or speech pathologist with a role to assess. utilizing an individualized plan with both long-term goals and short-term goals established for each individual’s needs. language. . language and other impairments. cognitive-communication. in order to analyze and diagnose the nature and extent of speech. cognitive-communication and swallowing disorders. voice.

adjustment to disability . Psychologists: .transition planning (adolescents) . counseling. Many psychologists (clinical. interaction/communication . and management of rheumatic illnesses.) conduct research studies to provide valuable information concerning the course. PSYCHOLOGIST -assist the patient and family in managing emotional and psychological distress.adherence to treatment .coping style . neuropsychology.mood. rehabilitation. chronic. research.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 6. such as levels of anxiety and depression . consequences. social. educational. A licensed psychologist assists persons with rheumatic disease in living and coping with a painful. and sometimes disabling disease.cognitive functioning .

.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 7. They will also advise on rehabilitation.Orthotists provide a range of splints.Prosthetists and orthotists provide care for anyone requiring an artificial limb (prosthesis) or a device to support or control part of the body (orthosis). . ORTHOTIST AND PROSTHETIST . braces and special footwear to aid movement.Prosthetists provide the best possible artificial replacement for patients who have lost or were born without a limb. correct deformity and relieve discomfort. A prosthetic limb should feel and look like a natural limb. .

are involved in the evaluation and monitoring of heart and lung function as well as giving of mechanical ventilators .VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 8.administering drugs to the lungs . Respiratory therapists.administration of oxygen .cardiopulmonary resuscitation . also known as respiratory care practitioners. Specific care provided by respiratory therapists may include: . RESPIRATORY THERAPIST -Respiratory care is an allied health specialty which provides a wide range of therapeutic and diagnostic services to patients with heart and lung disorders. .monitoring cardiopulmonary systems .measuring lung function.

immunohematology (blood banking). PHARMACIST . genetics.microbiology. serology. hematology. to being an integrated member of the health care team directly involved in patient care .VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 9. MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST -The work of these professionals encompass clinical applications of chemistry. 10. immunology. "lick & stick the labels. and pour" dispensary role (that is. urinalysis and miscellaneous body fluid analysis. the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. count & pour the pills"). The role of the pharmacist has shifted from the classical "lick. stick.are allied health professionals who practice in pharmacy.

• Fluoroscopy – X-ray test that examines the internal body and shows moving images on a screen like a movie.for patients too sick to travel to the X-ray department.assisting surgeons during operations with special X-ray equipment. • Trauma radiography . It is an important part of medicine and a patient’s diagnosis and treatment is often dependent on the X-ray images produced. • Angiography .three dimensional X-ray imaging test. • Computed tomography . • Mobile radiography . • Magnetic resonance imaging .three dimensional imaging test powered by a large magnet.challenging examinations on injured individuals.VARYING FUNCTIONS OF ALLIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONS… 11. • Operating theatre . RADIOGRAPHER -A radiographer or medical imaging technologist is a trained health professional who performs medical imaging by producing high quality X-ray pictures or images used to diagnose and treat injury or disease.imaging of blood vessels and the heart. .