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Food Hygiene Demo Lecture College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Banos

By Therese Marie A. Collantes, DVM, MS

I. Categories of microbial food-borne pathogens A. Causes invasive infection B. Causes toxico-infection C. Causes intoxication II. Significant microbial food-borne pathogens A. Invasive Infection -Salmonella typhimurium B. Toxico-infection -E. coli O157 C. Intoxication -Staphylococcus aureus III. Control and Prevention of microbial food-borne pathogens

Invasive infection

Organism invades and penetrates intestinal mucosa

Toxicoinfection

Organism produces harmful toxins in the intestinal tract

Intoxica -tion

Organisms produces toxins or metabolites in the ingested food

Salmonella

typhimurium
Salmonella typhi Shigella Listeria

E.coli O157 Vibrio cholerae Vibrio

Staphylococcus

aureus

parahaemolyticus
Clostridium

Bacillus cereus (Emetic syndrome) Clostridium botulinum (infant botulism)

monocytogenes

perfingens

Bacillus cereus (Diarrheal syndrome)

Integrated Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health (S. Buncic, 2006)

Etiologic Agent

Salmonella typhimurium
-Gram negative, motile rods -Incubation period 6-48 hours -Transmission by contaminated food

Signs and Symptoms


Mild fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, aching limbs, abdominal pain and diarrhea Salmonella invade epithelial cells in the ileum and proliferate in the lamina propria.

Source, Reservoir

Poultry, eggs, meat, milk, chocolate, coconut Food contaminated with feces Raw or undercooked food

Epidemiology About 50 000 cases a year of salmonellosis in humans are reported annually in the United States.

Control of Salmonellosis

Cook food thoroughly. Pasteurize milk and dairy products; avoid consumption of unpasteurized products. Prevent cross-contamination of heat-treated foods. Avoid undercooked or raw eggs. Store heat-treated foods at <4C or >60C to prevent growth. Reduce carriage of livestock by vaccinating or dosing with antibiotics or probiotics. Exclude infected or carrier-status individuals from handling food. Control rodents and insects. Dispose of sewage in a sanitary manner.

Etiologic Agent

Escherichia coli O157:H7


-Gram-negative rod, non-sporing -Motile, facultative metabolism -Incubation period 3-8 days Signs and Symptoms

Diarrhea, urinary tract infection and other extraintestinal infections.


Hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Colonoscopy findings showed friable, inflamed, and hemorrhagic mucosa

Enterohemorrhagic Escher ichia coli (EHEC):Attaches to colonic enterocytes and releases virulence factors, most commonly shiga-like toxins (Stx), which disrupt protein synthesis, leading to cell death and subsequent bloody diarrhea. Release of toxins can lead to systemic complications. E coli O157:H7 is the most commonly recognized EHEC.

Source, Reservoir

Shiga toxin (stx)- producing E. coli O157 are carried in the GIT of healthy livestock such as: Cattle, sheep, deer, goats, poultry, horses, dogs, rats, flies, birds and humans Spread may be person-to-person, food-borne, and animal-toperson Survives in refrigerated food (ground beef), livestock wastes and soil (up to 1 year)

Epidemiology

Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes 73,000 illnesses in the United States annually.

Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreaks, United States, 19822002

Control of O157:H7

Use GHP and HACCP in meat production. Cook meat thoroughly until >72C in the centre, instantaneously. Pasteurize juice and dairy products; dont consume unpasteurized products. Prevent cross-contamination of heat-treated foods. Exclude infected individuals from handling foods. Use only potable water in food production; consume only potable water. Prevent young children from contacting livestock and farm environments. Avoid eating in areas that could be contaminated with animal feces. Wash hands thoroughly before eating. Do not use organic waste or fecally-contaminated water on readyto-eat crops. Control rodents, insects and birds.

Etiologic Agent

Staphylococcus aureus
-Non-motile, facultatively anaerobic cocci -Incubation period 1-6 hours -Transmission by contaminated food Signs and Symptoms -Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, sweating, headache and drop in body temperature. -CNS stimulation, triggering emetic center to induce vomiting

Source, Reservoir

-Anterior nares of 50% of people, environmental contaminant -Poor hygiene amongst food handlers with skin infections, those carrying pathogen in their nostrils - Contaminated food such as cold, cooked and handled food, cream and custardfilled bakery products, cream-based desserts, milk, meat, canned fish, seafood and fermented sausages.

S. Aureus produces a range of enterotoxins in food: Enterotoxin A, B, C1, C2, C3, D, E, F. Most human food-borne disease is caused by type A enterotoxin.

Control of Staphylo-enterotoxicosis
Use good personal hygiene practices when handling food. People with skin infection should not handle food. Use GHP when handling food. Chill cooked food rapidly in small quantities. Store cooked or heat-treated foods at <4C or >60C. Avoid extensive handling of foods. Avoid delays between cooking and eating.

Microbial food-borne pathogens can be classified into three groups.


Invasive infection Toxico-infection Intoxication

Good handling practices prevent the occurrence of food-borne illnesses.


Control in animal population Control during processing Control in preparation of food