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Organizational Behavior

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Culture
Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

Organizational Culture Defined
The basic pattern of shared assumptions, values, and beliefs considered to be the correct way of thinking about and acting on problems and opportunities facing the organization.

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Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

. 2006. University of Tehran.The Layers of Culture Observable Artifacts Espoused Values Basic Underlying Assumptions Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior.

2006. University of Tehran. Assumptions . Organizational Behavior.Elements of Organizational Culture Physical Structures Artifacts of Organizational Culture Rituals/ Ceremonies Stories Language Organizational Culture Beliefs Values Gholipour A.

Short-Term Gholipour A.Values Across Cultures Power Distance Individualism-Collectivism Masculinity-Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term . Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. . 2006.

University of Tehran. 2006.Four Functions of Organizational Culture Organizational identity Sense-making device Organizational culture Collective commitment Social system stability Gholipour A. Organizational Behavior. .

Organizational Behavior.Defining Organizational Culture • Innovation and risk taking • Attention to detail • Outcome orientation • People orientation • Team orientation • Aggressiveness • Stability Gholipour A. . 2006. University of Tehran.

Organizational Behavior.Do Organizations Have Uniform Cultures? Dominant Culture Subcultures Core Values Gholipour A. . University of Tehran. 2006.

.Organizational Subcultures • Located throughout the organization • Can support or oppose (countercultures) firm’s dominant culture • Two functions of countercultures: – provide surveillance and evaluation – source of emerging values . University of Tehran. 2006. Organizational Behavior. Gholipour A.

How Cultures Form Top Management Philosophy of the Organization’s Founders Selection Organizational Culture Socialization Gholipour A. . Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran.

2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.Benefits of Strong Corporate Cultures Social Control Strong Organizational Culture Social Glue Aids Sense-Making Gholipour A. .

.Problems with Strong Cultures • Culture content might be incompatible with the organization’s environment. • Strong cultures focus attention on one mental model. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior. • Strong cultures suppress dissenting values from subcultures. 2006. Gholipour A.

Stories Rituals Learning About Organizational Culture Language Material Symbols Gholipour A. . Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran.

and myths about key people and events • The organizational activities. language. values. layoffs. . and promotion criteria • Stories. and buildings • Slogans. mission. development. promotion. titles). measure. training programs. teaching and coaching by managers and supervisors • Explicit rewards. status symbols (e. and sayings • Deliberate role modeling.g. selection. Organizational Behavior. and retirement of people Gholipour A.Embedding Organizational Culture • Formal statements of organizational philosophy. selection and socialization • The design of physical space. vision. and materials used for recruiting. work environments.. or outcomes that leaders pay attention to. 2006. acronyms. legends. University of Tehran. and control • Leader reactions to critical incidents and organizational crises • The workflow and organizational structure • Organizational systems and procedures • Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment. processes.

Anticipatory socialization Learning that occurs prior to joining the organization Perceptual and Social Processes • Anticipating realities about the organization and the new job • Anticipating organization’s need for one’s skills and abilities • Anticipating organization’s sensitivity to one’s needs and values Gholipour A. University of Tehran.A Model of Organizational Socialization Phases 1. . Organizational Behavior. 2006.

.A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont. 2006. University of Tehran.) Phases 2. Organizational Behavior. Encounter Values. skills and attitudes start to shift as new recruit discovers what the organization is truly like Perceptual and Social Processes • Managing lifestyleversus-work conflicts • Managing intergroup role conflicts • Seeking role definition and clarity • Becoming familiar with task and group dynamics Gholipour A.

Change and acquisition Perceptual and Social Processes • Competing role demands are resolved • Critical tasks are mastered • Group norms and values are internalized Recruit masters skills and roles and adjusts to work group’s values and norms Gholipour A.) Phases 3. 2006. Organizational Behavior.A Model of Organizational Socialization (cont. University of Tehran. .

Anticipatory socialization 2. Change and acquisition Outsider Behavioral Outcomes • Performs role assignments • Remains with organization Socialized Insider Affective Outcomes • Generally satisfied • Internally motivated to work • High job involvement • Spontaneously innovates and cooperates Gholipour A. . 2006. Encounter 3. University of Tehran.A Model of Organizational Socialization (continued) Phases 1. Organizational Behavior.

.Counseling . people who provide career and psychosocial support) and a junior person Functions of Mentoring • Career Functions .Acceptance and confirmation .Exposure and visibility . 2006. Organizational Behavior.Mentoring The process of forming and maintaining intensive and lasting developmental relationships between a variety of developers (i.Friendship Gholipour A. University of Tehran.Challenging assignments • Psychosocial Functions .Coaching .e.Role modeling . .Protection .Sponsorship .

Phases of the Mentoring • Initiation • Cultivation • Separation • Redefinition Gholipour A. University of Tehran. . 2006. Organizational Behavior.

Organizational Behavior. 2006. University of Tehran. .Merging Organizational Cultures Assimilation Acquired company embraces acquiring firm’s culture Acquiring firm imposes its culture on unwilling acquired firm Both cultures combined into a new composite culture Deculturation Integration Separation Merging companies remain separate with their own culture Gholipour A.

Organizational Behavior.Strengthening Organizational Culture Founders and leaders Selection and socialization Culturally consistent rewards Strengthening Organizational Culture Managing the cultural network Stable workforce Gholipour A. . University of Tehran. 2006.

A Model of Ethical Behavior in the Workplace Cultural Influences .Perceived pressure for results .Gender Ethical behavior .Family .Education -Religion .Ethical codes .Organizational culture .Media/entertainment Organizational Influences .Personality .Moral principles . 2006.Rewards/punishment system Political/legal/ economic influences Gholipour A. University of Tehran.Role models . Individual .Values .History of reinforcement . Organizational Behavior.

do as the Romans do.Guidelines for Behavior and Ethics in Foreign Cultures: A Balancing Act Cultural Relativism “ When in Rome. 2006.” Guiding Principles for a Middle Ground • Respect for core human values. which determine the absolute moral threshold for all business activities. Gholipour A. • Respect for local traditions • The belief that context matters when deciding what is right and what is wrong. there are no international or universal standards. University of Tehran. Cultural Imperialism “The sun never set on the British Empire” Assumption: Each culture is right in its own way. Problems: • Morally inconsistent • Fosters “anything is okay” attitude. . Organizational Behavior. Problems: • Morally arrogant • Insensitivity to local cultural traditions and tastes. Assumption: People in all cultures should follow one set of behavioral and ethical standards.