Passive with gerundinfinitives

Impersonal Pronouns in the Passive

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We use this form for the sentences which have pronouns such as anyone, no one, anybody, nobody, anything active : nobody /nothing Passive: anybody and anything Active: Nobody can repair this broken vase. Passive: This broken vase can not be repaired by anybody.

Passive: Nothing can be done about this case.  Active: You can not do anything about this case. .

Passive 1: It is said that he lives abroad now. . Passive1 : It is believed that he is the murderer of his wife. Passive2: He is believed to be the murderer of his wife. Passive 2: He is said to live abroad now. Active: People believe that he is the murderer of his wife.It’s said that …/He is said to etc…        Main clause+ noun clause sentences can be turn into passive form in two ways: Active: People say that he lives abroad now.

He is understood to dislike children. Simple Present: We understand that he dislikes children. .is. Present “be” (am. It is said that the man upstairs is a thief. It is understood that he dislikes children. The man upstairs is said to be a thief.are) They say that the man upstairs is a thief.Differences in tenses:         A. B.

were) They say that he was very rich in the past. It is claimed that he left the country……. It is said that he was very rich in the past.        C. Past “be” (was. D. . Simple Past People claim that he left the country two months ago. He is said to have been very rich……. He is claimed to have left the …………..

It is thought that he is waiting there now. He is thought to be waiting there now. Present Progressive We think that he is waiting there now. F. G. It is said that he was working very hard. He is said to have been working very hard. Past progressive People say that he was working very hard. He is thought to have deserted his family. .            E. It is thought that he has deserted his family. Present Perfect People think that he has deserted his family.

is. The rate of exchange is expected to go/to be going down soon. I.        H. Present Passive (am. It is expected that the rate of exchange will/is going to go down soon. It is said that a lot of eclectrical appliances are stolen . Future tense (will or going to ) People expect that the rate of exchange will/ is going to go down soon. A lot of electrical appliances are said to be stolen.are done) They say that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day. .

It is reported that two people were killed in the explosion. Two people are reported to have been killed in the explosion. Past Passive (was. .    J.were done) They report that two people were killed in the explosion.

 He was believed to have committed the crime.were in the passive part.If the verb is in past form in the main clause. we should use was.  It was believed that he had committed the crime.  People believed that he had committed the crime. .

. the verbs taking gerund can be used in the form of being done I have been invited to the party. In this use the verb is active but gerund is passive.but in the passive gerund . I appreciate being invited to the party.The passive gerund     The basic form of passive is be+past participle (be done) . I appreciate this.

You can’t go to the party without being invited. . I don’t enjoy being asked personal questions. he is in danger of being kidnapped. She insists on being told the truth whatever it is. I resented not being invited to the wedding.      She insists on our telling her the truth whatever it is. Being the son of a very rich man.

Passive with Perfect Gerund      The form is having been done. . If the gerund verb occured before the main verb we use perfect gerund ( having done) instead of simple gerund /doing) The man denied being involved / having been involved in the robbery. I don’t recall being told/ having been told about this case. She doesn’t seem interested in being given/ having been given a reward for her work.

The thief admitted having stolen the car. He was accused of having embezzled a large sum of money into his own account.     The thief admitted that he had stolen the car. Perfect gerund is mostly used with admit and deny verbs. . I appreciated your having helped me.

(put)………….Exercise 1:Complete the sentences using active gerund (simple or perfect) or passive gerund (simple or perfect) supplying a preposition    1. So I’m thinking ……….an end to our friendship.how to do something I know so well. In the end the manager admitted …… (involve) ………in the embezzlement case. I’m not accustomed …………. 2.(treat) ………so authoritatively as I am by him. I can’t stand (tell)…………. 3.. ..

I didn’t expect she would invite me to her wedding.Passive infinitive and past infinitive      A. I don’t want to be told what to do. I didn’t expect to be invited to her wedding. The infinitive passive form is to be done. I don’t want you to tell me what to do. .

The basic adjectives. appear. The past form of infinitive is to have done and passive past is to have been done. use past infinitive. seem. content.    B. pretend. fortunate. lucky. If the infinitive verb occurs before the main verb. happy. The basic verbs . pleased. likely .

They seem to have been surprised at the news. . I’m happy to have passed the exam. She is fortunate to have received a good education. She is fortunate that she received a good education. It seems that they were surprised at the news.      I’m happy that I passed the exam.

She is lucky to be sent abroad. She is fortunate that she studied abroad. She is lucky she was sent abroad.c. She is fortunate to have studied abroad. She is lucky to have been sent abroad. She is lucky she will be sent abroad. She is fortunate to study abroad.       . To do/to be done and to have done/to have been done   She is fortunate that she will study abroad.

They appear to have been waiting for us…. They appear to be waiting for us.   It appears that they have been waiting for us for a long time.(or present perf.d. .appear and pretend can be used in the form on present continuous infinitive (to be doing) and past cont.) (to have been doing)   It appears that they are waiting for us. Cont. Seem .

order.    I asked my friends not to make so much noise. because these verbs express the actions which will occur after them.e. I told the children to be careful. . After Tell. He told me to be there on time.ask . Verbs we can not use past infinitive.request etc.

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