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The Manager as a Person

Dr. D. H. Sukhwal

Personality Traits
Personality Traits: Characteristics that influence how people think, feel and behave on and off the job. Include tendencies to be enthusiastic, demanding, easy-going, nervous, etc. Each trait can be viewed on a continuum, from low to high. There is no wrong trait, but rather managers have a complex mix of traits.

Attitudes: The Orientation to Life


Extroversion
Energized by outer world Outgoing Talkative

Introversion
Energized by inner world Inward Quiet

Acts first; Thinks later Values breadth of experience

Thinks & may act. Values depth of experience

The Big Five Traits:


I
Low

Extroversion Negative Affectivity Agreeableness Conscientiousness


Openness to Experience

High

II
Low High

III
Low High

IV
Low High

V
Low High
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Extroversion: people are positive &

The Big Five

feel good about themselves & world. Managers high on this trait are sociable, friendly experience negative moods, are critical, & distressed. Managers are often critical & feel angry with others & self.
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Negative Affectivity: people

Agreeableness: people like to


get along with others.
Managers are likable, and care about others.

Conscientiousness: people tend to be careful, persevering. Openness to Experience: people are original, with broad interests.

Traits and Managers


Successful managers vary

widely on the Big Five.

It is important to understand these traits since it helps explain a managers approach to planning, leading, organizing, etc. Managers should also be aware of their own style and try to tone down problem areas.
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Internal

Locus of Control: People believe they are responsible for their fate.
See their actions are important to achieving goals
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External

People believe outside forces are responsible for their fate


Their actions make little difference in achieving outcomes
Managers

Locus of Control:

need an Internal Locus of Control!


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Other Traits Self-Esteem: Captures the degree

to which people feel good about themselves and abilities. High self-esteem causes people to feel they are competent & capable Low self-esteem people have poor opinions of themselves and abilities.
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Need

for Achievement: extent to which people have a desire to perform challenging tasks & meet personal standards Need for Affiliation: extent to which people want to build interpersonal relationships and being liked Need for Power: indexes desire to control or influence others
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Values
Values: describe

what managers try to achieve through work and how to behave. These are personal convictions about life-long goals (terminal values) and modes of conduct (instrumental values).
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A persons value system reflects how important their values are as a guiding principle in life. Terminal values important to managers include:

Sense of Accomplishment, equality, self-respect.

Instrumental values include: hard-working, broadminded, capable


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Terminal &Instrumental Values


TERMINAL VALUES Prosperous life Exciting life Sense of Accomplishment A world at peace Salvation Self-respect Pleasure Wisdom True friendship Equality INSTRUMENTAL VALUES Ambitious Broadminded Capable Cheerful Clean Helpful Honest Obedient Loving Responsible
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Attitudes
Attitudes: collection of feelings about

something

Job Satisfaction: feelings about a


workers job
Satisfaction tends to rise as manager moves up in the organization

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors:


actions not required of managers but which help advance the firm. Managers with high satisfaction perform these extra mile tasks
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Organizational Commitment: beliefs held by people toward the organization as a whole Committed managers are loyal & proud of the firm Commitment can differ around the world
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Moods
Moods:

encompass how a manager feels while managing Positive moods provide excitement, elation and enthusiasm Negative moods lead to fear, stress, nervousness Moods can depend on a person's basic outlook as well as on current situations
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Managers

need to realize how they feel affects how they treat others and how others respond to them Workers prefer to make suggestions to mangers who are in a good mood.
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Perceptions Perception is the process through which people select, organize & interpret the input Managers decisions are based on their perception
Managers need to ensure perceptions are accurate
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Managers

are all different and so are their perceptions of a situation


Perceptions depend on satisfaction, moods, and so forth

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managers past experience can influence their outlook on a new project.

Good managers TRY NOT TO PREJUDGE new ideas based on the past

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Career Development
Career: sum total of the work-

related experiences through a persons life Linear career: person moves through a sequence of jobs of higher levels

Can build different experience in different positions


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Steady State career: worker chooses to keep the same kind of job over much of a career. Become highly skilled in given area Spiral Career: worker holds fundamentally different jobs that still build on each other Worker gains wide experience yet skills continue to build

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Career Stages
Preparation for Work Organization Entry Early Midcareer

Midcareer
Late Career
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Career Stages:
Preparation

for Work: decide on kind of career, determine qualifications needed. Organizational entry: find a first job.
Managers usually start in a functional area first.
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Early career: establishes

person in the firm and begins achievement. Worker learns firms values & duties. Also begins to achieve noteworthy results in the job. Worker tries to stand out as a good performer. Mentors (experienced manager who shows you the ropes) are valuable during this stage.
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Mid-career: usually have been in

workforce 20-35 years.


Usually provides major accomplishments.

Career plateaus can occur as chances for further promotion dwindle


Plateau managers can still enjoy a fruitful career.

Late

career: continues as long as the

manager works and is active. Many managers choose to stay active well past normal retirement.
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Career Management
Managers need to consider both personal career management as well as the careers of other workers in the firm. Ethical practice: managers need to ensure worker promotions are based on outcomes, not friendships. This means all workers are treated equally.
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Accommodation

of other

demands: Workers have many


things in their lives besides work. Managers need to consider these issues as well. The dual career couple is the norm. Workers have family commitments.
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Stress

Results when people face important opportunity or threats they are uncertain can be handled.
Managers almost always face stress.

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Physiological

issues: stress can result in sleep problems, headaches, and other issues.
Long-term levels of stress can result in heart attack, and high blood pressure. Different people experience stress differently.
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Psychological

issues: stress can result in bad moods, anger, nervousness.


Can result in lower work output and frustration.

Behavioral

issues: stress can actually enhance job performance as well as impair it.
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Stress & Performance


High

Level of Performance
Low
Low Positive Stress

Negative Stress High

Level of Stress
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Sources of Stress

Role Conflict: results from

conflict between managerial roles. Conflict can result when managers want to present a problem with the firm but still want to present firm in best possible light.
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Role

Overload: managers

have too many duties and activities. Most managers have several roles but they can become overpowering.

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Coping with stress Problem-focused: actions taken to directly deal with stress. Emotion-focused: actions taken to deal with stressful feelings.
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Time Management: allows people to accomplish more with less wasted time. Mentoring: mentor shows how to deal with stress. Exercise: can reduce stressful feelings. Meditation: puts current cares aside. Social support: can come from family or other workers.
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