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Notes and strategy Pack

IGCSE Language Paper

Section A (Unseen Passage)
You are given an article to read and then three questions on the article. (3 or 4//4 or 5//12)

Section B (Anthology Based)

One of the passages from the anthology is given to you. You have two questions. One on how the writer creates this tone/mood or effect and the next a experience question. (10//10)

Section C (Creative Writing)

A single task that will ask you to write something that aims to persuade/inform. Either:

Section A Unseen Passage

1st Question
Look again at lines 25 to 33. What three comparisons does the writer make to help us understand the boats appearance? (3)

2nd Question
In your own words explain why the leather boat is more at risk than other boats (5)

3rd Question
How does the writer convey the violence and power of the sea and weather throughout this passage (12) 20 Marks in total, and this is a standard layout.

Section B Anthology Based

Touching the void Harriet Tubman I never thought I could be this lucky Impact Alert Asteroids Shopping for Romanian Babies Explorers? Or Boys Messing About Chinese Cinderella Taking on the world A Foreign Field
After stories is the strategies.

Touching The Void

Joes Account
Use of Rhetorical Questions
Building Suspense

- Vivid Imagery
Pain ruptured, twisted, shattering Adjectives sudden shattering fierce Verbs I hit, Is struck

Use of direct speech

Fortifies Him Deals with the situation (calms him)

Thought Processes
Use of Ellipse if shows growing panic Series of thought processes Becomes unpredictable

Modal Verbs
(must//could//would//should//shall) Speculation on a bleak future

Highly Emotive
Emphasises the pain he suffered Adjectives and verbs (active/dramatic/full of impact) Avoidance of technical language Dominance of personal pronoun

Particular powerful images (eg. Burning fire) Use of repetition as a device Short Sentences (He had no choice)

Touching The Void 2

Simons Account
Simon talks for most of the time about the dilemma they are in Simon refers to Joe in the first line then carries this on Simon does not talk about and pain or suffering Simon thinks very rationally this is shown in long complex sentences.

Harriet Tubman
Story Narrative Figurative Creativity Biography Third Person

- Other Points
Starts with larger text Short sentences followed by long (PE) Picture

Informing Factual and not interested in thoughts and feelings at a distance The writer does not know the individual person

Formulaic Structure
Starts with Birth Ends in death Sequence The life time (chorological order)

Non Emotive
Does not mean the writing lacks emotion Events of life have there own drama

Encyclopaedia History Text Book

I Never Thought I Could Be This Lucky

Human Interest Story Suresh, now 32
Accumulates information quickly and delivers. Compacts the writing Sense of character/characteristics

The BUT But my friends were really

supportive Suggests she is surprised and didnt expect this. She uses this in surprised circumstances

1st paragraph delays wedding

Delays the emotion Heart warming effect Emotional impact Ends Happy

Negative to positive
I knew I was paralysed, but I was sure it was temporary But then I met Suresh and everything changed Turns all negative to positive Creates suspense and engages the reader Makes the reader read on.

Flash Back
The piece of writing goes from present to past

Emotive Language
plunging tears of relief Emotive language strengthens the readers mind

I never thought I could be this lucky Because if she never fell of the cliff she would never have met Suresh

I Never Thought I Could Be This Lucky 2

Human Interest Story TENSE
PAST PRESENT FUTURE is negative and talks about the accident brings the story up to today shows the hope for the future she was an experienced climber' she planned her wedding' Suresh agrees'

Karen is the most beautiful women'

I know we can do anything together'

KAREN Presented as ordinary Friendly and Fun She thinks of everyone else Accident not due to experience nor neglect Ambitious SURESH He is nice and accepts the disabled He is clever He is fun He is open minded Karen, 31, from Aberdeen' They decided to keep it fun' I didn't want to be a burden to anyone' She was an experienced rock climber' The first woman ever to hand cycle across' Suresh who designs equipment for' at a conference' canoed onto the beach' Suresh sees me as I am'

Impact Alert Asteroids

The layout is specific to a scientific magazine The writer gives facts at the beginning Increasing formality (the writer starts with you and ends with we and us) Shift from second to first person

The passage starts with factual certainty FAQs are answered throughout (dialogue) Sub headings as questions Starts factual then relaxes

Other Points
the size of greater London This is so the reader can easily digest the size asteroid hits earth. Amazingly The vocab is technical and assumes the reader knows his stuff. amazingly is a highly emotive colloquial it is estimated that 30,000 This formal tone gives a sense of superiority wracked with earthquakes The writer mixes specialised words with simple language (this suggests it is specific) Finishes with a question FOCUS MAGAZINE fascinating, authoritative, accessible BBC STYLE Punchy Sets out to inform

Shopping for Romanian Babies


Journalism Factual Points (1% are what) Paragraph Spacing Formal language give me a war zone only a journalist Sub Headings

It is like a business vested interest the impersonal business side is mixed with the morally wrong personal baby (juxtaposition) Baby Trade

Target Audience

Suggests a product Incongruous Vested Interest in quotations implicates criticism Broad sheet More educated audience Subject Matter Language of business Background into Romania Familiar with previous articles. Familiar Phrase Strolling around/walking Daily Tour of duty Depersonalise Mater of Fact Unsympathetic Phrase

Orphanage Beat

Emotional Proves this wrong and becomes Moral Outrage Sadness Pity

State is the best possible parent

Implied Criticism Disagree//agree two young fists childish drawings neglected children

Use of dumped to emphasise the babies are rubbish Educates Cassia dei Copii A sea of expectant faces

Personal <> Impersonal

no one has a locker frantically held up

Unhealthy Millions Need Care They are very young

Explorers? Or Boys Messing About

Whether the writer sees them as men as experience expeditionary explorers or as criticised, irresponsible, immature, men.

This is a news paper story (key features)

Headline leaves out words to make it punchy. Immature
Mr Smith has a nickname James Bond reference Did not know what they were up to trusty helicopter not a safe helicopter
Both men are experienced explorers expeditions to 70 countries in the past 15 years trekked to Everest base camp flying since the age of five

Experienced Explorers

Makes out to be a joke and pointless

Experience list
Despite their experience it is not the first time they have hit the headlines for the wrong reason

A professional was asked and he disagrees Gunter Endres questions the men Builds up a time line

Explorers? Or Boys Messing About2

The British navy ship was diverted from valuable safety precautions. This is a clear criticism. Unlike the men the rescuers are professional His wife is relaxed and does not worry. The watch is a prediction of a later problem. The reaction of others is always negative

The piece starts with the fact that the explorers actually failed the mission.

Chinese Cinderella
Comments Wealthy Emotional Poverty She is out of Place Unhappy with present surroundings Evidence Your chauffeur is waiting' The chauffeur is rude - 'Don't you know anything?' Am I dreaming' 'Me the winner' The thought of leaving school throbbed at the back of my mind'

Autobiography Her father and herself

Poor relationship with her father Overwhelmed never been in his room Short sentences Is it possible? She is modest Clearly Educated as she quotes a famous poet He mocks her: Writer! He scoffed Full of dread

The pace
Time went by relentless

Hurry up downstairs

I knocked He was proud of me

I do believe you have potential

I shall go to medicine school

Taking on the world

Inform Explain Describe

The conditions are numbingly cold (I couldnt feel my fingers) Looking down from the mast she sees how powerful the waves are She states all the dangers The dangers are conveyed in a simple language The passage begins with a complex sentence which sums up the whole passage She always uses the past tense She uses specialised vocabulary The writer uses ellipses () to convey fatigue Starts formal then turns informal Repetition (tugged and tugged) She is physically strong (I shook with exhaustion) She is emotionally strong She sticks to the point (I agonised for hours) The dangers are clear She takes sensible precautions She is prepared to suffer to meet her goals



A Foreign Field
Complex piece of writing Exploring
Letter to mother is most formal: Dear Mother The letter is very restrained Sad news for you No love just happy in her old age Tries to make grand-mere on his side the whole time The letter to Claire is personal darling, loving

England Strong love for his country

France and a little bit for England (not King)

Devotes himself to France and he dies for love not duty

The writers role is to introduce the letters and give basic information He creates moods (as dusk approached) The end of the day is the end of Digbys life Ending has a ironic birdsong The only single line paragraph is for the blunt final scene

Other Key Points

Poor Claire and my child Shows sympathy Took aim and killed Robert Digby Graphical Ending You have not suffered the same fate as I Guilt trip

His Child
Not mentioned to his Mother Grand mere: Poor Claire and My Child Claire: Embrace my baby girl

Analysis of Section B
When the question asks you how this means what techniques and what impact these have. The writing style should be in 5 sections:
Narrative Viewpoint Choice of Vocabulary Use of figurative and emotive language Types of sentences used Use of punctuation.

Narrative Viewpoint
First Person (I)
Personal Creates the writing to be intense Gives a single perspective Can be biased They writer only records there thoughts and feelings

Third Person (he/she/it)

Detached Viewpoint The story is told from more than one view point The account will be balanced and can record others emotions Often used in journalism and newspaper articles.

Choice of Vocabulary
Key Points
Common Theme?
Do the words all share a theme

Sets the tone of the piece

Specialised technical terms?

Often in articles (particular topic) Shows expertise Sense of authority and knowledge You must identify these

Complex words?
Formal tone Shows maturity of writer

Simple words?
Conveys complex ideas to an non expert audience Explain to a younger audience Shows less educated Simple language can emphasise the point

Use of figurative and emotive language

Figurative Language
Draws figures or pictures in the readers mind:
Metaphor Simile Any images

When it is used
Imaginative writing Narrative account When the writer is explaining Dramatic

Found in explanations and diaries

Emotive language
Shows a particular mood Words/Sentences/Paragraphs can be emotive

Types of sentences used

Long Sentences
Explains in more detail Often shows age of the writer

Short Sentences
Creates sudden impact and change of tone Often shows age of writer

Long and Short Sentences

Creates intensity and drama Short sentence (gives the point) followed by long, (explains the point)

Commands Start with a verb Purposeful tone

Rhetorical What does it ask the reader

! Moment of heightened emotion Gives drama and impact

Use of punctuation
Heightens emotion


- ()
Suspends the narrative then returns


Ellipsereflect the mood and confusion

Adds extra information

Recorded thoughts or direct speech

Section C Creative Writing


Informs, Argues and Persuades

A Booklet
A booklet: aims to inform and therefore needs to be factual. TARGET AUDIENCE > Dictates your style
ADULTS > More formal tone and vocabulary PUPILS > Can be less formal (use of slang etc.)

Paragraphing Bullet Points (effective way) Sub Headings

Personal Experience and the I pronoun can be used if booklet is about yourself.

A letter
This will often ask you to express an opinion about a particular issue. TARGET AUDIENCE Tone
Context Language


Sir//Madam Mr//Mrs Fellow Pupils

in my opinion many of my peers in my experience I believe It is incredible that

Use of Rhetorical Questions

A speech
Aims to persuade and informs The uses of devices to allow persuasion:
Repetition Opinion Short Sentences Exaggeration Rhetorical Questions Facts (dates/stats)

Let me tell you There's no doubt that In every case

A Newspaper Article
Title Abbreviations Bold Missing Words Tells story

KEY POINTS Specific Words Convey Excitement Witnesses

State a biased truth

Picture Sub Title Expands on title Gives key issues Bold Writing Gives the reader the introduction and makes the reader read on. Heading of the picture

Text in columns