Computer Orientation and Packages

Lecture by: Prof: Shahzad Arain Shahzad.cdcu@gmail.com http://www.pakdata.net

• Using Information Technology
• Brain K. Williams • Stacey C. Sawyer

• Introduction To Computers
• Peter Norton

Computer Literacy
Dell customer called to say he couldn't get his computer to fax anything. After 40 minutes of trouble-shooting, the technician discovered the man was trying to fax a piece of paper by holding it in front of the monitor screen and hitting the "send" button.

Computer Literacy
• Computer literacy is the knowledge and computers and technology efficiently. ability to use

• Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs and other applications that are associated with computers. • Computer Literacy can also be said “knowing what computer can do and what computer can not” • Another valuable component of computer literacy is knowing how computers work and operate. As of 2005, having basic computer skills is a significant asset in the developed countries.

Prior to the development of the first computers in the 1950s, the word computer litrate referred to a person who could count, calculate, compute.
The fear of some educators today is that computer training in schools will serve only to train data-entry clerks of the next generation, low level workers of the so-called knowledge industries.

• On the other hand, some hope that enhanced computer literacy will enable a new generation of cultural producers to make meanings and circulate those in the public sphere. The wildfire of cultural production associated with sites such as Youtube seems to support this notion.

Computer (to Compute) Normally Considered to be calculating device Compute Calculating ter (Latin) Machine

BUT More then 80% non numeric nature works Hence A Computer can be defined as: A machine that receives data as input, process that data according to a prescribe sequence of instructions and produce desire output

Characteristics of a Computer

• Speed

The fastest computer in 1993, the CM-5, could perform 131 billion operations per second. With a pocket calculator this number of operations would take 41 000 years.

Source: http://library.thinkquest.org/21567/cfacts1.htm

Human forget unimportant information with time A Computer can store and recall every piece of information. A computer forget or looses information only when it is asked.

Characteristics of a Computer
A Computer is free from monotony, tiredness, lack of concentration etc.

• Versatility
Adapting easily to different subjects or occupations; skilled in many subjects

• Accuracy

Errors can occur in a computer, but these are mainly due to human rather than technological weakness, that is, due to imprecise thinking by the programmer or due to incorrect data

Applications of Computers
Buildings. Architects use computer animated
graphics to experiment with possible exteriors and to give clients a visual walk-through of their proposed buildings. The computers provide architects a numerous amount of facilities to create different buildings with greater accuracy, better designing and editing tools, and work done at the fastest speed possible. Finally, a new kind of artist has emerged, one who uses computers to express his or her creativity.

Applications of Computers
Education. Most good schools in the world have
computers available for use in the classroom. It has been proved that learning with computers has been more successful and this is why numerous forms of new teaching methods have been introduced. This enhances the knowledge of the student at a a much faster pace than the old traditional methods. Likewise, colleges and various universities have extended the use of computers as many educators prefer the 'learning by doing' method - an approach uniquely suited to the computer.

Applications of Computers
Retailing. Products from meats to magazines are
packed with zebra-striped bar codes that can be read by the computer scanners at supermarket checkout stands to determine prices and help manage inventory. Thus, a detailed receipt of the groceries can be made, which is useful for both the customer and the retail store, especially for the stock control system. This is referred as POS (Point of Sale) transaction where a precise account of all the stocks available is recorded and manipulated.

Applications of Computers
Energy. Energy companies use computers to locate
oil, coal, natural gas and uranium. With the use of these technological machines, these companies can figure out the site of a natural resource, its concentration and other related figures. Electric companies use computers to monitor vast power networks. In addition, meter readers use hand held computers to record how much energy is used each month in homes and offices.

Applications of Computers
Recent innovation in computerized law enforcement include national fingerprint files, a national file on the mode of operation of serial killers, and computer modeling of DNA, which can be used to match traces from an alleged criminal's body, such as blood at a crime scene. In addition, computers also contain a complete databases of all the names, pictures and information of such people who choose to break the law.


Applications of Computers
Transportation. Computers are used in cars Transportation to monitor fluid levels, temperatures and electrical systems. Computers are also used to help run rapid transit systems, load containerships and track railroads cars across the country. An important part is the air control traffic systems, where computers are used to control the flow of traffic between airplanes which needs a lot of precision and accuracy to be dealt with.

Applications of Computers
Money. Computers speed up record keeping and
allow banks to offer same-day services and even doit yourself banking over the phone and internet. Computers have helped fuel the cashless economy, enabling the widespread use of credit cards, debit cards and instantaneous credit checks by banks and retailers. There is also a level of greater security when computers are involved in money transactions as there is a better chance of detecting forged cheques and using credit/debit cards illegally etc.

Applications of Computers
Government. Among other tasks, the federal government
uses computers to forecast the weather, to manage parks and historical sites, to process immigrants, to produce social security checks and to collect taxes. The most important use of the computer system in in this field is perhaps the Army, the Air Force and the Navy. The computers have to be very powerful and in order to be run they have to be very accurate and precise. E.g. in the use of missiles and other likes, every nanosecond counts, which may save trillions of lives on this planet. The government also uses computers in various simulations like the spread of influenza in a particular locality.

Applications of Computers
The Home. People having a computer in the Home home justifies the fact that it is not only useful and efficient, but it is also revered as a learning system. Personal computers are being used for innumerous tasks nowadays, for example, to keep records, write letters and memos, prepare budgets, produce presentations, draw pictures, publish newsletters and most importantly - connect with other in the rest of plant earth.

Applications of Computers
Health and Medicine.
Computers are helping immensely to monitor thee extremely ill in the intensive care unit and provide cross-sectional views of the body. This eliminates the need for hired nurses to watch the patient twenty-four hours a day, which is greatly tiring and error prone. Doctors use computers to assist them in diagnosing certain diseases of the sort. This type of computer is called the Expert System, which is basically a collection of accumulated expertise in a specific area of field. Computers are now able to map, in exquisite detail, the structure of the human cold virus - the first step towards the common cold. Furthermore, computers are used greatly in managing patients, doctors, wards and medicine records, as well as deal with making appointments, scheduling surgeries and other likes.

Applications of Computers
Manufacturing Industries. Computers have made
their way towards jobs that were unpleasant or too dangerous for humans to do, such as working hundreds of feet below the earth or opening a package that might contain an explosive device. In other industries, computers are used to control the production of resources very precisely. All robots and machinery are now controlled by various computers, making the production process faster and cheaper. All the stages of manufacturing, from designing to production, can be done with the use of computer technology with greater diversity.

Applications of Computers
The Human connection. The computers have
evolved in such prosperity that it is now able to assist or aid with humans who are disabled - both physically and mentally. The handicapped are now able to express their missing sense with the aid of computer technology. For example, a deaf and dumb person is able to communicate extensively with other people by using a specially designed computer system. This gives the disabled a chance to live out life and gradually catch up with the other fortunate people living on earth.

Applications of Computers
Scientific Research. This is very important for
mankind and with the development of computers; scientific research has propelled towards the better a great deal. Because of high-speed characteristics of computer systems, systems, researchers can simulate environments, emulate physical characteristics and allow scientists to proof of their theories in a cost-effective manner. Also many test lab animals are spared since computers have taken over their roles in extensive research.

Applications of Computers
Communication with the World. The computes
are most popular for their uses to connect with others on the World Wide Web. Therefore, communication between two or more parties is possible which is relatively cheap considering the old fashioned methods. Emailing, teleconferencing and the use of voice messages are very fast, effective and surprisingly cheaper as well. When connected to the Internet, people can gain various amounts of knowledge, and know about world events as they occur. Purchasing on the Internet is also becoming very popular, and has numerous advantages over the traditional shopping methods.

Applications of Computers
Paperwork. Computer systems
will increasingly cut down the paperwork that is involved in millions of industries around the world. If a business is run on a manual system, then the amount of papers or registers involved is a great deal, making the administration process more tedious and error prone. If it is replaced by a computer system, then all the necessary data and information is transferred into the memory of the computer. This makes managing various tasks easier, faster and more effective than the manual system. Organizations that involve administrative tasks such as a hotel, school, hospitals, clubs, libraries etc. will become more efficient if a computer system is implemented.

Applications of Computers
Real Time systems. Many computers provide an
environment, which is completely based on real time. This means processing of one entity is done so quickly and effectively, that another entity is not effected. For example Airline systems and Banking systems will come under this category. These systems are immensely huge because they interact with all other airlines or baking systems in the world. A computer system, therefore, becomes more than just necessary in daily uses.

Applications of Computers
There are so many applications of computers, that it is impractical to mention all of them. This is the Computer Age and these machines are beginning to affect out lives in many ways. Computers are now becoming faster, more reliable, effective and whole lot cheaper than they had been ever before.

Applications of Computers
Computers are all around us and avoiding them is virtually impossible. We have been exposed in the world of computer hype, computer advertisements and computer headlines. We interact with computers in our daily lives - whether we are at the cinemas, the school, or the public library. The beginnings of computer literacy are already apparent.

The computer is said to have literally revolutionized the way one person does his job or a whole multinational organization operates their businesses. Together with this reason and many more, computers are considered more than just an essential piece of fancy equipment. Whether or not people know anything about it, they invoke computers in every day lives when they make a bank withdrawal, buy groceries at the supermarket and even when they drive a car. Today, millions of people are purchasing fully functional personal computers for individual reasons. In their homes, people use various forms of computer technology for writing memos, for keeping track of bank accounts, for communication with friends and associates, for

Future Vision
• Microsoft chairman reflects on what course technology will take
In the coming years, the conference table will be a computer, the whiteboard will be a computer, says Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates.


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