By Rajendra Kumaw http://powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.

com

Satellite Communication

•What is satellite?
• • Satellite is a repeater in the sky. Receives uplink frequencies and translates to downlink frequencies and transmits back to the earth station after

• The translation is done to avoid +ve feed Amplification back.Trying to receive and transmit an amplified version of the same uplink waveform at the same satellite will cause unwanted feedback, or ring around, from the downlink antenna back into the receiver

Between the source and destination we use a pair of frequencies to communicate. amplifies. and redirects analog and digital signals carried on a specific radio frequency. The Satellite acts as a frequency translator and amplifier. . In addition to communications satellites. In satcom the satellite acts as a media for the data transfer between the source and destination.What is a communications satellite and how does it work? A communications satellite is a radio relay station in orbit above the earth that receives.

In terms of commercial satellites. there are three main categories of orbits: • LEO( Low Earth Orbit) 500-2. requiring satellites to travel at a very high speed in order to avoid being pulled out of orbit by Earth's gravity • At LEO. a satellite can circle the Earth in approximately one and a half hours • • .000 km above the earth These orbits are much closer to the Earth.What are the different kinds of orbits? An orbit is the path that a satellite follows as it revolves around Earth.

000-20.000 km above the earth These orbits are primarily reserved for communications satellites that cover the North and South Pole • MEO's are placed in an elliptical (oval-shaped) orbit • • .• MEO( Medium Earth Orbit) 8.

If three satellites are placed at the proper longitude.35. Thus. • A single geostationary satellite can view approximately one third of the Earth's surface.786 km).786 km above the earth • Orbiting at the height of 22. • GEO ( Geosynchronous Orbit) • . as long as a satellite is positioned over the equator in an assigned orbital location. taking 24 hours to complete a full trip around the globe. the height of this orbit allows almost all of the Earth's surface to be covered by the satellites. it will appear to be "stationary" with respect to a specific location on the Earth. the satellite travels in the same direction and at the same speed as the Earth's rotation on its axis.282 miles above the equator (35.

.Polar Orbiting Satellite • • • These satellites orbit the earth in such a way as to cover the north and south polar regions. These satellites can be kept in low earth orbit (800 -900 km) or at 36000km apart. These satellites if in a low earth orbit have to travel at a very high speed.

Advantage Of Geostationary Satellite • Simple ground station tracking requirements. Coverage of about 1/3 of Earth. to Greenwich. Negligible Doppler shift • • . apart. Identified by Longitudinal position with ref. Circular orbit around earth with period of 24 hours. 2 deg.appears stationary Altitude of 36000 Kms.Geo-Synchronous Satellite • • • • • Orbit on the equatorial plane . Removes Satellite hand-over problems.

Inclined Orbit Satellite • A disadvantage of Geostationary satellites is that points on Earth beyond about 80 deg latitude are not visible. although they require earth stations to continually track the satellite. • . on the other hand can provide visibility to the higher northern and southern latitudes. Inclined orbits.

Technical Term • • • • • • • • • Geosynchronous Transponder Footprint Frequency Polarization Path Propagation Timing Satellite Access Link Performance .

Each channels are called transponder Each transponder have 40 MHz. .Geosynchronous Geosynchronous means that the satellite is synchronized with the earth in time and direction. Transponder Frequency band on the satellite is divided into several channels. Satellite Footprint Coverage of entire surface of earth that is visible by the satellite. It means that is time taken by a satellite to complete its orbit around earth is equal to the time taken by to earth rotates around its own axis.

5 GHz 10.95 to 18 GHz 18 to 26.9 to 8 GHz 8 to 12.5 GHz 26.9 GHz 3.Frequency Bands use in Satellite Communication Frequency Band L-Band S-Band C-Band X-Band Ku-Band K-Band Ka-Band Range 1 to 1.5 GHz 1 to 3.5 to 40 GHz .

: Weak signals. large antenna sizes and amplifiers Ku-Band Adv. little rain fade. large antenna sizes and amplifiers ExC-Band Adv. less interference Disadv. : Focused Foot prints. interference. large unused bandwidths Disadv. : Interference to rain.. : Week signals. : Interference to rain. : Focused Foot prints. no terrestrial interference small antenna and amplifier Disadv. . : Broad Footprint. : Broad Footprint. little rain fade Disadv.Advantages And Disadvantages of Different Frequency Band C-Band Adv. Ka-Band Adv.

025 14. .700-4.C-Band Ku-Band Ka-Band UPLINK 5.00 ** all frequencies are in GHz.00 DOWNLINK 3.Satellites Uplink And Downlink Frequency in Different Bands FREQUENCY BAND C-Band Ex.800 10.925-6.00-14.50 30.500-4.725-7.425 6.95-12.75 20.200 4.

VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals or master earth station "hubs“.VSAT Technology in Satellite Communication • • • • VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal It is a two way satellite ground station. . VSATs are most commonly used to transmit narrowband data or broadband data.

Satellite Link Satellite Downlink Uplink Remote VSAT 1 Earth Station (HUB) Remote VSAT 2 .

to transport data back and forth to each VSAT terminal via satellite VSATs communicate to Hub on Inroutes and the Hub Communicates to VSATs on the Outroute • • • . the remote VSAT sites are comparatively small. such as a Network Operation Center (NOC).VSAT System Architecture Topologie s Star Topology As the Hub is a powerful receiver and retransmitter . A central uplink site.

Mesh Topology • • • Each VSAT terminal relays data via satellite to another terminal by acting as a hub. VSATs are comparatively larger as they have to communicate directly with each other VSAT’s communicate directly with each other. minimizing the need for a centralized uplink site. Hub will be involved only for call setup and then fade out.( Hub will not be involved in permanent Circuits) .

Parts Of VSATs • • • • • • Antenna Block Up Converter (BUC) Low Noise Block Converter (LNB) Orthomode Transducer (OMT) Interfacility Link Cable (IFL) Indoor Unit (IDU) .

Types Of Antenna Prime Focus Antenna • • • • • • • • Single Reflector Antenna. More susceptible to Interference from Low elevation sources. Antenna Efficiency is in the range of 60%. Antenna Electronics are placed on Feed. More Blockage because feed. Primarily Used for Receive only applications. . Feed horn is placed at the Focal point of the Reflector. Low Cost Antenna.

Cassagrain Antenna • • • • Main reflector is Paraboloid Sub-Reflector is hyperboloid and placed at Prime Focus Feed is Corrugated Horn and is placed at Center of the Main Reflectors. . which is then reflected by SubReflector to form a Spherical Wave converging on the Feed. The paraboloid converges towards the Sub Reflector ( prime focus).

which is then reflected by SubReflector to form a Spherical Wave converging on the Feed. . The paraboloid converges towards the Sub Reflector ( prime focus).Gregarion Antenna • • • • Main reflector is Paraboloid Sub-Reflector is Paraboloid and placed at Prime Focus Feed is Corrugated Horn and is placed at Center of the Main Reflectors.

. High Antenna efficiency. Main Reflector is a section of Parabolic.Offset Fed Antenna • • • • Used for Smaller Earth Stations. cutoff above the axis. Feed is located below the axis giving a completely unblocked Aperture.

BUC's are rated according to their output power.Block Up-Converter (BUC) • A BUC (Block Up-Converter) takes an LBand input and transmits it upstream to the satellite on Ka. or C band. Ku. A low power Ka-Band BUC can transmit with as little as 2 watts. while a high power C-Band BUC can transmit with as much as 200 watts. • .

Low Noise Block Converter(LNB) It is typically mounted at the focal point of the receiving parabolic dish. • It's primarily used to amplify and convert received satellite signals into frequencies compatible with the satellite receiver. • .

. allow the simultaneous operation of two outdoor radio units • OMT can be directly mounted on the antennas that have circular waveguide connector.Orthomode Transducer (OMT) • OMT is 3-port microwave waveguide system that split input power into two parts.

connectorized cable assembly that is used within a building to connect a fiber feeder splice point to an optical connector distribution panel.Interfacility Link Cable (IFL) • Interfacility Link (IFL) Distribution Cable is an indoor rated. • The cable can be terminated with connectors at one or both ends in conjunction with various styles of fanout kits at any breakout length. .

Indoor Unit (IDU) Its Satellite Modem consists of Modulator and Demodulator. LAN's. EPABX as per the requirement. • . • The IDU also determines the access schemes under which the VSAT would operate. routers. multiplexes. telephone instruments. ranging from stand alone computers. • The IDU also interfaces with various end user equipment.