# CHAPTER 3

Frequency Modulation
Objectives: After completing this chapter, you will be able to;
1. Calculate the modulation index given the maximum deviation and the maximum modulating frequency and use the modulation index and Bessel coefficient to determine the number of significant sideband in an FM signal. 2. Calculate the bandwidth of an FM signal using (1) the modulation index and Bessel functions and (2) Carson’s rule, and explain the practical significance of the difference between two methods. 3. Explain how pre-emphasis is used to solve the problem of the interference of high-frequency components by noise. 4. List the advantages of and disadvantages of FM as compared to AM. 5. Give reasons for FM‟s superior immunity to noise.
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Introduction
 The same person who developed the superheterodyne receiver was also responsible for the development of an alternative to AM that is Major E.H Armstrong.  Standard FM broadcast band from 88 MHz to 108 MHz.  Although AM broadcast was dominant type for many years, FM has been the most popular since 1970s because it provides; - Much clearer signals, much lower distortion, less noise and static.
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Introduction
 There are only three (3) parameters of a carrier wave that can be changed or modulated in order for it to carry information – amplitude, frequency and phase.  Frequency and phase are closely related and can be group together in the term angle modulation.
 Phase modulation produces frequency modulation. Since the amount of phase shift is varying, the effect is as if the carrier frequency is changed.  PM is often referred to as indirect FM. PM used extensively in data communication.
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 If the modulation system is properly designed.FM Principles  Maximum frequency deviation occurs at the maximum amplitude of the modulating signal.  This is called the frequency deviation rate. then the carrier frequency will shift above and below the center frequency 100 times per second. it is said that this deviation is proportional to the amplitude of modulating signal – referred as linear modulation.”  Eg: If the modulating signal is a 100 Hz sine wave. 4 .  The frequency of modulating signal determines “how many times per second the carrier freq deviates above and below its nominal center freq.

Carrier wave Voltage + (a) 0 _ time Voltage + (b) 0 _ No signal Modulating wave time Positive maximum deviation Zero deviation Negative maximum deviation Voltage + (c) 0 _ Frequency Modulation wave time 5 .

 As the amplitude of the information signal varies. the carrier frequency varies above and below its normal center frequency with no modulation.  As the modulating signal amplitude varies.FM Principles  In FM. the carrier amplitude remains constant while the carrier frequency is changed by the modulating signal. the carrier frequency shifts in proportion.  The amount of change in carrier frequency produced by the modulating signal is known as the frequency deviation 6 .

7 .  In FM.Sidebands and Modulation Index  Any modulation process produces sidebands.  Spectrum of FM signal is usually wider than an equivalent AM signal.  Although FM process produces an infinite number of upper and lower sidebands. only those with the largest amplitudes are significant in carrying the information. sum and difference sideband frequencies are produced.  Typically any sideband with an amplitude less than 1 percent of the unmodulated carrier is considered insignificant.

the number of significant sidebands and their amplitudes are dependent upon the amount of frequency deviation and the modulating frequency. 8 .  Eg: The max permitted freq deviation = 75 kHz and the max permitted modulating freq = 15 kHz. m.  The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulating frequency is known as the modulation index. maximum limits are put on both the frequency deviation and the modulating frequency.Modulation Index and Deviation Ratio  As indicated earlier. m = fd = frequency deviation fm modulating frequency  In most communications systems using FM.

Spectrum Frequency of FM signal Carrier Lower sidebands Upper sidebands f c -6 f m f c -5f m f c -4 f m f c -3f m f c -2f m f c -f m f c f c + f m f c +2f m f c +3f m f c +4f m f c +5 f m f c +6 f m 9 .

 The spectrum of an FM signal varies considerably in bandwidth depending upon the modulation index. you can compute the number and amplitudes of the significant sidebands.  This is done through a complex mathematical process (beyond the scope of this text) known as the Bessel functions. the wider the bandwidth of the FM signal.  The higher the modulation index.Determining the number of Significant Sidebands  Knowing the modulation index. 10 .

18 0.22 0.30 0.12 0.36 0.00 0.5 3.33 -0.19 -0.05 -0.02 0.34 0.31 0.02 0.0 12.30 0.45 0.0 4.40 -0.22 -0.35 0.25 0.27 0.01 - - -0.07 0.01 0.5 2.05 0.33 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.11 0.12 0.0 1.36 0.17 -0.22 0.23 0.09 0.50 0.04 0.06 0.39 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 0.31 0.18 0.0 10.77 0.12 11 .26 -0.22 0.21 0.51 0.17 0.03 0.29 -0.28 0.03 0.80 0.0 Sidebands Carrier 1.13 0.0 2.12 -0.25 0.06 0.05 0.44 0.13 0.21 0.15 0.94 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.25 0.11 0.01 0.0 15.06 -0.00 0.24 0.03 0.34 0.01 0.01 0.20 -0.00 0.10 -0.25 1 2 4 3 0.22 -0.07 -0.06 0.13 0.11 0.23 0.34 -0.02 0.23 0.20 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.24 -0.06 -0.5 1.03 -0.20 0.13 0.58 0.13 0.07 0.98 0.02 0.28 0.0 7.17 -0.25 0.24 0.35 0.24 -0.43 0.12 0.22 0.32 0.Bessel Functions Modulation Index 0.02 0.0 8.03 0.18 0.03 0.36 -0.29 0.20 0.0 9.13 0.07 -0.26 0.10 0.56 0.16 -0.24 0.09 -0.14 0.13 0.27 0.19 -0.13 0.05 -0.30 0.49 0.18 -0.03 -0.28 0.04 0.23 0.0 6.23 0.17 0.0 5.21 0.22 -0.30 0.05 -0.

BW = 2 x N x fm(max) Number of significant sidebands Maximum modulating freq  An alternative way to calculate the bandwidth of an FM signal is to use Carson‟s rule.Bandwidth  The total bandwidth can be determine by knowing the modulation index and using the Bessel table. BW = 2 (fd(max) + fm(max) ) Max freq deviation 12 .  The bandwidth can be determined using simple formula.

11 0.77 m= 1 0.35 0.35 0.44 0.58 m= 2 0.0.02 fc+2fm fc+3fm 0.03 fc-4fm fc-3fm fc-2fm fc-fm fc fc+fm fc+2fm fc+3fm fc+4fm 13 .13 0.58 0.22 0.13 0.11 0.02 fc-3fm fc-2fm fc-fm fc fc+fm 0.03 0.44 0.

Draw the spectrum frequency 0.Given fm = 10 kHz and frequency deviation= 20 kHz.03 0.35 0.13 0.35 0.22 0.58 0.03 fc-40 kHz fc-30 kHz fc-20 kHz fc-10 kHz fc fc+10 kHz fc+20 kHz fc+30 kHz fc+40 kHz 14 .58 0.13 0.

FM versus AM   In general. capable of equivalent fidelity(accuracy with which an electronic system reproduces the sound or image of its input signal) and intelligibility. Provides better transmitter efficiency. FM offers some significant benefits over AM: 1. Although both modulation types are suitable for transmitting information from one place to another. FM is considered to be superior to AM. Better noise immunity – it rejects interfering signals because of the capture effects .  2. 15 .  Its disadvantage – uses an excessive amount of spectrum space.

the stronger signal „capture‟ the channel and will totally eliminate the weaker.  This is known as capture effect in FM. the capture effect allows the stronger signal to dominate while the weaker signal is eliminated. 16 . that will be ok.  In FM. interfering signal.Capture Effect  If the signal of one is more than twice the amplitude of the other.  As long as the desired signal is considerably stronger than the interfering signal.

 This is true for high-freq components in the modulating signal. 20 kHz 70 kHz 17 . noise still interferes with an FM signal. Eg: music.Pre-emphasis & De-emphasis  Despite the fact that FM has superior noise rejection qualities.  High-freq components are of a lower amplitudes.

a de-emphasis circuit is used at the receiver. providing a normal frequency response.  As a result.  The combined effect of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis is to increase the high-freq components during the transmission so that they will be stronger and not masked by noise. most FM systems use a technique known as pre-emphasis – helps to offset high-freq noise interference. 18 .  To return the frequency response to its normal level. the pre-emphasis at the transmitter is exactly offset by the de-emphasis circuit in the receiver.Pre-emphasis & De-emphasis  To overcome this.

Pre-emphasis dB C R1 Frequency Modulator Input signal Pre-emphasis FM output 6dB/ oktaf R2 3dB 0 Pre-emphasis circuit 2122 Hz fu ³ 30 kHz Hz 19 .

De-emphasis De-emphasis circuit 0 dB FM FM demodulator Audio output -3dB 2122 Hz Hz 20 .

123 kHz Hz 21 .Frequency response combination dB +3dB 0 -3dB f1=1/2R1C Where t=R1C t=75ms f=1/t=2.

 In an LC oscillator. therefore can be changed by varying either inductance or capacitance.  The carrier is generated by either an LC or a crystal oscillator circuit. the carrier freq is fixed by the values of the inductance and capacitance in a tuned circuit. 22 .  The carrier freq. and so a way must be found to change the frequency of oscillation.Frequency Modulators  A frequency modulators is a circuit that varies carrier frequency in accordance with the modulating signal.

Tuned Circuit Xc AC R XL XC XL Ri Series Tuned Circuit Parallel Tuned Circuit 23 .

It is stable in wide temperature range. as precisely as possible. crystal oscillators are normally used to set carrier frequency.  The frequency of LC oscillators will vary because of temperature changes. variations in circuit voltage and other factors.Varactor Modulators  The main problem with the circuit is that most LC oscillators are simply not stable enough to provide a carrier signal.  Such instabilities cannot be tolerated in most modern electronic communication systems.  As a result. where a transmitter must stay on freq. 24 .

increasing the capacitance and decreasing the carrier frequency To Carrier Oscillator Radio Frequency Choke: To prevent the carrier signal from getting into the modulating cct Amplifier RFC -V R1 A C2 L1 C1 L1 and C1 as tuned cct D1 Mikrofon C3 R2 Blocking capacitor that keeps the dc bias out of the modulating signal cct Varactor diodeControlled by 2 factors: -fixed dc bias by voltage divider R1 and R2 25 -modulating signal .Voltage Variable Capacitor Positive signal at point A adds to the reverse bias. decreasing the capacitance and increasing the carrier frequency Negative signal at point A subtracts from the bias.

 By making the series capacitance a varactor diode.  When a small value of capacitance is connected in series with the crystal. the crystal frequency can be pulled slightly from its natural resonant frequency.Freq-Modulating a Crystal Oscillator  It is possible to vary the frequency of a crystal oscillator by changing the value of capacitance in series or in parallel with the crystal. frequency modulation of the crystal can be achieved.  The modulating signal is applied to varactor diode D1. which changes the oscillator frequency. 26 .

+V RFC FM output Crystal Modulating signal D1 27 .

Frequency Demodulators  Any circuit that will convert a frequency variation in the carrier back into a proportional voltage can be used to demodulate or detect FM signals. Circuit used to recover the original modulating signal from an FM transmission are called demodulators. Ratio Detector 28 . detectors or discriminators. The earliest demodulator: 1. Foster-Seeley Discriminators   2.

Foster-Seeley Discriminators Cc D1 X R3 Output + Cb V1 V3 C a V2 T1 D2 RFC V 2-3 Ce Y VY V 1-3 Cd VX R1 Cf R2 + 29 .

Ratio Detector C3 D1 A C2 V1-3 C4 + C D R1 + C6 C1 RFC V2-3 C5 + B R2 T1 D2 30 .

• The simplest phase shifters are RC networks(a) & (b). the output of the phase shifter can be set to any phase between 0o to 90o 31 .Phase modulator • Use PM to produce indirect FM. • Depending on the values of Rand C.

.the transistor act as a variable resistor (as in cct (a)) that varies in response to the modulating signal. the effective transistor resistance decrease. the transistor base current and collector increase. it will decrease the phase shift. IB and IC decrease. 32 .Simple phase shift cct as a phase modulator. Therefore. R transistor increase  R . it will increase the phase shift.(c ) Transistor modulator .  R . . -Vm .Vm .

substracts to VVC bias.  The Reactance . -Vm . The Reactance .Use VVC as a low-pass phase shift modulator. increasing the capacitance. -Vm cause the capacitance of the varactor to change. and produce less phase shift.Vm . cause the capacitance to decrease.it adds to the varactor bias from R1 and R2 . and increase the amount of phase shift. . 33 .(d ) Varactor modulator .