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The Cardiovascular System

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


FUNCTION: for transport of oxygen, nutrients, cell wastes, hormones and other substances vital for homeostasis to and from the cells.

HEART the pump BLOOD VESSELS the pipes/ tubes where blood travels Arteries, arterioles vessels where blood passes from the heart to the different body parts Veins, venules vessels where blood passes from the different body parts to the heart Capillaries

Heart Size, Location and Position

The heart is about the size of a fist Weight : 250 - 350 gms Located in the medial cavity of the thorax, the mediastinum It extends from the 2nd rib to 5th intercostal space Rests on the superior surface of diaphragm

Heart Size, Location and Position

The lungs flank the heart laterally and partially obscure it

Heart Size, Location and Position

Anteriorly: the sternum Posteriorly: the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum

Two thirds of the heart lies to the left of the mid- sternal line Cone-shaped: Its broad flat base, or posterior surface, points to right shoulder The apex points toward the left hip

Coverings of the Heart

PERICARDIUM The two layers are


Parietal layer (outermost) Visceral layer (innermost)

chambers 2 atria 2 ventricles

Heart Chambers The heart has four


Atria

The wall separating the chambers is Interartial septum

(between atria) Interventricular septum (between ventricles) Ventricles Septu m

Heart valves are positioned between the atria and the ventricles and between the ventricles and the large arteries that leave the heart Valves open and close in response to differences in blood pressure

Heart Valves
Bicuspid (mitral) valve

Aortic valve Pulmonar y valve Tricuspid valve

Heart Chambers
Left

The right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart

Ventricle

The left ventricle dominates the inferio- posterior aspect of the heart and forms the heart apex

Right

Heart Chambers

ATRIA - are receiving chambers for blood returning to the heart from the circulation Contracts only minimally to push blood into the ventricles, hence the atria are relatively small and thin-walled. As a rule they contribute little to the propulsive pumping of the heart.

THE HEART CHAMBERS

The ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart Note the difference in thickness of the wall When the ventricles contract blood is propelled out of the heart and into circulation

Atrial Wall

Ventricula r Wall

PATHWAY OF BLOOD THROUGH THE HEART


Body parts Vena Cava (superior and inferior), Coronary sinus Right atrium Right ventricle Pulmonary trunk Lungs Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Left Ventricle Aorta Body Parts

THE RIGHT ATRIUM


1.

Blood enters the right atrium via 3 veins Superior vena cava (from regions superior to the diaphragm)

Superio r vena cava

2. Inferior Vena cava (from regions inferior to the diaphragm)


Coronary

3. Coronary Sinus (from the myocardium itself)

sinus

Inferior vena cava

The blood drops from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk, which routes blood to the lungs for gas exchange

Aorta Left ventricle

Right ventricle

Pulmonary trunk

From the lungs, blood (now oxygenated) enters the left atrium via 4 pulmonary veins
Left

Right Pulmona ry veins pulmona ry veins

From the left ventricle, blood goes from the left atrium to the left ventricle

Posterior view

The left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, the largest artery in the systemic circulation (body parts)

Aorta Left ventricle

Right ventricle

Pulmonary trunk

Heart Valves

The valves of the heart allow for the blood to flow in only one direction Note: View of the heart with the superior atria removed

Atrioventricular (AV) Valves

The AV valves are located at each atrialventricular junction

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

Positioned to prevent a backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles are contracting The valves are: Tricuspid valve (R)

Bicuspid valve (L)

Tricuspid valve

Atrioventricular (AV) Valves

Attached to each of the AV valve flaps are tiny collagen cords called chordae tendinae Function: to anchor the cusps to the papillary muscles protruding from the ventricular walls

Chordae tendonea e

Papillary muscles

Semilunar (SL) Valves

The semilunar valves are located at the bases of the large arteries exiting the ventricles The valves prevent backflow of blood from the aorta and pulmonary trunk into the associated ventricles The valves are: aortic valves pulmonary valves

Aortic valve

Pulmonar y valve

Pathway of Blood: System

Blood flows through the heart and other parts of the circulatory system in one direction:

RA RV pulmonary arteries LUNGS (O2) LUNGS pulm. veins LA LV BODY


This one way flow of blood is controlled by four heart valves

Conducting System

Cardiac muscle cells have an intrinsic ability to generate and conduct impulses that signal these same cells to contract rhythmically These properties are intrinsic to the heart muscle itself and do not depend on extrinsic nerve impulses a series of specialized cardiac muscle cells that carries impulses throughout the heart musculature, signaling the heart chambers to contract in proper sequence

Conducting System

The components of the conducting system are:


Sinoatrial node Internodal fibers Atrioventricular node Atrioventricular bundle Right and left branches Purkinje fibers

Conducting System

SA node:
The pacemaker of the heart sets the basic heart rate by generating 70-80 impulses per minute

Innervation

The nerves to the heart consist of visceral sensory fibers Parasympathetic fibers that slow heart rate Sympathetic fibers that increase the rate and force of heart contractions

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Systole Diastole Stroke volume Cardiac cycle

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SYSTOLE - The contraction of a heart chamber DIASTOLE - The time during which a heart chamber is relaxing and filling with blood Both atrial and ventricular chambers experience systole and diastole BUT the terms usually reference the ventricles which are the dominant heart chambers

CARDIAC CYCLE
(events that complete a heart beat)
DIASTOLE (Relaxation) CHAMBERS Systole (Contraction)

Atria contract (blood Atria in diastole goes to the ventricles) Ventricular filling Ventricular ejection of blood out of the heart AV valves closed. Semilunar valves open.

VALVES

AV valves open. Semilunar valves close.

Heart Sounds

The closing of the heart valves causes vibrations in the adjacent blood and heart walls that account for the familiar lub-dup sounds of the heartbeat The lub (first heartsound) is produced by the closing of the AV valves at the start of ventricular systole. The dup (second heart sound) is produced by the closing of the semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole.

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Amount of blood pumped out by each side of the heart in 1 minute. Factors: heart rate and stroke volume Equation: CO = HR x SV

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Equation : CO = HR x SV

FACTORS: Sympathetic stimulation - HR Parasympathetic stimulation- HR Epinephrine HR Thyroxine HR Blood Calcium depresses the heart Blood Calcium prolonged contraction

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Equation : CO = HR x SV

FACTORS: STROKE VOLUME: how much the cardiac muscle cells are stretched the more it is stretched, the stronger the contraction Heart rate - less time to fill the ventricles Exercise HR and force of contraction Severe blood loss blood that goes into the ventricles

CARDIAC OUTPUT

Equation : CO = HR x SV

FACTORS: Age: younger HR : older HR Gender: females HR : male HR Temperature: temp. HR : temp. HR

The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels


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Introduction

The blood vessels of the body form a closed delivery system that begins and ends at the heart

Blood Vessel Structure & Function

The major types of blood vessels are

Arteries Arterioles bring blood to the capillaries Capillaries

The large distributing vessels that bring blood to the body

Venules drain blood from the capillaries Veins

The tiny vessels that distribute blood to the cells

The large collecting vessels that bring blood back to the heart

Structure of Blood Vessel Walls

The innermost tunic is the tunica intima

Blood Vessel Walls

This tunic contains the endothelium, the simple squamous endothelium that lines all vessels Its flat cells fit closely together, forming a slick surface that minimizes friction as blood moves through the vessel lumen

Tunica adventitia

The middle tunic, the tunica media, is mostly circularly arranged smooth muscle cells and sheets of elastin

Blood Vessel Walls

The activity of the smooth muscle is regulated by vasomotor nerve fibers of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Tunica media

Depending on the needs of the body, the vasomotor fibers can cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation

Blood Vessel Walls

The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica externa This tunic is composed largely of loosely woven collagen fibers that protect blood vessels and anchor it to surrounding structures
Tunica externa

Blood Vessel Walls

The tunica externa is infiltrated with nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels and, in larger vessels, a system of tiny blood vessels

These vessels, the vasa vasorum nourish the external tissues of the blood vessel wall

Tunica externa

Structural Differences Between Arteries, Veins and Capillaries


Arteries Walls Modifications Thicker (tunica media) Strong and stretchy for recoil Contains valves (return of blood) Precapillary sphincters Veins Thinner Capillaries Single layer

Modifications Modifications

Veins

Another mechanism of venous return is called the skeletal muscular pump Here contracting muscles press against the thinwalled veins forcing valves proximal to the contraction to open and propelling the blood toward the heart

Venous valves are formed from folds of the tunica intima and they resemble the semilunar valves of the heart in structure and function Venous valves are most abundant in the veins of the limbs, where the upward flow of blood is opposed by gravity

Veins

Capillary Beds

The layers of the capillary walls are only ONE CELL LAYER THICK (tunica intima). This allows exchanges between the blood and the tissue cells.

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation


1. 2. 3. 4.

SEGMENTS: Ascending aorta Aortic Arch Thoracic aorta Abdominal Aorta

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation


1.

SEGMENTS: Ascending aorta


right and left coronary arteries - heart

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation


1. 2.

SEGMENTS: Ascending aorta Aortic Arch


supplies the head, neck and upper extremities brachiocephalic trunk left common carotid artery left subclavian artery

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation


1. 2. 3.

SEGMENTS: Ascending aorta Aortic Arch Thoracic aorta


vertebral arteries (muscles of the thoracic wall) bronchial arteries (lungs) phrenic arteries (the diaphragm) esophageal arteries (the esophagus)

Major Arteries of the Systemic Circulation

SEGMENTS: celiac trunk (stomach, spleen, liver) superior mesenteric artery (small intestine, first half of the large intestine) renal arteries (kidneys) gonadal arteries (gonads) lumbar arteries (muscles of the abdomen and trunk walls) inferior mesenteric arteries (second half of the large intestine) common iliac arteries (pelvic organs and muscles of the lower extremities) Note: dorsalis pedis artery palpated to determine if the distal part of the leg has adequate circulation.

4. Abdominal Aorta

Major Veins of the Systemic Circulation

Deep veins follow the course of the major arteries with a few exceptions.
Superior vena cava drains structures above the diaphragm (median cubital vein) Inferior vena cava drains structures below the diaphragm (hepatic portal circulation) Coronary sinus drains the heart

Special Circulations

Circle of Willis (brain) to ensure that the blood supply to the brain is continuous (2 supplies)

Special Circulations

Hepatic Portal Circulation Pattern :


organ venous system vena cava heart For the hepatic portal circulation: Sm. Int. Hepatic portal v liver hepatic v. VC

to ensure that the liver processes nutrients before they enter the systemic circulation.

Special Circulations

Fetal Circulation Lungs and digestive system are not yet functional in the fetus Nutrients come from mother Umbilical cord umbilical veins (nutrients) umbilical arteries (wastes) Ductus venosus umbilical vein goes to IVC bypassing the liver Foramen ovale RA to LA Ductus arteriosus aorta to pulmonary trunk

Special Circulations

Fetal Circulation Lungs and digestive system are not yet functional in the fetus Nutrients come from mother Umbilical vessels becomes obliterated Ductus venosus ligamentum venosum Foramen ovale closes Ductus arteriosus ligamentum arteriosum

Arterial Pulse

Pulse alternating expansions and recoil of an artery coinciding with each beat of the left ventricle. Superficial arteries can be palpated.
Temporal artery, facial artery, carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, femoral artery, popliteal artery, posterior tibial artery, dorsalis pedis artery

Pressure Points

Blood Pressure

Systolic Pressure- the pressure of the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction Diastolic Pressure the pressure of the arteries when the ventricles are relaxing

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure

Arterial Pressure affected by cardiac output (mount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute) and peripheral resistance. EQUATION:

BP = CO x PR

Age, weight, time of day, exercise, body position, emotional state, drugs, etc.

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure

Peripheral resistance

The amount of friction encountered by the blood as it flows through the blood vessels. Affected by: constriction and narrowing of the blood vessels Blood volume and viscosity.

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


Sympathetic- vasoconstriction: BP Standing up Response to decrease in blood volume Exercise Flight or fright Parasympathetic vasodilation: BP

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure


RENAL FACTORS Renin BP Angiotensin II BP Aldosterone BP

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure

TEMPERATURE Cold vasoconstriction BP Heat vasodilation BP

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure


CHEMICALS Vasodilation:

BP

Alcohol histamine Epinephrine Nicotine

Vasoconstriction: BP

Factors that Affect Blood Pressure

DIET

Low salt, saturated fats and cholesterol

CAPILLARY EXCHANGE

1. diffuse directly through the plasma membrane 2. endocytosis or exocytosis 3. through intracellular clefts (no tight junctions) 4. fenestrated capillaries