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Transformer is a very vital device in all the industries

and it is one of the most important and expensive device in the power industries. Any failure in this component may lead to serve consequence as to economic and safety aspect. But now a day when the industries and running 247, there is a change of heating down the transformer, due to the increase in oil temperature used in the transformer . We cannot afford this development, because this leads to loss of money and time.

So we have developed a hardware which monitors the

oil temperature and used to protect from burn out the transformer. We using a temperature sensor LM-35, which sense the oil temperature in the analog form, so we are using ADC which converts it in to the digital value and this digital value is feed to the microcontroller AT89C51. The microcontroller compares the oil temperature to the set point temperature, which are feeded by the Kiel C compiler to the microcontroller unit. If the oil temperature is more than the set point temperature than the buzzer will given the audio sound that will inform to the workers and the control relay break the circuit which are connected to the load.




Compatible with MCS-51 Products 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory

Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources Programmable Serial Channel Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

Block Diagram of 89C51 Microcontroller

Liquid crystal displays, abbreviated as LCDs are passive displays, i.e. they will not actually generate the light but they modify the existing light. They convert or modulate the light under the electrical stimulus. Hence LCDS are light controllers and they require external source of light.

The Typical characteristics of LCDS arE:

They do not actively generate light and depend for

their operation on ambient or black lighting; they modify light in such away as to perform the display function. They consume very low power and good contrast ratio. They can operate in a reflective or transmissive configuration. They are either light scattering or light absorbing devices.

Temperature SENSOR(LM35)
These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine

the temperature. The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (centigrade) temperature. LM35 does not required any external calibration. The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration make interfacing to readout. It can be used with single power supplies.

Importance of LM35 sensor

The sensor circuitry is sealed and not subjected to

oxidation, etc. You can measure temperature more accurately than using a thermostat. The LM35 generate a higher output voltage than thermocouple and may not require that the output voltage be amplified. Rated for full -55 to +150C range. Operates from 4 to 30 volts. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming.

Light-emitting diode(LED)
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light

source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as aviation lighting, automotive lighting, advertising, general lighting, and traffic signals.

A transformer consists of two coils (often called

'windings') linked by an iron core. There is no electrical connection between the coils, instead they are linked by a magnetic field created in the core. Transformers are used to convert electricity from one voltage to another with minimal loss of power. They only work with AC (alternating current) because they require a changing magnetic field to be created in their core. Transformers can increase voltage (step-up) as well as reduce voltage (step-down).

An ideal transformer

A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement

of four diodes in a bridge configuration that provides the same polarity of output voltage for either polarity of input voltage. When used in its most common application, for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output, it is known as a bridge rectifier.

Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically

5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18 and 24V) or variable output voltages. They are also rated by the maximum current they can pass. Negative voltage regulators are available, mainly for use in dual supplies. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection').


The regulated DC output is very smooth with no

ripple. It is suitable for all electronic circuits.


The Keil C51 C Compiler for the 8051 microcontroller is

the most popular 8051 C compiler in the world. It provides more features than any other 8051 C compiler available today. Nine basic data types, including 32-bit IEEE floatingpoint. Flexible variable allocation with bit, data, bdata, idata, xdata, and pdata memory types. Interrupt functions may be written in C. Full use of the 8051 register banks. Complete symbol and type information for sourcelevel debugging.

Using this programmer you can program the internal

flash of the microcontroller AT89C2051 from Atmel. The AT89C2051 programmer is connected via the serial RS232 interface to a PC. In comparison with other programmers, you do not need a special software, a terminal program is sufficient. So there are no platform dependent limitations and it can be used universally.

Generally the programmer supports two different modes:

1. User mode: The desired operation Program

(including Erase), Verify, Read or Lockbits can be selected via a BCD switch and started by pressing a button. 2. Remote mode: In remote mode, the BCD switch and the button are not required, because the operations are selected via special remote commands from RS232 interface, followed by the binary data like in user mode.


For measuring the temperature of the oil in the

transformer, we are using a temperature sensor LM-35, which acts a primary sensing element that measures the temperature. the measured temperature is in analog form, so ADC is used which converts the analog signal into digital form that is fed to the microcontroller (AT89C51). The external peripheral like LCD, and relays are connected to the microcontroller. If the measuring the temperature is more than the set-point temperature that is feed by the Keil-C compiler than the buzzer will produce on audible sound and the control relay will break the connection from the load.

General Block Diagram of Project

In this project we have presented a design of a system

based on microcontroller that is used to monitor and control the temperature of a distribution transformer. The proposed system which has been designed to monitor the transformers essential parameters continuously monitors the parameters throughout its operation. If the microcontroller recognizes any increase in the level of temperature values the control relay will break the circuit in order to prevent it from further damages.

IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil Immersed Power

Transformers, IEEE Standard C57.91, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York NY, 1995. L. L. Grigsby, editor, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2001. Adaptive Transformer Thermal Overload Protection, Final Report of IEEE Power System Relaying Committee Working Group K3, IEEE Power Engineering Society Power System Relay Committee Report, January, 1999.